(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Indian insect life : a manual of the insects of the plains (tropical India)"

1 



ndian 
Insect L1f( 



^i. 





LIBRARY OF 



I885_l©56 



FRONTISPIECE. 



Mat ok India. 

Thr black shading indicates the Himahiyan and Palearctic portions 
to the North and, in India, areas above tlie dividing line of tropical and 
sub-tropical India, usually above 2,000 feet. The dotted black line to the 
North is the political boundary, inclusive of Cashrair and Sikkim. The 
red lines and letlering indicate the faunal zones of Tropical India as 
described in the Section on Geographical Distribution below. The dotted 
lines dividing the West Coast indicate probable sub-regions and correspond 
to the Palghat and Goa gaps in the Ghauts Subtropical faunal zones are 
not indicated. 



INDIAN INSECT LIFE 



A MANUAL OF THE INSECTS OF THE PLAINS 



(TROPICAL INDIA) 



H. MAXWELL-LEFROY. M.A.. F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Entomologist, Imperial Department of Agriailtme for India; Author cj 
'■^Indian Insect Pests," etc 

Assisted by 

F. M. HOWLETT, B.A., F.E.S., 

Second Entomologist, Imperial Department of Agriculture for India 



[ Published under the Authority of the Government of India] 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, TUSA 



CALCUTTA & SIMLA 

THACKER, SPINK & CO 

W. THACKER & CO., 2, Creed Lane, London 

1909 



I'RINTHH BY 
4'HAi'KEli, SPINK AM) ('(IMl'ANV, TALCUTTA 




To 
My Mother 



" Plus je connais les peuples, 
Plus j' aime les insectes." 



ACKN(t\VLEI)(iMENTS. 



The sections on Mallnjiliaija. D/jili'ra, Cimir'uhr and Ano/ilitia have 
heen prepared 1)V Mr. Hewlett, and the Interlude on Insects and 
Flowers by Mr. I. H. Burkill, Reporter on Economic Products. Illus- 
trations marked I. M. N. are from the stock of drawinjrs accumulated by 
my predecessors in the Indian Museum, and used in Indian Museum 
Notes. Those marked F. M. H. have been drawn by Mr. Hewlett, 
whu has directed the preparation of those illustratinf; the sections he 
has written. Where not otherwise acknowledjred, all the plates and 
illustrations are the work of the Artist statf of this Institute under my 
or Mr. Howlett's direction ; it may be pointed out that these artists are 
wholly Natives of India, trained in Art Schools of this country ; it is 
needless to emphasise how much the book owes to their beautiful work 
as also to the enterprise of the publishers, who have done the work of 
reproducing all the illustrations in this country. I wish to specially 
express my appreciation of the work of Mr. Slater of the Calcutta 
Phototype Company in the printing of the Colour Plates, carried out 
under very trying climatic conditions and for the first time in this 
country. 

As regards the text, it is, where not stated to Ijp a (juotation. orig- 
inal : I have acknowledged every direct source of information. The 
book owes something to the work of my staff, since it i> based on the 
Pusa collections to which thev have contributed specimens and observ- 
ations. I have acknowledged this where I can. The volume is 
largely a product of my s[)are time and scant}- holiiiays ; such a volume 
has been so much required that I have fell, that even an impertect 
one was better than none. Six years ago the work of this section 
commenced and if the book contains imperfections, the critic will recog- 
nise that it is based on collections, observations and reference books 
that have been accumulated only in that short time ; I shall be glad if 
those who see omissions or errors will point them out, as it may be that 
a better volume will be built up on this basis, when the study of Indian 
Entomology is further advanced. I may also emphasise the fact that 
where little is said, little is known and the blanks in the book are 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 



designedly promiuent to emphasise the enormous scope there is for 
work. I trust also that the volume may be a real stepping-stone to 
better things and may help those who are advancing our knowledge of 
the insect life of India. 



June, 1909. / ^- ^^- ^^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 



Acknowledgments 



Classification adopted 


1 
ix 


Introduction 


1 


Diaguosis 


1 


Zoological position 


2 


Instinct and Habit 


2 


Classification 


10 


Number of species 


14 


Nomenclature 


15 


Identification 


15 


Entomology in India 


17 


Zoo-geographical Divisions . . 


20 


Food and Habitat 


27 


Insects and Man . . . . 


35 


Aptera 


43 


Orthoptera 


47 


Where Insects live 


54 


Cosmopolitan Insects 


62 


Deceptive Colouring 


90 


Attraction to light 


106 


Neuroptera 


108 


Gregariousness 


123 


Aquatic Insects 


131 


Relative Duration of liife . . 


140 


Hymenoptera 


161 


Galls 


167 


Size of Insects . . . . . . . 


169 


Sex 


188 


Insects and Flowers 


222 


Coleoptera 


234 


Myrmecophilous Insects 


268 


Insects as Food 


276 


Lepidoptera 


397 


Migration 


419 


Emergence from the Cocoon 


481 


Silk 


485 


How Insects protect themselves 


521 



CONTENTS. 



Thysanoptera 

DlPTERA 

Blood-sucking Insects 

Rhynohota 

Song in Insects 

Index of Plants 
General Index 



542 
545 
659 
665 
720 
765 
773 



SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION. 



The following is a complete list of the families into which insects are 
divided, tabulated under orders. The families in heavy type, thus 
Porficulidae should be familiar ; those in ordinary type, thus Campodeida;, 
are of smaller importance but occur in India : those in italics, thus 
Sm/pithin-iihr, are not yet known to occur in India. 





Page. 




Page. 


APTERA 


43 


Odonata 


125 


'L'hysaxura. 




Ephemerida- . . 


137 


Campodeida' . . 


43 


Planipenxia. 




.lapygidie 


44 


Siahda' 


143 


Machilidic 


44 


Panorpida' . . 


145 


Lepismidte 


45 


Hemerobiidse 


146 


COLLEMBOLA. 




Trkhoptera 


1.57 


Lipuridic 


46 






Poduridic 


46 


HYMENOPTERA 


161 


Smiinthuridri'. 




Sessiliventres . . 


164 


Xci-Udrr. 




Ccphidcp 




ORTHOPTERA 


47 


Siricidse 
Tenthredinidae 


164 
164 


C'URSORIA. 








ForficulidEe . . 


49 


Parasitica 


165 


llrniitHcridw 




CynipidiP 


166 


Blattidae 


56 


Proctotrypida- 


168 


Mantidse 


64 


Drvinida' 


170 


Phasmida^ 


71 


Chalcida' 


172 






Ichneumonidse 


177 


Saltatokia. 

Acridiidae . . 


74 


Braconidse . . 


178 


Locustidse . . 


91 


Stcplianiidic .. 


180 


Qryllidse 


97 


Mcgah/ridiF 
Eviuiiida' 


180 


NEUROPTERA 


108 


Pch'cinidiC. 




Pseudoneuroptera. 




Trigonalid;e . . 


181 


Mallophaga . . 


110 


Tukulifera. 




Embiida' 


112 


Chrysidse 


182 


Termitidse 


115 


Aculeata, Fossores. 




Psocida? 


121 


Mutillidae . . 


185 


Amphibiotica. 




Thynnida' . . 


192 


Perlidsc 


124 


Scoliidse 


192 



SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION. 



Pompilida' 
Sphegidae . . 

DiPLOPTERA. 

Sumenidse .. 

Vespidaj 

Miisanda'. 

Anthophila. 
CoUetida' 
Apidse 

HETEROtiYXA. 

Pormicidse 

COLEOPTERA 
Lamellicornia. 
Passalidie 
Lncaiiid;r 
Scarabseidae 
Melolonthidse 

ADEPHA(iA. 

Cicindelidse 
Carataidae 

Paussidiv 
Rliysodida' . . 
A'lnphizoidcB. 
Pclubiida. 
Dytiscidse . . 
Haliplida' . . 
Gyrinida' 

POLYMORPHA. 

Hydiopliilida; 

PhUij psijllido'. 

Li'lAinidce. 

8ilpliid;e 

Scydmanidfe 

(jnoxtidrr. 

Psolaphida'.. 

Staphylinidae 

Sphceriida: 

Tiichopterygidir 

Hi/droscnphida-. 

Coivlojiliidie 

Scaphidida' . . 

Sijiilcliid(f. 

HisteridBB . . 

Plialacrida' . . 

Nitidulidse . . 

C'ossyphodidas 



Page. 

194 
199 

210 
213 



216 
217 

224 

234 
241 
242 
243 
245 
252 

259 
262 
266 
272 



272 
279 
280 
281 
283 



286 
287 

287 
288 

291 

292 
292 

292 
294 
295 
297 



Colydida' 

Lathridiida' . . 

Trogositidse 

Mdiiotomida' 

Cucujida' 

Cryptophajiida' 

Helotida' 

Tliorcitida' . . 

Erotylida' 

Mycetophafiida' 

Coecinellidse 

Eiidomvchida' 

Mi/ahrldir. 

A',lim,'iid,r. 

Dermestidae. . 

ByiThidw 

Cyaihoceridce. 

Geoiyssidre 

Heteroceridis . . 

Paiiiida; 

Derodontidw. 

Cioidse 

Sphiudidii . 

Bostrichidae 

Ptinidae 

Malacodermata. 

Malacodermidae 

C'leiidffi 

Lyniexylonida 

Rhagophthalmida^ 

Dascillidw 

Rhipiceiida . . 
Sternoxi. 

Buprestidae. . 

ThioscidiP . . 

Eucnemidtp . . 

('erophi/lida'. 

Elateridse . , 

Dicronythida^ 

riastoccridce. 

Cebrionida? 

Heteromera. 
Tenebrionidae 

Cistelidw 
Lagriidai 
Othuiida? 
AcqialHidw. 
Monommidse . . 



Page. 
298 
298 
299 
300 
300 
302 
302 
302 
.302 
303 
.303 
309 



310 
311 

312 
312 
313 

313 

313 
317 

319 
325 
327 
327 
327 
327 

328 
331 
331 

332 
334 

334 

335 
339 
340 
340 

340 



SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION. 



Page. 



Pa"e. 



NilionidcB. 




Pythidic 


341 


Mohiiidrvidw . . 


Ml 


Pyrdcluoidn' . . 


.'541 


Aiitliiiid:v 


:U2 


Oedi'incridro . . 


342 


Mord('llid:i' 


343 


Cantharidse. . 


343 


Tricteu(it(iiiiid;v 


347 


I'uvroniAiiA. 




BnichidEe 


349 


Chrysomelidse 


351 


Cerambycidse 


368 


RHYNCHorHllKA. 




Aiitliiiliichi' . . 


379 


Curculionidse 


380 


BifUtliida' 


392 


iScolytidfe 


393 


Aglycyderidw. 




Proterhinifhr. 




Stvlopid;ie 


395 


LEPIDOPTERA 


397 


Rhopalockra 


401 


Nymphalidse 


404 


Xeitieiiliiidw 


415 


Pieridse 


41(i 


Papilionidee 


421 


Ijycsenidse . , 


423 


Hesperiidse 


429 


HF.XEHOrHKA 


432 


Syntomidae 


433 


Arctiidae 


4.34 


Agaiistidw 


439 


Noctuidse 


440 


Pti'iotliysanida' 


458 


Lymaxtriiu.e 


459 


Hypsidae 


462 


Sphingidae 


464 


Cymatophoridft' 


469 


Eiipterotida- 


470 


Notodontidip 


471 


Geoinetiida- 


473 


Saturniidae 


475 


Bombycidae 


483 


Brahmeidnf . . 


490 


Ceratocampidce. 




Uraniidte 


490 


Psychidae 


491 



fI(l(rofi>iti id(s. 




Arbeliidae 


493 


.hyi/lntlfllldll'. 




Ratardida. .. 


494 


Cossidae 


494 


Lasiooanipid;r 


496 


Endromida: 




( 'hn/sniinlnmidrp. 




I'crojilidn'da-. 




Md/alopilijidrr. 




Limacodidiie 


498 


Dalccridw. 




Ncocastniidse 


501 


VdMniidtv. 




Euxchcmonidce. 




MiCROLEPIDOPTERA 


501 


Zygrenidaj 


.502 


Callidiilidfe 


504 


Diepanida? 


504 


Thyridid.T' . . 


.505 


Pyralidae 


505 


Oineodida' 


.526 


Pterophoridae 


526 


Sesiida' 


528 


Tortricidse 


529 


Tineidae 


.531 


Protolepidoptera. 




Hopialidise . . 


541 


Microptrrtfjidce. 




THYSANOPTERA 


542 


Terebrantia. 




Aeolothripidas 


544 


Thripidfe 


544 


Tl'nrLIFERA. 




PhlceothripidiC 


544 


DIPTERA 


545 


Orthorhapha NeMOC'ERA 


554 


Psychodidae 


.557 


Chironomidae 


560 


Culicidae 


564 


Dixida' 


576 


Blcphaldcrrida- 


.576 


Tipulidae 


578 


Cecidomyiidae 


580 


Mycetophilidic 


583 


Bibiomdfe 


586 


Simuliidae 


587 



SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION. 



Page. 



Pai. 



Orphnephilidiip 


589 


Coreidse 


679 


Rhyphidw 


589 


Beiytidre 


685 


Orthorhapha Brachycera. 




Lygseidae . . 


685 


Stratiomyidi* 


589 


Pyrrhocorldae 


690 


Leptidne 


591 


Tinjiidif 


692 


Tabanidse. 


592 


Aradiaa> 


69.3 


CyrtidiB 


595 


HebiiduR 


693 


NiMiiestrinidfe 


596 


Hydrometridse 


694 


Bombyliidse 


597 


Heiiicooephalida' 


696 


ApioceiidiB 


600 


PhvtnatidiB 


696 


Scenopinidre 


600 


SalclidiT 


696 


Therevidpp 


601 


Reduviidse . . 


697 


Mydiiidiv 
AsiUdse 


602 


ArpophilidfP 




602 


CViatocombidse 


702 


Empidai 
DolichopodidiO 


605 


Cimicidae . . 


702 


606 


Antliocoridrp 


705 


Piioridae 


608 


PolyctenidfP 


705 


Lonchopfpriilce 


609 


Capsidse 


705 


Cyclorhapha Aschiza. 




Cryptocerata 


709 


Syrphidse 


610 


Pelogonidre . . 


709 


PlatypezidiC 


612 


Nepidse 


710 


Pipunculid:e 


612 


Nanrorid:!" . . 


712 


Cyclorhapha Schizophora. 


6U 


Belostomidse 


713 


Acalyptrate Muacoida 


617 


Notonectidse 


715 


Calyptrate Muscoids 


641 


Corixidae . . 


716 


Oestridae 


651 










Homoptera 


717 


Pupipara. 




Cicadidse , 


718 


Hippoboscidse. 


65-t 


Pulgoridae 


722 


StreUidw 




MembracidsB 


729 


Nycteribiidfe 


656 


Cercopidae , , 


7.32 


Br.aulidifi 


657 


Jassidse 


7.34 


Siphonaptera. 
Pullcidse 


657 


Phytophthires 


740 






PsyllidiB 


742 


RHYNCHOTA .. 


665 


Aphidae 


743 


Heteroptera 


667 


Aleurodldae. . 


748 






Coccidse 


752 


Gymnocerata . . 


667 






Fentatomidse 


668 


PEDICULIDiE 


762 



INDIAN INSECT LIFH, 



INTRODUCTION. 

The insects are tracheate, hexapodous arthropoda, witli a distinct 
head bearing antennae, with a great degree of complexity in their devel- 
opment during which a series of moults are undergone, culminating in 
the appearance of functional generative organs and wings ; in the higher 
forms, the development is sharply divided into three distinct periods, 
the last of which is marked by the inactivity of the organism as a whole 
and the complete reorganisation undergone by the tissues ; they are 
essentially air-breathing animals, living on land, but some have become 
adapted to living in fresh water. The number of jointed legs separates 
them clearly from other tracheate Arthropods, just as the metamorpho- 
sis, the possession of wings and the form and the number of segments 
does. They are regarded as being most closely related to Peripatus of 
all present forms of life, and undoubtedly represent a great branch of 
the tree of life whose development equals, if not excels, that of any other 
branch. In numbers, in species, in all but one form of mentality, the 
insects are the dominant form of life on the land at the present time, but 
the limitations put on them are of such a nature that their dominance 
must remain within bounds and, unless man be removed, cannot be 
actual and entire. 

Insects are of all sizes from sVth i'^ch long to over six inches ; their 
numbers are incalculable, the number of their species being put at about 
three millions; their lives are very short, (a week,) up to as long as over 
ten years, though rarely actually exceeding more than three years, and 
being in the larger number limited to an active life of less than three 
months. On the surface of the earth, as in fresh water, they are found 
wherever nutriment is available, even in the bodies of warm-blooded 
animals and man ; over the three-fourths of the earth's surface covered 
by the sea they are practically non-existent, a very small number of 

IIL 1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

species being able to support life near, in or on the sea. Their position 
in the animal world is shown in the table : — 

Protozoa. 
PoRiFERA (Sponges). 
CcELENTERATA (Anemones, etc.). 
Ctenophora (Jelly-fish. etc.). 
ECHINODERMATA (Sea-urchins and starfish). 
Verme.s (Worms). 

POLYZOA. 

Arthropoda. — Crustacea (Lobsters, etc.) 
Prototracheata (Peripatus). 
Myriapoda (Centipedes and millipedes). 
Insecta (Insects). 

Arachnida (spiders, mites, scorpions, etc.). 
MoLLUSCA (Snails, etc.). 
Brachiopoda. 
Chordata. — Hemichordata. 
Tunicata. 
Cephalochordata. 
Craniata. Cyclostomata. 
Pisces (Fish). 
Amphibia (Frogs). 
Reptilia (Snakes, etc.). 
Aves (Birds). 
Mammalia (Mammals). 
Economically, the insects are the most important group of animals 
next to the Mammals, Birds and Fishes. Their activities affect man 
daily, either from the nature and extent of their injuries to economically 
valuable plants, or to domestic animals, or to wild animals, or to stored 
produce, or from their value in yielding useful products ; or from the part 
they play in the economy of nature, in fertilising flowers, in scaveng- 
ing and cleansing the earth, in rendering waste matter available as plant 
food, in preserving the condition of the soil and in furnishing food for 
birds and fishes. 

Instinct and Habit. — What is the life of an insect ? In what way 
can it be compared with our own or with the life, for instance, of any of 



INSTINCT ANI> HARIT. 6 

the animals familiar to us ? No answer can be easily given, for the 
senses, the instincts, the modes of expression of insects are so totally 
diverse from our own that there is scarcely any point of contact. In 
the case of mammals, of birds and to some extent of reptiles, we have in 
the eyes, in the features and in the movements, a clue to their feelings, 
to the emotions that sway them, to the motives that guide their actions ; 
in insects we have none, and the great index of insect feeling, the antenna, 
has no counterpart in higher animals, and conveys nothing to our un- 
informed brains. We can judge then only from the movements of in- 
sects, from their actions, and this is so extraordinarily meagre a clue that 
it is not surprising that even the greatest familiarity with the life of an 
insect inspires no feeling that one has to do with a live organism having 
feelings and passions, having motives and a will, but suggests that one 
has before one a beautiful machine, tuned to respond mechanically to 
certain outside stimvili, to answer to particular influences and to behave 
in all things as a perfect mechanical structure ; even the highest, the 
social insects and the fossorial wasps, inspire no other feelings, give one 
no sense of any relations between the individual insects but those 
mechanical ones concerned with daily life, and leave one with the 
conviction that the mentality of the higher animals is wholly absent, 
that no smallest trace of the emotions, of the will, of the thought 
proces.ses of ourselves or other mammals, have any part in the lives 
of insects. Yet there are events in the lives of insects which, for a 
brief moment, impress us with the conviction that individuality, emotioi\ 
and feeling may play their part; and though we see this exceedingly seldom, 
the few suggestive phenomena may be sufficient to warrant the assump- 
tion that in ways we cannot comprehend, in channels that are beyond 
our ken, the living active insect is in touch with every other living insect 
in its environment, by mental and physical processes that make no out- 
ward sign, that may proceed independently of any external sense organ 
that we can see or study and which possibly pass from mind to mind 
with no outward physical action or movement ; what occurs when bees 
swarm, when locusts swarm, when the white ants emerge from the nest, 
when a stray bee from one nest enters another and is promptly attacked 
and killed ? Are these wholly due to reflex actions and mechanical 
instincts, or are they the product of an individual will and mind in each 
and every insect ; a locust swarm may be the product of a blind impulse 



INTRODUCTION. 



sweeping over a host of insects just as a blind impulse ranges through 
a crowd of human beings by means which are certainly not normal or in 
daily use ; the emergence uf the flying ants suggests a similar blind im- 
pulse, an unreasoned compliance with fixed instincts like the blowing up 
of a boiler wlien certain physical conditions are arrived at ; do the ants 
have councils and decide when the nest shall be moved to a new locality, 
or is it simply the common impulse of the community, simxdtaneously 
born of the same reaction to certain physical conditions ? So wide 
apart are om- senses from those of insects, so divergent are our means of 
expression, and the mechanism of our bodies, that no answer can be 
given to these <|uestions; we cannot establish any connection with the 
individuality of insects, we can get no common basis of thought, no pos- 
sible means whereby even to ' ' tame ' " them or to get even so little 
response to our efl'orts as a tame bird will give. To us, the closest study 
of large numbers of the sime species reveals no individuality, nothing 
but a mechanical sameness in a large number ; perhaps this is because 
we cannot get near enough ; to the ordinary man, sheep are sheep 
and while differing in small points are alike ; to the shepherd they are as 
individual as human beings and have a similar mental individuality ; I 
have never seen that this was the case with insects, and none that have 
been kept in activity, fed, cared for and most closely observed, have 
shown more than very small traces of individual mentality or even 
responded to advances. (That this is not the view every author takes 
is evident from the writings of naturalists who state that butterflies in 
particular become tame and welcome their captor's visits ; but these 
cases are not sufficiently numerous or well authenticated to be valid.) 
It is not unreasonable to con.sider that, in freedom and living under 
natural surroundings, nearly every insect is solitary ; an individual insect 
appears to take no notice of any other, save such as it may prey on or 
parasitise ; it goes about its business of food-getting and the like, it 
makes no smallest sign that it is aware of the existence of any other 
insect, and so far as can be judged from its actions, is leading an abso- 
lutely and wholly solitary life ; there are exceptions, of course, but very 
few ; the social insects are apparent exceptions, but even there it is 
extremely doubtful how far individuals are not isolated ; they work to- 
gether it is true, but in a manner that suggests two machines under the 
same controlling conditions, not two sentient reasoning organisms acting 



INSTINCT ANI) H.UilT. 5 

in ajiieeinent ilue to any mental process. The same is true of termites, 
of iocnsts, of all the social insects which exhibit such wonderful phenomena. 
The Pyrrliocoiid I phita Umhoia is gregarious and lives in colonies on the 
bark of trees; is there any communication, any individuality, any mental 
process other than a blind reaction to some outside stimulus, under which 
all alike fiml that a i)articular spot is perha])s the warmest or the best 
suited foi some such reason 't There aie other exceptions whicli are 
perhaps more valuable: the courtship of butterHics is a beautiful thing, 
suggesting two perfectly liapp\- beings enjoying to the full the delights 
of e<ach other's company and the perfect happiness of the crowning 
moment of life; there is no doubt of their being aware of each other's 
presence, but the cold thought creeps in that it is after all a mechanical 
piocess, born of peculiar instincts, with nothing more ' ' living ' ' than 
the reaction of two parts of an engine. The dances of flies and other 
small flying insects suggests mentality, social insects thoroughly enjoy- 
ing each other's company and the extraordinary pleasure that human 
beings find in concerted movement ; it is possible that we can compare 
insects with ourselves in this respect, but the balance of evidence is 
certainly against it ; one comes inevitably to the feeling that insects are a 
supreme expression of living matter adapted and co-ordinated to 
physical conditons, responding perfectly to mechanical stimuli, without 
mind or mental processes as we know them and as we can see them in birds 
and mammals ; they are the highest expression of life as evolved by 
natural processes, perfect macliines without emotions. No thinking man 
questions the existence in higher mammals of mind-processes akin to our 
own if far lower, of some slight evidences of that higher mentality we 
call the soul, and which we hold to be the essential life, for which the 
objective life and the material bodv is but a case. No one would credit 
an insect with such forms of mentality, and the most sympathetic student 
of insect life has not advocated such a point of view. An insect is a 
living machine, responding to definite physical .stimuli, with well- 
defined and very complex instincts, which are mechanical forms of 
mental action and take their origin in outward conditions. Were they 
possessed of higher forms of mentality, such as reason, judgment, voli- 
tion and the like, no one can say what might be the course of the world's 
history ; a combination of the red ants {(Jicophylla sinarar/dinn) could 
probably drive human beings out of India and render the continent 



t) INTRODUCTION. 

uninhabitable to any form of life inimical to them ; an organised cam- 
paign of the common black ant {Camponotus compressus) could effect a 
great deal and human methods of warfare would require to be revo- 
lutionised to deal with it. 

In practice we can consider insects as consisting of organisms whose 
actions will be definite responses to stimuli, whose movements and acti- 
vities will, under the same circumstances, be the same ; given the same 
conditions, all the individuals of a species will behave alike with only 
very minute variations which we have great difficulty in seeing. If we 
find that one of a species has a certain definite life history we are safe in 
concluding that under the same circumstances all of that species will 
have the same life history and that with a given departure from normal 
circumstances all will behave alike ; when we have worked out the life 
history and habits of one of a species, we can confidently assert that all 
will have that life history, with only small variations due to changed 
conditions ; a leaf-eating caterpillar that feeds on maize leaf in Behar, 
might quite well feed on juari leaf in Gujarat where maize is not grown, 
but it would not, for instance, become a borer in the Punjab and a pre- 
daceous caterpillar in Madras. We may, therefore, treat a species as an 
individual, and not expect to find different habits in different indivi- 
duals of the same species. At the same time we must allow for the 
variation consequent on changed conditions ; the limit of adaptation to 
changed conditions is a very variable one ; as an example, many cater- 
pillars have but a very few foodplants and cannot live on others ; a few 
have many, and the Gram Caterpillar {Chlondea dbsoleta) feeds on the 
seeds of gram, the heads of opium poppy, the heads of bajra or sunflower 
and a variety of other plants ; in the United States it is the boll worm 
feeding on the seed of cotton and accordingly has slightly different habits ; 
in this there is a certain amount of variation in habits due to changed 
foodplants. Such cases are frequent, but the variety of habits lies with- 
in perfectly clear and definite limits, varying slightly from species to 
species. On the above reasoning, a species is definable not only on 
structural characters but also on its habits and mode of life ; if we look 
on a species as composed of individuals reacting mechanically to stimuli, 
with a limited play of adaptation to changing conditions, habits and 
mode of life are as much specific characters as is structure ; if our struc- 
tural distinctions are sound, they will be in agreement with habits and 



INSTINCT AND llAIilT. 



life history, and the one aspect is as important as the other. Our know- 
ledge of structure is far greater than our familiaritj^ with the habits of 
insects, but the latter will increase. It is all important for the student 
to grasp clearly from the beginning that a "species" is a distinct indivi- 
dual as much in habits, mode of life and all details of its life as in its 
colour, form, or any structural detail on which it is declared to be a 
distinct species. We are here far more concerned with the living insect 
as a living reality than with the dead shell on which its place in the 
insect world is determined and on which it is described and named ; the 
characters of the living insect, its method of flight, its walk, its feeding 
habits, its expressive antennal movements, all the details of its daily 
life are of as great value as its structure and are of far greater importance 
to us in these pages ; a realisation of this fact and an understanding of 
what a species really is, must come to every student sooner or later if he 
IS to become anything more than a systematist and a classifier of insects 
on purely structural details; the individuality of a species is as much 
discernable in the field as in the museum and takes in every detail of 
the insects life. For that reason, we have considered this abstruse point 
at some length and we would emphasize the point of view given, though 
it may seem at first sight an incorrect one. Variations in habits between 
two members of a species are so small that what we find out of a single 
individual, applies to every individual of that species with due allow- 
ance for variable conditions ; a very large part of our work lies in deter- 
mining how far different conditions modify the habits of an insect and 
the limits of this variation are becoming clearly established; if, therefore, 
the habits of an insect are observed in Peshawar, we know that the 
individuals of that species will have in the main the same habits at 
Madras, that we can predict the variations likely to be found, and that 
if we knew enough we could absolutely say how far they would differ. 

We may touch very lightly upon one more point ; whence come the 
instincts and beautiful habits of our present-day insects ? According 
to the accepted theories of evolution, insects, like other animals, are 
descended from more primitive forms of life which existed in earlier 
geologic periods; if we imagine the primitive types of insects being 
evolved and multiplying, and supposing them to feed on the abundant 
decaying vegetable matter, we shall get a great development of simpler 
forms scattered over large areas of land, and living in a diversity of physi- 



O INTRO HUUTION. 

cal conditions ; renieiubeiing their less specialised and complex structure, 
we can see that the influence of altered conditions might produce great 
variations in structure, in habits, in life history ; the pressure of com- 
petition would arise, supposing there were fewer checks ; (what checks 
there may have been is doubtful but both parasitic and predaceous 
insects, as well probably as insectivorous birds arose later and these are 
now the main checks) ; some, from feeding on decaying vegetable matter, 
might come to feed on decaying animal matter, with a consequent 
change of habits, of structure, of senses, possibly of life history ; others 
might find growing plants provided an ample supply of food and their 
descendants gradually get modified to suit these circumstances ; in time 
we can imagine some becoming predaceous, the descendants perhaps 
of insects that fed on dead insects ; we can still see the stages between 
land and aquatic insects, and it requires little imagination to picture 
the necessary gradations from an insect feeding on decaying leaves by 
a riverside, to one that entered the river water and found its food 
there. Given a plastic structure capable of modification, granted grow- 
ing competition and a free unoccupied field, one can readily see how, 
in earlier ages, the various groups may have arisen ; with the alter- 
ing conditions of successive geologic periods, with the evolution of 
higher plants and animals, with alterations of climate aild natural con- 
ditions, one can realise how the diversity of forms of insect life would 
be evolved. That this has occurred with other forms of life one can 
read ; that the steps cannot be traced so clearly in insects is due to 
the imperfection of the geological record, insects being small, soft and 
not so fitted for preservation as are bones or shells. Granting that in 
previous ages this occurred, and seeing the present dominance of insect 
life on the earth and in fresh water, it is easy to see that the competition 
might be so severe that more and more complex structures, instincts 
and habits might be evolved leading steadily away from plasticity to 
more and more fixed and unalterable types ; the more primitive and 
simple insect feeding on decaying leaves, having simple biting mouth- 
parts, laying eggs in the ground, requiring no special colouring or pro- 
tective devices disappeared ; predaceous insects require more complex 
trophi ; quick flight necessitates better wings and a more consolidated 
thorax ; protection from birds implies protective attitudes, colouring 
or form, and may require possibly the nocturnal habit, which implies 



INSTINCT AMU HAISIT. 



bettei- sense organs ; all crystallises down to a specialised form with 
fixed instincts. 80 too. for instance, with parasitic insects, the new 
habits imply new structure, the petiolate body and the ovipositor are 
developed to lay the eggs, and with the necessity for flying by day comes 
warning colouring and unpleasant taste or odorous glands, since birds 
are developed also and are taking to eating insects. Consider a Sphegid 
catching live insects, paralysing them, laying them up for its young : 
imagine the development of such forms, the gradual acquirement 'of 
more and more perfect structures, and with them of more and more fixed 
in.stincts till we have the perfect insect, with intenselv modified life 
history, with fixed and complex structure and with nearly all plmticily 
and power of chamje gone. 

This is the point I wish to make : we are now at a stage in 
the earth's history when competition l,as produced an amazin^lv 
complex number of forms of insect life, which adapted themselvesVo 
every condition of life but that in saltwater, which have, by the im- 
provement of more and more perfect forms, become increasinglv 
complex, specialised and fixed : variation, except in each special 
direction, makes for destruction ; from the increasing competition 
plasticity IS gone, the forms are fixed and unalterable, and what mav 
once have been forms of active mentality implving some choice some 
volition, are now fixed instincts, crystallised reflex and, possibly 
voluntary actions. It is true that all are not equally complex or special' 
ised, but I believe it to be true that almost all, simple or complex are 
fixed, are no longer alterable except so minutely and so slowly that we 
can no longer see it. It is questionable whether there is any form with 
which we could people a part of the earth, say an island, that was abso- 
lutely devoid now of insect life, and in which we could see this process 
of dift'erentiation and specialisation take place, but could we find such a 
form, could we give it the same free field and let it multiply and increase 
we should get a similar differentiation and an ultimate specialisation of 
equally fixed forms. 

The student may read this for himself at greater length in text- 
books of palaeontology, geology and evolution; he must realise it if he 
IS to grasp the meaning and origin of the forms and habits of insects- 
and in no other group is it so marked as in insects ; when we consider 
the abundance of forms of life in the insect world, their absolutely 



10 Introduction. 

universal occurrence on land and in fresh water, the extraordinary 
variety in habits, food and ways of life, as compared with any other 
group or with all groups together, we can see that in no other class in 
the animal world is competition so keen, are instincts and habits so 
fixed, is the whole of life for each species so unalterable and delicate. 
Insects have lived, have dominated the earth, have become what 
we see them by carrying to an extreme the principle of adaptation to 
circumstances, of making the most of natural conditions ; man has 
become what he is, because he has carried to an extreme the principle of 
adapting natural conditions to himself while only adapting himself to 
them to a limited extent ; the two classes dominate the land, and when 
man cannot alter the conditions to make life permanently bearable, 
insects can adapt themselves and do. But in the process man has 
developed one form of mentality implied in the terms free-will, choice, 
volition, while insects have become perfect mechanical structures 
reacting in a definite way to natural forces and stimuli, their lives ruled 
by fixed and most perfect " instincts." 

It is not my intention to give the impression that instincts are 
absolutely fixed but only that they are fixed as compared with the plasti- 
city of earlier insects and as compared, say, with man. There is a 
certain latitude still, more in some groups than in others, but even in 
them not much and in the most specialised probably very little. I 
imagine that such simple forms as Machilis are fixed in their simple 
habits as compared with a Sphegid fixed in complex habits, but to both 
there is a certain small latitude within which they can still alter. The 
instincts of a polyphagous caterpillar such as Chloridea obsoleta are pro- 
bably much less fixed and specialised than are the instincts of the 
caterpillar of Scirpophaga auriflua, for instance, and in each case possibly 
their degree of specialisation, low or high, makes for success, success 
being purely the ability to get food and lay eggs freely. Some are 
successful because they are fixed in delicate mechanical instincts, notably 
the insect-stinging wasps ; others are successful because they can adapt 
themselves still to a limited variation of circumstances, such as food, 
temperature, etc., and they are still to some extent plastic. But it is a 
very limited plasticity, little akin to the plasticity of the earlier forms 
from which our present insect life has arisen. 

Classification. — When insects were first studied in some detail, 



CLASSIFICATION. ll 

tlie complexity of the increasing number of recorded species led to a 
system of grouping, say, the beetles under one title, the moths and butter- 
flies under another, and so on, the insects most obviously similar being 
put into one group chiefly as a matter of convenience. As the subject 
grew, the morphological characters of the collected insects were utilised 
to an increasing extent, and the more the number of known insects 
increased, the more minute and detailed was this classification. When 
the evolution theory was accepted, it was evident that every scrap of 
available information would be required to give data on which to make 
a natural grouping of insects ; what was the origin of insects ? from 
what had they developed ? how far had different insects remained 
for a long period in the same condition, and how far was the evolution 
either continuing still or had it been continuous up to the recent past ? 
These were the questions to be answered, and the answer is embodied 
in the present-day system of classification which is believed to be so far 
natural that it conforms, as far as possible, to the actual developments 
of insects during the earth's history and does represent actual relation- 
ships. On these terms all the members of one group are more closely 
interrelated than each one is to any other insect not in that group. 

In making this classification, there are practically three main sources 
of evidence: (1) the morphology of the insect in all its stages ; (2) the 
processes of embryological and post-embryological development ; (3) 
the evidence of fossil and extinct insects. 

In the beginning, the first alone was utilised, and it is still the main 
source of information; at first superficial characters were used then 
more detailed ones such as the structure of the trophi, finally the fuller 
evidence afforded by all parts of all stages is being utilised, though this is 
by no means near completion. The second has been utilised, but not to 
a great extent. The third has been utilised as far as it is available, but 
the geological record is scanty, and what there is, is very imperfectly 
available as yet. There is a great bulk of literature on this question, and 
it is impossible to more closely enter into the subject here. How little 
is really known can be gauged from the great changes made in the classi- 
fication of Ileterocera, for instance, as well as from the fact that ento- 
mologists have arrived at no definite conclusions which are generally 
accepted. The most diverse views prevail, and there is no .standard classi- 
fication tliat is or can be universally employed even if it be admittedly 



12 INTKODUCTION 

not academically accui'ate, but sufficiently so for practical purposes. As 
knowledge grows, as groups are revised, new views are expressed, new 
systems adopted. This would matter little if there were, for instance, 
agreement as to one unit, say the family, if it could be decided that 
Coleoptera, for instance, are a homogeneous group of say 80 families ; 
unfortunately this is impossible at present. Actually, insects are prima- 
rily divided or have been divided into primary divisions called orders. 
Thus Coleoptera are a distinct enough order : when we go below this, we 
should have a definite number of sub-orders, each containing a 
definite number of families ; the sub-family is the next division 
containing a number of genera. Unfortunately superfamilies, legions, 
cohorts, tribes, etc., have been used, and it is rare to find all authorities 
on an order or sub-order using the same classification. 

In this volume, we propose to follow the Fauna of India, in using 
the terms order, svib-order, family, sub-family, division, genus, species, 
but as classification is not our main object, we can largely simplify the 
system actually used in the Fauna. 

Entomologists have adopted the family as the unit of classification 
trying to group insects first into divisions which must have had a 
common ancestor ; on this basis we get nearly 300 families, each of 
which represents a fairly homogeneous assemblage, derived from one 
branch of the tree ; the difficulty is greater when we try to group these 
families to find the main limbs of our tree or to find how many 
separate limbs we should have, derived each from some lower form of 
life ; for instance, Lepidoptera area very homogeneous order, the families 
derived from one branch ; Orthoptera on the other hand are by no 
means uniform, and so far as can be seen, the order instead of coming 
from one branch may really come from three ; none the less, in the 
absence of sufficient data to find really how many branches there are. 
the order Orthoptera as here adopted is a very convenient one. Our 
nine orders are constituted then with a regard both to truth and con- 
venience and a student should think in terms of families, grouping these 
families into aggregates which we may call sub-orders and orders. 

In practice we have to utilise a conventional system that embodies 

as much truth as possible and which is reasonable for working purposes. 

Of the nine orders we adopt here, seven are generally accepted by 

entomologists, but there is great divergence of views over the Neurop- 



CLASSIFICATION. 



13 



tern. With regard to this, tlie following tables show the terms used by 
otlier authors : — 



Orileis. Sub-orders. 


Families. 


Smith's 
orders. 


Woodworlli's 
orders. 




Malloiih.tffa. 


( Embiidrt>.* 


llallopliaga.* 






Pseudonpuroptera 


• Termitiilaj .. 
f Psociila> 
I Porli la; 


Isopteia 

Corrodentia.* 

Plecoptera.* 


> Corrodi'titia. 


N'EUROPTRRA 


An\|.liiliiotica 


■ Odonata 


Odonata 


Odonata. 






( Epheneridaa . 


Epliemerida ... 


Eplicmoriil.n. 






1 Sialidai 


Platvptera * 






Planipennia 


< PanorpidiB .. 


Mecoptera.* 








! HemerobiidiE 


Neurnptera. * 


*N'eiiroptera. 




VTrichoptera 


Pliryganeidne 


Trichoptera.* 





We believe the most logical atid workable system of insect classi- 
fication to be the following : — 

1. After A. 

2. forficulid^.. 

3. Blattid^. 

4. Orthoptera (•") families). 

5. Termitid^. 

6. Mallophaga. 

7. Pseudoneuroptera. (Embiidse, Psocidse). 

8. Neuroptera Amphibiotica. 
!). Neuroptera Planipennia. 

10. Trichoptera. 

11. Hymenoptera, Phytophac.a. (.Sessiliventres). 

12. ,. Parasitica. 

13. „ tubulifera. 

14. ,, Aculeata. 
1.5. Coleoptera. 

16. Lepidoptera. 

17. Diptera, Orthorhapha. 

18. ., C'yclorhapha. 

19. Siphonaptera. 

20. Rhynchota, Heteroptf.ra. 



14 introduction. 

21. Rhynchota, Homoptera. 

22. Phytophthires. 

23. Anopleura. 

24. Thysanoptera. 

It is, however, impossible to express accurately the relationship 
of insects by adopting any one sub-division of equal value throughout, 
and the student may be warned against getting to attach too mucli 
importance to any classification systems except as working conven- 
tions which have as much regard to truth as circumstances will allow. 

What systems of classification we adopt is, in the present state of 
confusion, immaterial ; the Fauna covers only parts of four orders and 
we can there adopt the system in use ; beyond that we must unfortu- 
nately anticipate the "Fauna." The system adopted is the following; 
it is as near to Sharp's insects as possible, and we have contrasted it 
with the system in use in America as a guide to the student who wishes 
to refer also to American literature. We may remark that classification 
is not an end in itself but is the means to an end ; with so vast and com- 
plex a subject, it is imperative that we should be able to classify, to fix 
the position of an insect with regard to its fellows, simply for ease of 
working. Our main object being the observation of living insects as 
they afTect man, classificaton in this case becomes necessary to enable 
us to record and collate our observations ; for this reason we aim at a 
simple system, on which we can arrange our collections, file our notes 
and, by working with one system, follow each other's work at once with- 
out having to readjust our ideas or bother more than is necessary with 
the way our things are arranged. The insects in one collection are 
arranged exactly as they are in another ; a worker from a distance can 
take up work in Pusa without mastering a fresh system, and whether 
our classification be correct or not, it is, and must be, the standard and 
will be, we hope, with small modifications, the .standard in India for 
many years. 

Number of Specie,?. — Blanford in 1881 published a numerical 
enumeration of the known Fauna of India (J. A. S. B., p. 263). He in- 
cludes Beluchistan, Kashmir, the Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, 
Assam, British Burma, Tennasserim, Ceylon, Andamans, Nicobars, 



Ortlioptera 


350 (?) 


Neuroptera 


350 


Hymenopteia 


850 


Coleoptera 


4,780 


Lepidoptera 


4,(520 


Diptera 


500 (?) 


Rhynchota 


(550 


Total 


12,100 



NOMENCLATURK. 15 

which is practically the area now covered by the ' ' Fauna of British 
India." We reproduce his figures :— 

1,700 

400 

3, COO 

6,000 

10,000 

LOOO 

3,000 

29,700 

giving also an enumeration of our own based on the available figures. 
Thus the Fauna of India and Hampson's later papers enumerate about 
8,000 moths, there are about 1,500 butterflies, and we estimate 5(X) 
Tineids, etc. Mr. Distant has already enumerated 2,500 Rhynchota, 
and we anticipate 4(X) more with 100 Coccidse. 

Nomenclature. 

Could we divide all known insects into, say, 300 families of roughly 
1,(X)0 species each, and group these systematically, our nomenclature 
would be a simple matter, 

As we have explained above, the general object is to make families 
the basis of classification ; but we have in this volume to steer a middle 
course between the really accurate classification of the pure systematist, 
which changes as knowledge grows, and the practical point of view of 
those for whom we write ; we cannot keep remodelling our arrange- 
ment and nomenclature. Odonatn, for instance, may be a sub-order 
composed of say seven families ; for us and for all field entomologists 
it is practically a family. 

Whenever possible, family names end in — idee, sub-family names 
in — inw, and the names of tribes or sub-divisions of families in — itii ; 
the student must, however, remember that sub-family names frequently 
end in — ides ; and tribes in — ines. It is to be regretted that no uniform 
system can be introduced, and that were we to rigidly adhere to some 
system in this volume, the student would be puzzled when leading foreign 
text-books or literature. 

Identification of Spkcimens. — Insects are known by names, nomi- 
nally of Latin or Greek form, given to them by the entomologist 



16 INTRODITCTION. 

who first describes them. That is, every distinct species of insect that 
has been described or accurately figured is designated by the specific 
name assigned to it by its first describer. The problem then is, with 
living or preserved insects on one side, and the mass of descriptions or 
figures on the other, to correlate the two. 

Only working entomologists ever realise the immense labour in- 
volved in this work, except in the case of the fauna of a locality such 
as England where the insects have been studied very closely, where 
there are ample books, and reference collections. Where one has either 
a description of every species of insect of a country or a good reference 
collection, identification is a matter of so much comparison, but where as 
in India, the only handbooks contain descriptions only of part of the 
known insects, or where there are no handbooks at all, only scattered 
descriptions, and where there are no reference collections and access to 
the National Collections at the British Museum is impossible, the actual 
identification of an insect is not an easy matter and is not, as a rule, even 
possible in India. The question must remain so until there are complete 
handbooks such as the Fauna of India, which are kept up-to-date, and 
also complete reference collections of Indian insects, accurately named ; 
progress to these is being slowly made, but very slowly indeed. 

Actually if an insect belonging to one of the families described in 
the Fauna of India is sent in for identification, it is examined, referred 
to some division of its family, worked out with the generic key in the 
volume and compared with the descriptions in the volume ; if it exactly 
agrees with the description of a particular species, it is believed to be 
that species and is, if possible, compared with a specimen that has been 
identified by a specialist in that family. If it agrees with no species 
in the volume, it may be either a species described since the volume was 
prepared, or a species known from another country but not from India, 
or a new species ; to determine this requires an expert knowledge of the 
family, a complete literature of the family and a reference collection. 
On the other hand, if a beetle, for instance, is sent in, it is examined, 
referred to its family, and compared with any accurately named speci- 
mens of its kind which are available ; if it agrees with none of them it 
must be sent to a specialist in that family who has the literature, the 
reference collection, and, after years of work on that particular family, 



KNTOMOLOGY IN INDIA. 17 

the requisite special knowledge. If proper attention was devoted to 
entomology in England, all specimens could be sent to the National 
Collection at the British Musuem and there compared : at present this 
is not possible, and we are largely dependent on the kindness of 
workers in Europe and the United States. 

It can be seen that the accurate identification of an insect is no easy 
matter in every case ; in many cases it means months of waiting, and 
even years, as there are no workers for a large number of groups. As 
an aiccurate identification is necessary before publishing matter about 
any insect, this question is one of great importance ; a large number of 
insects have been accurately identified and can be seen in the Pusa 
Collections ; every assistance will be given in identifying insects, but the 
reader must realise what it means and be prepared to do the only thing 
he can to help, namely, to always send enough good specimens to allow 
of some being sent on to Europe, if the species is one that cannot be 
named from the Pusa Collection. This matter is discussed here because 
requests are constantly received for the name of an insect of which 
perhaps one mangled specimen is sent, and surprise is expressed because 
the identification is not immediately forthcoming. (See also Indian 
Insect Pests, page 57.) 

Entomology in India.— This volume has been compiled primarily 
for the use of students of entomology in India and for those interested 
in the subject. A few words as to the present state of the subject in 
India will not be out of place. 

Entomology, as a subject, occupies the whole time of one section 
of the Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, and in this Institute alone 
there are three Entomologists with English Univerisity qualifications, 
and a staff of trained native workers. In connection with this Institute, 
there are a limited number of entomological assistants employed by 
the Agricultural Departments of each province for purely agricultural 
work and simple teaching. Whilst the ultimate object of work at 
Pusa is mainly agricultural and directed to useful practical ends, the 
work must rest on a scientific basis, and the collection, study, and classi- 
fication of all insects of the agricultural areas of India is a necessary part 
of the activities of the staff. It is open to any worker in India to visit 
Pusa or to write there for advice or assistance, which will be freely given. 

HI. 2 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

Our aim is to be in toucli with every worker in India and to invite co- 
opeiation and mutual help. Elementary and advanced teaching in 
entomology is also given at Pusa and at no other place in India at the 
present time. 

For many vears, the Indian Museum, Calcutta, was the centre of 
entomological work, where a special staff was devoted to this subject, 
including the economic aspect. At the present time, the economic 
work has been transferred to Pusa, and systematic entomology takes 
its place as one branch of the systematic zoology which forms the work 
of one section of the Musuem. 

Collections of insects are preserved there, are constantly added to 
and are sent to specialists to Europe, just as the Pusa collections are. 
There is a large exhibit collection open to the public and the reference 
collections, while not open to the public, are generally available to work- 
ers in entomology. 

Forest entomology is solely dealt with in the Forest Research 
Institute, Dehra Dun, by the Imperial Forest Zoologist and his staff, 
and all enquiries regarding insects injujious to forests are referred there. 
The study of insects injurious to tea is the work of the Entomologist to 
the Indian Tea Association stationed at Hilika, Assam. 

Apart from minor and inconsiderable collections in Provincial 
Museums, the only other public collections exist at the rooms of the 
Bombay Natural History Society ; members of this society refer specimens 
to the Committee who, if the Society's collection and library cannot 
furnish the required information, refer them to either of the above Indian 
Institutions or to Entomologists in Europe. 

Excepting private workers who own private collections, there are 
no other centres of entomological activity in this country. 

Publications dealing with entomology in its different aspects are 
issued as follows : The Imperial Agricultural Department issues, 
from Pusa, the " Agricultural Journal of India," in which are contained 
articles and notes relating solely to those insects injurious to crops or 
to those of economic value. Other and similar work is issued in 
bulletins ; the more scientific or lengthy work is issued in memoirs and 
purely popular and useful information as leaflets, 



KNTOMOLUCiV IN 1NI>IA. 19 

Tlie Imperial Forest Kesearch Institute ]niljlishe.s infoniiatioii 
relative to Forest Entomology in " Forest Records and Memoirs,"' and 
some has appeared in the pages of the " Indian Forester." " The 
Bulletins of the Tea Association '" contain the bulk of the work on insects 
injurious to tea, supplementary to the volume on Diseases and Pests 
of the Tea Plant by Watt and Mann. The Indian Museum, in 
" Indian Mu.seum Records " and " Memoirs of the Indian Museum," 
issues articles mainly on systematic entomology but also bionomic work. 

The ■' Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society"" is the recog- 
nised medium for most purely systematic work and for some bionomic 
work ; the papers in this Journal are of extreme value and nuist be 
consulted. We have referred below to the more important papers. 
The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal contain also papers on 
general entomology and on systematic work. 

This exhausts the present publications dealing with the various 
aspects of this subject in India ; occasional papers on systematic 
entomology appear in the proceedings of learned Societies in England. 
Europe, the United States. A summary of these is contained in the 
Annual Report of the Board of Scientific Advice in India, as is a 
summary of all entomological work and publications in India. 

It is necessary to mention one further publication no longer in exist- 
ence. For over fifteen years. " Indian Museum Notes" was issued from 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and contained papers, notes, etc., dealing 
with economic and systematic entomology. We have made con.stant 
reference to it below and practically all information contained in it. 
dealing with the insects of the plains, is abstracted or referred to here, 
or is amplified in Indian Insect Pests. The best feature of this publica- 
tion was its beautiful photogravure plates ; the originals of manv of 
these are here reproduced as text figures. Sets of this publication are 
still available at Pusa, and complete sets can be consulted in most 
official or public libraries in India. 

With the exception of the Bombay and Asiatic Societies, the above 
publications are issued by Government and copies of most of them are 
available to serious workers. All can be seen also in most public 
libraries, and the published work in entomology is generally available. 
It is impossible to refer here to other literature ; the reader will see 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

below from how many sources we have drawn the published informa- 
tion of past years and these scattered papers are often very difficult 
to see. The best entomological libraries known to me in India are that 
of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and of the Pusa Research Institute. 

Of books dealing only with Indian Entomology, the Fauna of India 
is the only systematic one of real value now. It covers Aculeate Hymen- 
optera (2 vols.), a small part of Coleoptera (2 vols.), nearly the whole 
of Lepidoptera (6 vols.), Rhynchota to the end of Jassidse (4 vols.). 
Progress with this is being steadily made and the student should ascer- 
tain what volumes have since been issued. They are the standard 
guides to the systematic entomology of India, Burmah and Ceylon and 
are essential in the arrangement and identification of species. West- 
wood's Cabinet of Oriental Entomology is with Donovan's " Insects of 
India," remarkable chiefly for beautiful plates in coloiu- of many striking 
Indian insects, mainly butterflies, moths, large beetles and Fulgorids. 
It is the only book of its kind but is of little value at the present day 
except (in the words of Westwood), "that, by finding its way to the 
table of the Indian drawing room, it may gain additional converts to 
the study of a science full of curiosity and awaken an interest in the 
objects of pursuit, thus supplying an engaging occupation to our Indian 
friends." 

A very short introduction to entomology is given in ' ' Indian 
Insect Pests," which also treats of insects injurious to agriculture. It 
is the only general book on pure entomology relating solely to India 
published recently (1906), and contains short instructions regarding 
necessary apparatus, methods, etc. We assume every reader to have 
as much general knowledge as is included in the first part of that 
volume and in the second appendix. 

Zoo-Geogkaphical Divisions. — British India is not a distinct zoo- 
geographical area, and it is necessary to define very carefully the faunal 
zone that is dealt with in this volume. The " Fauna of India" series 
deals with the Fauna of the Indian Empire and Ceylon, i.e., Himalaya, 
Hindustan, Assam, Burmah, Ceylon, regardless of faunal zones, and we 
endeavour here to indicate the zoo-geographical status of this region. 

In the first place, we wish to make clear that a fundamental point 
is elevation ; starting from the plains of North India at an elevation of, 



ZOO-GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS. 2l 

say, 1,000 feet and going steadily up the Himalayas to say. 10,000 feet, 
one passes from, through and into three distinct life-zones, which we 
may call tropical, subtropical and temperate ; the tropical extends 
to 2,000 feet elevation ; it is marked by one period yearly of 
intense dry heat or a limited season of moist weather ; the subtropical 
covers 2,000 feet to between 5,000 and 6,000 feet and is marked 
by a greater humidity, a more even and less intense temperature, a 
less limited period of rainfall ; the temperate extends above about 
6,000 feet. To accurately define the limits of the subtropical zone 
would require much elaborate detail ; it commences for instance at an 
elevation of about .500 feet at the foot of the Eastern Himalayas, at 
about 2,000 feet at the foot of the Western Himalayas ; in the Nilgiris 
it commences at about 2,-500 feet on the Mysore plateau side but 
runs down to well under 1,000 feet on the Western Ghaut side ; a large 
part of the Deccan above 1,000 feet is tropical ; the Western Ghauts 
from 600 to 2,000 feet and over are subtropical, and in this case the dry 
tropical area (as at Poona and Nasik) is at a greater elevation than the 
moist subtropical belt. The zone is of course not definable merely on 
elevation ; it is the raoister more agreeable climate produced by the abun- 
dant rainfall falling on the slopes of moderate elevation which run up 
from the level plains to the Himalayas or to the various ranges of hills ; 
it is a zone of varied vegetation, often forest or dense jungle ; it is the 
zone in which tea, coffee, rubber, and similar crops are grown, and it 
is, in India, a belt along the hills, rumiing up the valleys, as well as 
more or less isolated patches on the hill ranges of Central India, the 
Deccan and South India. The .student can get some idea of it from 
the 2,000 feet elevation line on Eliott's meteorological atlas of India. 
The fauna of the subtropical zone is far more varied than that of the 
tropical zone or of the temperate zone and is quite distinct. 

There are some prominent features of the tropical and subtropical 
faunae which may be very briefly discussed here. We omit any discus- 
sion of the temperate fauna as, except in South India, it is certainly not 
" Indian " but is holarctic or Indo-Chinese. The subtropical fauna is 
far more varied than the tropical ; the number of species that can find 
food and can support existence in the extremely varied vegetation and 
moist equable climate of the former is far greater than those that can 
endure the intense dry heat and more limited vegetation of the latter. 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

Ill addition to this, which is true of nearly every family of insects, there 
are families which are confined to the subtropical region, or which im- 
mensely predominate there as compared with these families in the 
plains, and there are also families which occur far more abundantly in 
the tropical plains. The Phasmidce. SiricidcB, Tenthredinidw, SialidcB. 
ParwrpidcB, Passalidw. Lucanidce. SimuUidcB, Aradidce. Phymatidw, 
SfisiidcB, ZyqcenidcB are practically confined to the moist forested lower hill 
slope.3 ; the Rhopalocera are characteristic of the subtropical region, 
especially the NymphalidcB and PafilionidcB ; the CicadidcB, TipulidcF. 
MycetopMlido', Locustidw, Dynastidce, Cetoniidw, ErotyUdcB. Endomychidw. 
BoslrichidcB, ScolytidcB are found abuiidantly in the subtropical, rarely 
in the tropical areas ; Chrysomelidw, Bupreslidce, Capsidce, Syrphidw 
occur in both but in immense profusion only in the former : I.imacodidce 
and Phry(janeid<£ stand out conspicuously in the same way. On the 
other hand, the AcridiidcB, Carahidce, Dytiscidce, Hydrophilidw, Gyrinidw. 
TenehrionidcB, Myrmeleonince, AscalaphincB, Scaraboeidw are far more 
abundant in the plains, though occun-ing also in the lower hills. Allow- 
ing for the fundamental excess of species in the subtropical region owing 
to its varied flora, the other large families are more proportionately 
represented in both areas. We would suggest also that the varied sur- 
face fauna of the plains is less marked a feature of the subtropical region, 
possibly because the surface soil offers protection from heat not required 
in the hills and because the usually dense perpetual vegetation of 
the hills produces a fauna centering more round the bushes and low 
vegetation (see below '' Where Insects Live " under Forficulidoe). 

This fundamental distinction is of the very greatest importance, and 
unless it is fully realised and clearly kept in mind, any conception of the 
faunal zones must be imperfect. We sharply mark off the fauna of the 
plains of India (usually below 2,000 feet) from that of the forested 
slopes of the hills and from that of the upper hills ; and, in this 
volume, we deal only with the tropical zone except where the number 
of species occurring in India is stated when we mean British India 
exclusive of the temperate upper Himalayas. 

India is placed by Beddard (Zoogeography 189.5) in the Oriental 
Region as the " Indian " subregion ; Ceylon is distinct as a subregion and 
is taken to include part of South India. The Himalayas, inclusive of 
Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, are not part of the Indian subi-egion 



ZUO-ciEUCiltAlMIIIAl, invistUNS. 23 

at all, being liolarctic, and we take the dividing line to be at about 0,000 
feet. The extreme North-West of India is also not strictly " Indian " 
but is holarctic. Burmah, we exclude, as being Malayan and Indo- 
Chinese, and the hills of Assam are strictly Indo-Chinese in part. " In- 
dia " proper then does not include these areas at all and it must be clear- 
ly borne in mind that in these pages we do not use India in the sense 
that the " Fauna of India " does : the term " British India " is used 
throughout this volume for the political India covered by the Fauna ; 
the term " India " includes tropical and subtropical India, i.e., up to 
about 6,000 feet ; " subtropical India " denotes the moist forested 
slopes of the hills usually between 2,(X)0 and 0,000 feet ; " tropical 
India " or " the plains " means the great stretches of India lying 
between sea-level and about 2,000 feet, usually not forested and 
extending from Tinnevelly in the South to Rawal Pindi in the North, 
from the border of Sind and Baluchistan in the West to the Assam and 
Surma valleys in the East. It is the insects of this area that are 
discussed in these pages and for one insect in this area there are at least 
five in " subtropical India. " 

The frontispiece illustrates the divisions of tropical India according 
to fauna so far as we are able to tentatively delimit them ; the faunal zones 
of subtropical India are not indicated. In considering this cpiestion fully, 
the factors to be considered are (1) the physical features of the country ; 
(2) the geological formation composing it ; (3) its climate ; and (-4) its 
flora. The first three probably affect insects in much the same way as 
they affect plants, and we may take the flora as the basis of our 
divisions ; Sir J. D. Hooker, in his sketch of the flora of British India, 
divides the whole area into nine provinces as follows :— 

(1) Eastern Himalayas. — Sikkim to Mishmi mountains in Upper 

Assam. 

(2) Western Himalayas. — Kumaun to Chitral. 

(3) Indus Plain. — Punjab, Sind. Rajputana, west of the Araval- 

li range and the Jumna river, Cutch and Gujarat (to the 
Tapti). 
(i) Gangetic Plain. — From the Aravalli Hills and the Jumna 
river to Bengal, the Sundarbans, the plains of Assam, 
the low country of Orissa north of the Mahanadi. 



24 iNTitomrnoN. 

There are three distinct sub-provinces ; the dry upper 
area, the United Provinces and Behar : the lower humid 
area, the Assam plain, Lower Bengal and Orissa ; and the 
Sundarbans. 

(5) Malabar. — The Western Ghauts from the Tapti river to 

Cape Comorin ; the Konkan, Kanara, Malabar, Cochin, 
Travancore, Laccadive Islands. This is better termed 
the "West Coast. 

(6) The Deccan. — The high plateau lying between the Eastern 

and Western Ghauts, south of the Gangetic and Indus 
plains ; the Coromandel Coast on the East Coast from 
the Mahanadi to Cape Comorin is included as a sub- 
province. 

(7) Ceylon and the Maldive Islands. 

(8) Burmah. 

(9) The Malay Peninsula. 

With the last three, as with the first two, we have no concern here. 
If on the basis of the above divisions we omit subtropical forest hill 
areas, and we take into account the influences on the fauna of these 
neighbouring areas, we shall get divisions as follows : — 

(1) The Indus Plain. 

(2) Desert India. 

(3) Central India, West. 

(4) Gangetic Plain, West. 
(,5) Gangetic Plain, East. 
(G) Sundarbans. 

(7) Central India, East. 

(8) Deccan. 

(9) West Coast. 

(10) Coromandel Coast. 

1. The Indus Plain has a fauna containing many holarctic forms. 
The winter is cold, the hot weather is dry and intense and these two sea- 
sons are well marked. 

2. Desert India is similar, but with a peculiar fauna and flora, 
owing to the arid conditions. 



ZOO-GEOGUArmCAL DIVISIONS. 25 

3. Central India, PFesf.— An area of greater rainfall, a more definite 
period of humidity and less alternation of day and night temperature. 

4. GangeticPJain, West.—\Ye\\ marked winter with moderate cold 
and rain, dry hot weather and moist rainy weather. Immigrants from 
the Himalayas for the cold weather. 

5. Gamjetic Plain, East.—^o well-marked dry hot weather, the 
humidity higher in the cold weather and hot weather. Immigrants from 
the Himalayas and other hills for the cold weather and insect activity 
more general in the hot weather ; there is a marked Malayan element. 
(A feature of this area is the flooding that occurs over large stretches of 
land; the influence this exerts on the fauna may be a very marked one.) 

6. Sundarbans. — Doubtfully distinct. Little alternation of 
temperature or humidity. Peculiar flora. Strong Malayan element. 

7. Central India, East. — Well-marked dry hot weather when insect 
activity is suspended, followed by a prolonged moist warm period. Fewer 
insects hibernate than in the regions North and West. 

8. Deccan. — Well-marked seasons, the dry hot weather following 
a marked cold weather, when hibernation sets in. 

y. West Coast. — The fauna is influenced by the neighbouring sub- 
tropical region of permanent forests and high humidity which produce 
a very large fauna equalled onlv by the lower slopes of the hills in Assam 
and the Eastern Himalayas. No hibernation in the plains below ghauts. 
Many Ceylonese forms. 

10. Coromandel Coast. — Less well marked seasons to the Deccan, 
and a smaller flora to the West Coast. A large proportion of Ceylonese 
forms. 

We may roughly indicate the separate faunal zones into which we 
would divide British India as a whole exclusive of Burmah and Ceylon : — 

1. Indus Plain. — Tropical. 

2. Himalaya, West. — Western Himalayas above G,000 feet, inclu- 
ding Kashmir, Nepal and Kumaon. Holarctic. 

3. Suh-Himalaija, West. — Lower slopes of Western Himalayas 
2,000 to 6,000 feet. Subtropical forest fauna. 

4. Desert India. — Tropical. 

5. Central India, West. — Tropical. 



20 



TNTRODUCTION. 



G. Central India, West, //I'Ks.— Subtropical. 
7. Gani/etic Plain, West. — Tropical. 
iH. Gangetic Plain, East. — Tropical. 

'.). Sub-Himalai/a, East. — Lower slopes of Eastern Himalayas 700 
to 5.000 feet. Subtropical. 

10. Himalaya, East. — Eastern Himalayas above 5 000 feet. 
Sikkim to Mishmi Mountains. Holarctic. 

11. Assamia. — Hills of Assam and Assam-Burmah border, in- 
clusive of Kliasi hills, above 6,000 feet. Indo-Chinese. 

12. Sub-.issamia. — Lower slopes of Assam hills, 500 to 5,000 feet. 
Subtropical with strong Malayan affinities. 

13. Sundarbans. — Tropical. 

14. Central India, East, Hills above 500 to 800 feet. Subtropical. 

15. Central India, East, Plains. — Tropical. 
1(3. Deccan. — Tropical. 

17. West Coast, Plains. — Tropical. 

18. Western Ghauts. — Hills up to (5,000 feet. Subtropical. This 
is probably divisible into three ; (a) Surat to Londa-Goa gap ; (6) Goa 
gap to Palghat gap with the Nilgiris, Coorg, Mysore Hills ; (c) South of 
Palghat gap. including Travancore, Pulneys, etc. 

19. South India Hills. — Hills of West Coast and South India 
above 6,000 feet. The fauna of this zone is not sufficiently known, as 
apart from the fauna below 6,000 feet, for this division to be more than a 
doubtful one. 

20. Coromandel Coast. — Tropical. 

21. Eastern Ghauts. — Subtropical. 

Classing these zones under elevation and climate we get : — 



Temperate. 


Subtropical. 


Tropical. 


Himalay.a, West 


Sub-Himalaya, West 


Indus Plain. 
Desert India. 




Central In.lia, West, Hills 


Central India, Wt-st. 


East 


Sub-Himalaya, East 


Gangetic Plain, West. 


Assamia 


SubAssamia 


„ „ East. 
Sundarbans. 




Central India East, Hills .. 


Central India, East. 




Western Ghauts 


Deccan. 

West Coast. 


Soutl) India Hills 


Eastern Gliauts 


Coromandel Coast. 



KOOl) AND IIAIUTAT. 



27 



( HOI.AliCTlC.) 

Himalaya Wt;.t. 

Baluchistan. 

Afglianistan. 

Indus Plain. 
Desert India. 
Central India, West. 
Cianyetic I'lain, West. 



(Scheme of In- 
dian Reslon.) 



(iNDd-t'HINESE ) 

Assaniia. 
Hitnalajii, Kast. 

Hurmxh Hills. 



Sub-Hinial.'iya, East. 
Sub-Assamia. 



Central Imlia, East- 



West Coast. 
Western Gliauls. 
South India Hills. 
Coromandel ('oast. 
Eastern Ghauts. 

Ceylon. 

(StNQHALKSE.) 



Ganj,'etic I'lain, East. 
Sunilarbans. 

Burniah Plains. 
Malay ia. 

(llALAVAN.) 



Food and Habitat. 
Insects live in a great diversity of waj-s, but it is jjossible to iTmg]il\- 
classify these into groups ; this classification is of considerable value to 
the student in placing his insect ; for instance, a tree-boring insect will 
be a member of one of a small number of families, and it will often assist 
in placing an insect to look up the families which have a particular habit 
i.e., it is useful to classify insects according to food and habitat, as well 
as by structure and genealogy. For this purpose we tabulate below 
the principal families that live in distinct wavs, using food and habitat 
t<»gethcr as tlie basis of our classification. 

r 



I.— LAND INSECTS.-,^ A. Herbivorous. ■{ 



r 1. 


Live in Fruits. 


2 


,. ON .Seeds. 


3. 


., Flowers 


4. 


Leaf and Stem 




Miners 


5. 


Leaf and Stem 




Suckers. 


(J. 


Leaf and Stem 




Eaters. 


7. 


Gall Makers. 


8. 


Tree Borers. 


9. 


Stem Borers. 


10. 


Boot Eaters. 


11. 


Root Borers. 


12. 


Root Suckers. 



28 



INTRODUCTION. 



B. Parasites AND 
Predators. 



I.— LAND INSECTS <; 
—contd. 



C. Scavengers. 



13. Parasites, Inter- 
nal OF Vertebrates. 

li. Parasites, Exter- 
nal OF Vertebrates. 

15. Parasites, Internal 
OF Insects. 

16. Predators, Sting- 
ing. 

17. Predators, Biting 
AND Sucking. 

18. Scavengers, Animal 
Matter. 

19. Scavengers, Dead 
Wood. 

20. Scavengers, Vege- 
table Matter. 

21. Household Insects. 

II.— SALT WATER INSECTS. 
III.— FRESH W^ATER INSECTS. 
IV.— MYRMECOPHILOUS INSECTS. 

1. Fruit Insects. — The Trypelidw are conspicuous, as are such 
Tortricids as the Codlin Moth {Carpocapsa) and Tineidw. Noctuids 
and Curculionid.s are found. In all cases it i,« the larvee that live thus ; 
Tenlhredinidce are rarely known. Some large moths (Ophideres) live 
on fruit juice. We exclude all " Scavengers " in decaying fruits, of 
cour.se, referring only to fruits on plants. 

2. Seed Eating Insects. — Many insects feed habitually on .seeds 
while ripening ; BruchidcB, ScolytidcB, Tortricidce, Tineidw, Pterophoridce 
[Exelastis, Sphenarches), NoctiiidcB {Chloridea, Earias), PyraUdcB being 
typical examples ; the Lycacnid ( Viraihola isocrales) is an exceptional 
case. We omit all insects living on harvested seeds, classing them as 
Scavengers or household insects. 

3. Flower Insects. — Forficulidce eat pollen, Masaridoe and 
ApidcB collect pollen. Fossores collect pollen, or feed on nectar. Phala- 
cridcB (larvae), Nitidulidw (larva) and adults), Mehjridce (adults), Lam- 
pyridcB (adults), Mordellidw (adults), Curculionidw (adults), Melolon- 
ihidce (adults), Cantharidw (adults) feed on pollen or flowers. Most 
moths and butterflies and many flies, especially Antliomyiidw, Syrphidw 
and Bombyliidcc, feed on nectar. TineidcB, Pterophoridce, Cecidomyiidce, 
Thysanoptera, Tingidce also live in flowers, as larvae or nymphs. 



FOUIi AND HABITAT. 29 

4. Leaf and Stem Miners.— The Hispids and Halticids among 
Chrysomelids, and many Tineid.s mine under the epidermis of green leaves 
and green stems. Exceptional Micropterygids, Buprestids (Trachi/s) 
and Acalyptrate Muscids are also recorded. 

5. Leaf and Stem Suckers.— The TIn/sanoptera, the whole of the 
Honwptera and Pfujtophthires, as well as most of the species of the fol- 
lowing families of Hemiptera live by sucking the sap of green parts of 
plants : — Pentntomidw, Coreidw, Berytidce, Lyr/widw, Pijrrhncoridce, Tingl- 
dcB, CapsidcB. 

6. Leaf Eating Insects.— All Phasmidce and Acridiidce, most 
LocustidcB, aoiw Gnjllidce feed on leaves, as too do tlie larv<r of Tenthre- 
dinidw, Melolontliid beetles, a few exceptional Carabids and Silphids, 
Epilachnids in both stages, Cantharid beetles, Chrysomelids in both 
stages, and Curculionids (rarely in the larval, almost always in the 
imaginal stage) have the same habit. The larv«' of Lepidopiera in 
most cases are purely leaf eating. 

7. Gall Insects. — In India, the known gall insects are typically 
Psyllids, Tineids, Chalcids (fig insects) and Cecidomyiids, the first pre- 
dominating. Other families recorded elsewhere are Tenlhredlnidce 
(Nematus), Cynipidm, Buprestidce (Ethon), Curcidionidoe, Thysanoptera, 
AphidoB and Coccidoe. 

8. Tree-Boring Insects.— The following families make tunnels in 
trees ; Siricidce, Buprestidce, Cermnhycidce, Currulionidce, Scolytidce, 
( ? Brenthidse), Sesiidce, Cossidce, Hepialidce, Arbelidw. 

9. Stem Borers. — A large number of borers live in green succulent 
stems as opposed to those living in hard woody tissues. The families 
concerned are, Gryllidce (Cylindrodes), Cephidw, TenthredinidcE, Phala- 
cridce, Erotylidce, Buprestidce, Mordellidce, Curculionidce, Scolytidce, 
{CastniidcB), Noctuidce, Pyralidce, Cecidomyiidce, CJdoropidce, Agromyzidw, 
GeomyzidcB, Ortalidce. 

10. Eoot Eating Insects. — Very little is known of the lives 
of underground insects, but the following groups contain species that 
feed on plant roots in the soil. 

Melolonthid larvae. 
Elaterid 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

Curculionid larvP. 

Pyralid ,, (Cramhidce. etc.). 

Noctuid ,, (rarely). 

Tiryllid nymphs and adults. 

Tipulid larva'. 

A few of the Silphidw (Anisotomides), DasciUidw and Bibionidce 
(Dilophus), have apparently the same habit. 

1 1 . Root Borers. — The Hepinlids are conspicucus as root borers ; 
the Sagridw are said to have this habit as have some Eumolpids (Scelo- 
donta) and Galerucids (Diahrotica, probably Aulacophora) ; some PyraJids 
have it, e.g., Schcenobiince : exceptional Buprestida- iSphenoptera) and 
CurcidionidcB {Cylas) are also known. 

12 Root Sucking Insects. — Just as there are insects which suck 
plant tis.suea above ground, so others do below ground, but we know little 
of them. Probably a considerable number of species in the following 
families are concerned : PentatoniidcB, Lygoeidce, Cicadidw, Fuhjoridcp. 
AphidcB, Coccidce. In most cases it is probably the immature stages 
that have this habit. The best known example is the Phylloxera of the 
vine. 

13. Internal Parasites op Vertebrates. — The Oestridre are the 
important group in which this habit is universal ; the Muscids that cause 
Myiasis may perhaps be included. We omit the many recorded cases of 
insects bred in the human alimentary canal as being exceptional. 

1-1. External Parasites of Vertebrates. — So much is written 
of these we need only tabulate the families : Hemimeridce (on rats), Mal- 
lophaga, PlatypsyUidcB (on beavers), Hippohoseidce, Sfreblidcp, Nycteri- 
biidce, Aphaniptera, Polyctenidce, Cimicidce, Anoplura. We omit the 
non-parasitic biting flies. 

15. Parasites of Insects. — The Parasitica among the Petiolate 
Hymenoptera, the Chrysididce, the parasitic Apidce, and the TachinidcB 
are the common parasitic insects. Other groups are the Mantispides 
(on spiders eggs), the Mordellids (Emmenadia, etc.) (the Clerides), the Can- 
tharidw and Stylopidw. Of Diptera, little is known, but we may mention 
Nemestrinidw, Bnmbyliidce, Pipimculidce, Cyrtidce, Conopidce, AntJwmyi- 
idcB, TachinidcE, Sarcophagidw, MnscidcB, Braulidw (external). 



I\)Ol) ANU HAHITAT. 



31 



l(i. Prkdators, Stinging.- a peculiar class are those insects 
which sting insects to paralyse them and lay them up for their young ; 
tliev include only Eumenidce, Pompilidce, Sphegidce, Scoliidcp. 

17. Predators, Biting and Sucking. — It is impossible to indicate 
with any accuracv the families containing predaceous insects ; probalily 
a verv large number of insects living in soil and under bark are predaceous, 
notably beetles and smaller bugs. We tabulate a number of families 
with remarks. 
Forficulidce ; ? 
MnntidiT ; all. 
Locustida ; some. 
Gri/Uida- ; some, e.g., Schizodactt/luK 
Odonata ; larva> and imagines. 
Raphidiides ; imagines. 
Panorpides ; imagines. 
M ijrmeleonides ; larvae all : ima- 
gine* ? 



some. 
larva>. 
larvie ? imagines. 
,• larva\ 



Ascalaphides ; 
Mantispidcs ; 
Hevierohiidcs ; 
Chri/soplde.'i ; 
Coniopteri/(jides 
Eumenidce ; the wasps eat insects. 
Vespidce ; ,, ,, ,, ,, 
Ckindelidce ; all. 
Carahidce ; practically all. 
Silphidce ? 

Staph iiUnidcB ; probably all. 
Histeridcp ; some, under bark. 
Trogositidte ; some. 
Colydiidce ; some. 
Cucujidw. „ 

CoccineUidcF ; nearly all. 
Malacodermidce ; larva' all ; ima- 
gines ? 
CleridcE ; all. 



Antlin'hidre , 
Brenthida ; 
LycaenidxB. 
Nortuidcp ; 



some. 

imagines, larvsp ? 
(Spalgis). 
\ A few species feed 
Plii/citinw ; \ on Coccids. 

Tineidw. ( Hypatima) . 

Some Culicid larva-. 

Blepkarocerids ? 

Therevids ; fly and larva>. 

Muscids (Ochromyia). 

Some Anthomyiids & Ejihydrids. 

Some Scatomyzids. 

Lepfid(P ; larva> and flies. 

TabanidT ; ,, 

Asilidce ; all. 

Empidce. 

Dolichopidce. 

Phoridw ; larvae. 

Syrphidor ; ,, 

Bomhyliidce ? 

Pentatomidce ; some. 

Lygceidce ? many. 

Aradidce ? 

Henicocephalidw. 

Rediiriidw. 

Phymatidce. 

SaldidcB. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

18. Scavengers of Animal Matter. — There is a very large class 
of insects that live upon refuse animal or vegetable matter as apart from 
those feeding on live plant tissue or on the blood or tissues of animal 
life. Of this class, a portion feed in dung, corpses, etc. The family 
Scaraboeidw are a notable example of the dung feeders, the SarcophagidcB 
notable as breeding in corpses, the Formicidce notable as carrying off 
dead insects. Other families are Blattidce, Silphidce, Staphi/linidce, Hist- 
eridoB,NitidididcE('i ) Cleridce, Mycetophilidce, Rhi/phidw, several Muscidce 
Acalyptratce (Borhoridie. Sepsidip) and many Calyptratw, ( ? ) Phoridce. 

19. Scavengers of Wood. — The insects that feed in dry or de- 
caying wood are a distinct class, but it is difficult in some cases to distin- 
guish them from the insects that prey on them. The following nine fami- 
lies are well known : Termitidce, Bostrichida, Ptinidce (A7iobiides), 
Lytnexylonidce, Oedetneridce, Cerambycidce, Anihrihidce, ScolytidxF. Occa- 
sional Tenebrionids and Tineids may be added. 

20. Scavengers of Veget.\ble Matter. — This is perhaps our 
largest individual class since we have not the data on which to break 
it up into such groups as in tlie case of Herbivores. It is of extreme im- 
portance in the daily routine of agricultural entomology to be able to 
distinguish the harmless insect eating dry dead leaves from the injurious 
one eating living parts of the plant. We can here only enumerate 
the more important families or those in which the habit is known, with 
the remark that fungi are included as food of this class as well as decay- 
ing leaves, fruits, blossoms and other soft parts of plants. 

Aptera. I Cryptophagidce. 

Blattidce. Erotylidce (? fungi). 

Emhiidce. | EndomychidcB (? fungi). 

PsocidcB (? feeding on living fungi). | Mycetceidce (fungi 

Passalidce (larvae). 

LucanidcB (larva;). 

MelolonthidcB (larva?). 

Scaphidiidw (fungi). 

HisteridcB ? 

NitidulidcB. 

TrogositidcB {Peltides on fungi). 



Latridiidce (fungi). 

Byrrhidw (plant sap). 

Cioidce (fungi). 

Sphindidw (fungi). 

DascillidcB (Eucinetus on fungi). 

Elateridw (? larva^). 

NilionidcB (fungi). 



ColydiidcB. j Melandryidce. 



FOOP ANP HABITAT. 



aa 



AnthicidcB. 

CalandrinfF. 

Mycetophilidw (fungi). 

Chironomidw. 

Psi/chodidcr. 

TipuIidT. 

BibionidfF. 

RhyphidcE. 



Lonchopteridfr. 
Syrphidw. 
Phoridw (larv:^). 
Tn/petidcE. 
Sapromyzidct. 
AntJiomyidce (larvnp). 
Thysanoptera ? 
AradidcF {? fungi). 



21. Household Insects. — We cannot separate this class of insect 
clearly from the last or from some others logically, because our household 
insects are simply originally free-living ones that have found a living in 
man's dwellings. Nor can we malce a separate division of them on the 
same scale as the Myrinecophilous insects, as we should perhaps logically 
do. The student will find further information under the lieading 
Cosmopolitan insects below. The families concerned are : — 



CitcujidcB. 

NitidulidcB. 

Ptinidce. 

Bostrichidce. 

BruchidcB. 

CerambycidcB. 

Pyralidce {Galleriinw, Phycitinxe). 

Tineidce. 



Thysanura. 
Blattidw. 
GryllidcB. 
Psocidw. 
TermitidcB. 
{Nemopterides) 
Formi'cidw. 
Silphidw. 
Trogositid(B. 

We have excluded external parasites of mammals, though they may 
rightly be included here, since they are classed as above. 

II. Marine Insects. — Verv few insects live in, on, or within reach 
of salt water, probably on account of the difficulties of respiration due 
to the deposition of salts on evaporation of the water. 

Anurida among Aplera, Mpophihis among Coleoptera, 'Campontia 
among Chironomidce. Erintalis and some allies among Syrphidw live in sea 
water, Halobata. a genus of HydrometridcE lives on the sea. Some 
Forficulidw, Carahidce, Cicindelidce, Staphylinidce, and Miisrida' live in 
sea-weed on the beach. 

III. Freshwater Insects.— The student will find fuller informa- 
tion under the heading Aquatic insects after the family Odonata below. 

IIL 3 



34 



INTRODUCTION. 



We give here simply a bald list of families, but we make no attempt to 
class them into Herbivores, Parasites, Predators, and Scavengers as 
oould well be done : — 



( 'olli-)nbn]fi. 

(Blnttidw). 

EphemeridcB. 

Odonata. 

PerlidcE. 

Sialidce 

{Hemerohiidce). 

Trichoftera. 

{Chalcidw). 

Amphizoidre. 

PeJobiidw. 

HaliplidcB. 

DytiscidcB. 

GyrinidcB. 

HydropMlidce. 

HeteroceridcB. 

ParnidcB. 

DasciUidce. 

Chn/somelidce. 

{Curcnlionidcp). 

(EupterotidcB). 



(Pyrnlid(e). 

CuUcidw. 

Chironomidce. 

Psychodidce. 

Dixidce. 

TipulidcB. 

Blepharoceridce. 

Simuliidce. 

StratiomyidcB. 

TahanidcB. 

{Syrphidcp,}. 

( A caly pirate M.uscids) . 

Hydrometridw. 

PelogonidcB. 

NepidcB. 

NaiicoridcB. 

BelostomidcB. 

Notonectidce. 

CorixidcB. 

[AphidcB). 



IV. Myrmecophilous. — The student will find fuller information 
regarding Myrmecophilous insects under Paussidce. The more import- 
ant families of which species are found in ant's and termite's nests 
are : — 



Gryllidce. 

MelolonthidcB. 

Paussidw. 

Silphid'JB. 

GnostidcB. 

PselaphidcB. 

StaphylinidcB, 



HisteridcB. 

ThorictidcB. 

CossyphodidcB. 

Syrphidce. 

Psyllidce. 

Aphidce. 

CoccidcB. 



INSECTS AND MAN. 3o 

Insects and Man. — With tlie excpption of domestic aiiiiiials there 
is no single group of animal life wliich enters more into the daily life of 
man than inserts. They live on us and around us ; in our food, our 
clothes, our furniture, our houses ; we eat them or their products, we 
collect them and even sew them ou oui' clothing. All jieople eat 
honey, use bees-wax, clothe themselvirs in silk, and there is no one who 
has not, at one time or another, been dependent upon some member 
of the insect world. The luxury of the present age of civilised peoples 
has brought into being industries connected solely with the collection 
of the more beautiful aiul striking forms, which are worked up into 
wall ornaments, ]iaper weights, etc., and form a part of the art of this 
age. (Witness the advertisement m the Studio " Artistic Cases of 
Tropical Butterflies, exquisite colours and designs, supi)lied to many 
Art Schools, etc.") Man is, therefore, dependent on the insect world for 
so much, and though science may devise substitutes for the products 
derived from insects, some of them at least will never replace the 
genuine thing. No artificial honey will ever compare with the honey 
gathered by bees from thousands of flowers, fragrant of thyme or 
heather or logwood, though in this commercial age, chemically-prepared 
substitutes, composed of glucose and coal tar flavourings, are sold and 
accepted as genuine ; no substitute for bees-wax has been found, nor 
for shellac. It is likely that silk, as a commercial article among 
commercial nations, will be partly replaced by artificial substitutes, 
because the greatest value of true silk^durability — is of no value to an 
advanced civilisation which does not require to be clothed but costumed. 
Lac dye has been replaced by aniline, and though cochineal still holds 
its own for food colouring to some extent, it is probable that no insect- 
made dye will continue to hold its own against aniline dyes. 

These are the useful insects ; there are many that affect man in other 
ways. Why is it that almost every dry form of food sold and dealt in 
by commerce must be placed in a sealed package ? Why are millions 
of tins used yearly in a single city ? Why do we pay at least a fourth 
again uf the value of biscuits, simply because of the tin i Very largely 
because of the ubiquitous insect, who would get in and eat them, if these 
things were not thus protected. Let any house-keeper in India think for 
a moment of her store-room and the precautions she takes. Sugar must ■ 



36 IMRODUCTION. 

be isolated or ants will carry it off ; Hour must be in a tightly-closed tin, 
or moth, weevil or beetle gets in ; no sweet thing is safe, once opened, 
unless isolated on water, dried fruits of every kind are spoilt by beetles, 
grain is eaten by weevils ; pulse of all kinds harbours moths or beetles ; 
even tobacco and dried drugs are not exempt. Daily and hourly mankind 
is fighting the ravages of the insect world, which seeks to take fiom him 
his last ultimate asset, bis stock of food. Think of the countless sealed 
mud grain-stores there are in India, many in every village, and all because 
of the insect life around us. 

Let us take another aspect, that of disease ; malaria, enteric, 
typhoid, yellow fever, plague, filariasis and elephantiasis, sleeping 
sickness (? kala azar, black water fever), each and every one of these 
means a yearly total of deaths, premature and unnecessary, caused by 
the agency of insects. Think of the enormous total of deaths from 
plague in India, since plague came into India little more than a decade 
ago ; think of the desolation caused by sleeping sickness in Africa, of the 
countless cases of malaria in the tropics, of the extraordinary mortality 
from yellow fever, in old days, in the West Indies ; go to the West 
Indies and see the numerous cases of elephantiasis ; men with legs like 
trees, men suffering from fever and ague for years which finally leaves 
them possessed of an elephant's leg or ann ; think of the death-roll 
from enteric ! And after all this we may dimly realise the important 
part the insignificant insect w^orld around us plays in our lives. 

This may be equalled by that part played by insects in inducing 
disease among our domestic animals. This is a purely artificia] case 
largely brought about both by our careless transfer of stock f^om one 
part of the world to another and by our own reckless disregard of the 
rudiments of science and of all reasonable precautions. Think again 
of the agriculturist and his foes ; of the locusts which lay waste a 
district, of the bollworm that takes a tenth of the cotton-crop in India, 
or perhaps three-quarters of it in an occasional year ; of the mothborer 
that kills one cane-shoot in three ; of the rice hispa that causes famine 
or the rice grasshopper that destroys the paddy over a whole division ; 
think of the trials of new and promising crops abandoned in the past, 
because insects ruined every plant on a small plot. Why does not 
tree cotton grow successfully in India, or improved American maize : 
why has no fruit industry been established in places where fruit 



INSECTS AND MAN". 37 

grows ; why is shade-grown tobacco not a success, or the cultivation 
of sunflower or ground-nuts in North India ? What takes toll of 
every crop grown in this country to a greater or lesser extent ? Insects 
in every case insects ; and insects are a factor to be taken into account 
in agriculture ali the world over. 

Think of one's daily life ! There are cockroaches that smell, fish 
insects that eat our pajiers, ants that carry off our sugar, " gundie.= " 
and other smelly things that flavour our food when they fall in, wasps 
and hornets that sting, mosquitoes that bite and annoy, to say nothing 
of sand-flies, that no mosquito net keeps out, and the bug and flea which 
continually pester us, the mud wasps that build nests in our books 
and close our locks ; furniture beetles that wear out our chairs, the 
cheroot beetles that spoil our cigars, the book beetle that tunnels in our 
books, the moth that destroys our clothes. Daily and hourly we 
come in direct contact with insect life. Eead the doleful comments of 
the Calcutta resident in August, asking why science cannot check the 
insects that come to his lamp during dinner and make his life a burden ; 
or the sad tale of the District Officer who had to vacate his bungalow 
because the wasps wanted it and had been accustomed to have it ; or 
again the tale of the telegraph stores which were hurriedly wanted in 
large quantities, but could not be touched because hornets had built 
nests among them and actively resented any interference ; or that of the 
greatcoats ready to be distributed to the army, each being found with 
neat little holes eaten out by beetles. Impartial judgment and a 
dispassionate consideration of facts will show that insects have fully 
exploited man, and, that though man may think that he is dominant, 
he really is not, and that not tiie least among his functions is that of 
providing food and occupation for insects. 

It has been the custom of authors of all periods to refer all insects 
in some way to man's well-being and economy. Every insect was, 
to them, created with some definite object from man's point of view ; 
and one has only to accompany a party of visitors round a collection, 
even in this twentieth century, to find this view still expressed. " What 
is the use of this ? " "Why was that created ? " Man may or may not 
be the central being of this earth, but to attempt to refer the activities 
of all insects in some wav to his welfare is, at least, a problem that none 



38 INTRODUCTION. 

would attempt. An American author says : " fleas are good for a dog, 
because they keep him from brooding over being a dog," and explana- 
tions of this kind are possible where our domestic insects are concerned. 
But, were insects given to that kind of mentality and speculation (as 
they may be), it would be interesting to get their views on man and his 
place in their nature. Assuredly it would not agree with ours ; equally 
it may be, that, from any standpoint, whether material, mental, moral or 
spiritual, man is on no higher a level than insects ; and it might be better 
to classify our activities as they affected insects than to refer each insect 
to its " use " to us. 

A rough classification of the ways in which insects affect man may 
be attempted, chiefly with a view to securing clearness of idea : — 

1. Cause damage to growing plants directly. 

2. „ ,, ,, ,, ,, indirectly. 

3. „ „ „ stored products. 

4. ,, ,, ,, domestic animals directly. 

5. ,, ,, ,, .; ,, indirectly. 

6. Personally distasteful. 

7. Transmit disease to man. 

8. Assist agriculture directly. 

9. „ „ indirectly. 
10. Yield useful products. 

It is needless to dilate upon the fiist class ; all the insects that feed 
upon, or live in growing plants that are useful to man, are included. Of 
the second, we would say that very little is known, but that there may be 
a very large class whose quite unimportant attacks on plants open the 
way to the entry of fungoid or bacterial diseases, which may then be- 
come of great importance. There is a great difference between the small 
damage caused by the cane-borer direct and that of the fungus it brings 
or lets in ; and the broader aspects of this question are as yet but little 
known. The insects injurious to stored products, to grain, flour, dry 
food-products of all kinds, to timber, furniture, books, paper, fabrics, 
to every kind of human merchandise, made of material of animal or vege 
table origin, these are only too painfully familiar to us all, and, in the 
genial warmth and moistness of the Indian climate, they find conditions 
adniiraV)ly suited to their plentiful increase. Insects that directly injure 



INSECTS AND WAN. Sit 

doiue.stit; animals include lice, ticks, fleas, horse-flies, bots, warbles and 
other parasites of cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, etc. Under the head of 
indirect injury is the transmission of disease, of wliicli (lies and ])ro- 
bably lice, fleas and horse-flies may be especially im])ortant. 

Of those personally distasteful, it is hard to speak. The mosquito 
tluit bites and sings, the cockroach that flies around before rain, the eye- 
fly that thinks its proper sphere is man's visual organ, the crawling cater- 
pillar that falls from on high, each (and many more) is dista.steful in 
some degree to different individuals. The dweller in Bengal is harried 
by hordes of perfectly amiable and delightful insects which join him 
when the lamps are lit. As I write, they swarm around me, in great 
variety, in pleasing profusion, adding, by their mere number and senseless 
gyrations, to the irritation caused by climate, w-earincss, liver, etc. Tn 
some places '" gundies " {('ijdninoe) are pre-eminent, in other places 
green fly (Jasaids) ; the geranium (Cydnics) is familiar to some, while 
our curse here is varied but largely composed of beetles {Scaritids chiefly). 
Whatever they are, their profusion, their ubiqiiitousness, their buzzings 
and tlieir singed or oily corpses cause an annoyance only to be appreciated 
bv experience, and which forms not the least of the ills we bear. 

Elsewhere the reader will find an account of the insects transmitting 
human disease, the go-betweens, which add so enormously to the death- 
roll, which cripple so many lives and which constitute the first and 
greatest menace to human life in tropical countries. 

So far all is ill and were we to consider this only, then insects would 
have but a sinister significance. There is another side and still taking 
our anthropocentric view, we may consider the classes of insects on which 
man's welfare depends. A very large class of insects promote tillage, 
by burrowing and excavating in the soil ; they sweeten the soil and ren- 
der the growth of plants possible. This is especially the case in tropical 
India, where worms are not so abundant ; it is impossiltle to bring accurate 
proiif (li this. l)ut it is easy to observe the countless borings of insects 
in undisturbeil soil, especially under trees and wlieic there has licen no 
cultivation. In addition tu this, insects do nmch directly to enrich 
the soil by carrying down dung, by burying carcasses, by causing the de- 
cay of fallen vegetable matter. It reqiures but little observation and 
thought tosee how large a part insects ]ilav in this, and how greatlv they 



40 



INTRODUCTION. 



assist in keeping the earth sweet and wholesome, and in rapidly restoring 
to the soil available food ; with the bacteria, the fungi and similar organ- 
isms, they play a great part in the constant cycle of matter through the 
soil to some form of life and back to the soil again. In these ways insects 
assist agriculture directly. Another great function they exercise is in 
pollination ; a large proportion of plants are dependent upon insects 
for their fertilisation and we largely owe the beauty of many flower forms 
of the plant world to the need the plant has of attracting the insect and of 
inducing it to carry the pollen. The significance of insects in this respect 
requires no proof ; one can observe it both in the plants themselves and 
in their numerous insect visitors. 

Indirectly insects are also a benefit as they check themselves and also 
help to keep down the undue prominence of weeds and particular forms 
of plant life. It is perhaps a paradox to ascribe as a virtue to insects 
the fact that they check themselves, because, if they did not exist, no 
check would be needed ; still it is a sober fact that parasitic insects are 
an important part of the insect world, and if they were absent for a few 
weeks, India would starve. Finally, there are the useful insects. These 
are connected with : — (a) silk, (h) lac, (c) wax, (d) dyes, (e) medicine, 
(f) food for man, {g) food for domestic animals, (h) ornament. 

Those that yield silk are perhaps pre-eminent at present since im 
portant industries are dependent upon the silk excreted by the pupating 
caterpillar of one of four moths. The value of the exported silk in 
1906-7 was 204 lakhs, but much more was produced and used in the 
country itself. 

Lac is a large industry, one of the big staples of India, and, since its 
use is yearly growing and the source of supply is limited, it is an industry 
that brings increasing wealth to this country. The export in 1904-5 
was valued at Rs. 3,47,00,000 and, besides that, a large amount was used 
in India. 

Wax is still an article of export, fetching a high price and we may 
see established in the future a large industry in the domesticated bee. 
for the production of both wax and honey. The yearly export for the 
last twenty years has fluctuated between 3,000 cwt. and 7,000 cwt. : 
the value being between 2f and 7 lakhs. 

The importance of insects as dye producers is gone. Even lac is of 
ni) value except on a small scale. Medicine is still dependent upon insects 



INSECTS AND MAN. 4] 

for Cantharidino, and the«e beetles may become a source of profit instnad 
of a source of loss. As food, the bodies of insects are valuable to all but 
the most civilised nations ; while a not unimportant branch of trade is 
the collection of immature FormiridcB (" Ant's Eggs ") for feeding tame 
game birds and the capture of flies and other small insects as food for 
cage birds and the like is carried out on a large scale. 

Finally, insects are enrolled, with every other description of natural 
product, in the list of materials used by woman in her personal adornment. 
This is not as insignificant as it may appear and, though few insects can 
be used directly (e.g., Buprestids) many provide models for both art and 
millinery. 




-CaMWiHHA M'Al'UVLI.Nl'S x \\1 
(From Liihbofl:], 



APTERA. 

Wingless insects, the mouthparts mandibulate. Antennae and legs simple, 
the integument soft, clothed in scales or hairs, the segments 
undifferentiated and little co-adapted. There is no meta- 
morphosis, the development being gradual. 

Tlie onlt'i- includes only a small number of minute wingless insects 
of extreme delicacy, supposed to be .scavengers. The mouthparts are 
concealed, formed for biting. The legs are often long, and there are 
frequently abdominal appendages in the form of cerci, springs, etc. 
The body may be completely clothed with fine scales. There is no meta- 
morphosis and no changes take place in external appearance during life, 
except growth in size. Most of them live in concealment, their food con- 
sisting of dried or decaying vegetable matter, no far as is known. None 
are of importance economically, one genus, Lcpisma, being a minor 
household pest. 

Apiera are divided into two suborders and eight families. The 
Thijsanura have ten abdominal segments and consist of four families. 
The Collembola have six abdominal segments with a peculiar tube-like 
structure below the first. 

( Campodeida'. ( LipiiridcB. 

n^ 1 JaiD/iiidcp. p^TTT.„T,^T, ) Pod in- idee. 

j Miichihdce. j Smi/vt/nmdw. 

iLcpismidce. I {N eel idee. 

CaMI'ODEID.B. 

The abdomen lerminates in a fair oj jointed (eni; the 
iiiouth'partu are concealed. 
The cosmopolitan insect Campodea staphijliiius Westd. (Fig. 1) or a 
form very close to it occurs in India in damp moss, among damp decay- 
ing vegetation and in similar positions. It is a slender white insect, 
with moderately long antenn;e, with cylindrical body and with two 
anal cerci. 



44 




Fig. 2— Japyx sp. 



Japygid^. 

The moidhparts are concealed. The body 

terminates in a pair of forceps. 

These delicate insects will be readily mistaken 
for young Forficulido', though the hidden 
mouthparts serve to distinguish them. They 
are said to live in moss and under leaves, stones, 
etc., on the soil, though nothing is on record 
as to their habits in India. Wood-Mason 
records finding a single species in Calcutta. 
(Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, 1876 ; Ann. Nat. 
Hist. IV, 18). Japyx oudemannsi, Par., and 
J. indicus Oudem., are reported from Burmah. 
We have found one species (Fig. 2) common 
among decaying vegetation and in soil ; it is a 
delicate white in- 
sect, with the forceps chitinised and brown. 
It is common in Pusa and in Nagpur, and is 
probably common throughout the plains. 

Machilid^. 

Well developed compound eyes are present. 
The mouthparts are exserted and visible. 

Apparently more than one species of this 
family occur in India, one on rocks and an- 
other among dry decaying leaves. 

The latter is a dark grey insect found 
in the open. The body is elongate, a little 
over a quarter of an inch long (without the 
cerei) tapering from the base of the abdo- 
men to head and tail. Compound eyes are 
situated at the vertex of the head ; the 
antenurf are simple and tapering. The 
mouthparts are inconspicuous with long 
maxillary and shorter labial palpi. The 
body is denselv scaled and ends in three '''^- '-^';™'"-7°"^°''*' 

■ ■ [from LiibbncK). 




I.EPISMIDAE. 



45 



cerci of whicli the midtlle is the longest. On the ventral surface of 
the second and third thoracic and each abdominal segment is a slender 
jointed appendage, those on the 6th, 7th and 8th abdominal segments 
being longest. The legs are simple, tapering, the joints little differen- 
tiated, the tarsi two jointed. The female has a straight slender 
ovipositor. These little insects run on rocks and live in the cracks ; they 
are apparently nocturnal and appear to feed on lichens on the rocks. 

Assmuthia is a termit- 
ophilous genus constituted 
by Escherich for the recep- 
tion of A. spinosissinia and 
A. inrrmis from India (Zool. 
Anz. 30, p. 744). Platy- 
stelea harhifer, Esch. is also 
recorded from nests of ter- 
mites in India. 



Lepismid^. 
Body flattened, clothed m 
scales; eyes s»iall, wouth- 
parts exserted. 
The common fish insects 
of houses are members of 
this family and are found 
throughout India, as pract- 
ically throughout the world. 
Annandale has recorded 
Lepisma (Acrotelsa) coUaris, 
Fabr.,asa fish insect of Cal- 
cutta (Journ. Asiat. Soc, 
Bengal, 1806, Vol. II, p. 
346), and mentions this as 
the only recorded Indian 
species. The Himalayan 
species is apparently L. 
saccharina (Fig. 4). 





./ 


\ 




\ 


if 




i 




k:. 


1 


f 


'-'■■ 1 


'V, 



4— Lepis.ma SACCHARIN.4 
(From Lubbock). 



4fi APTERA. 

Lepismids are common oiiougli, tliough all may belong to the 
above species ; tliey slum light, live behind books among paper and in 
dark corners and arc supposed to feed on starchy and sugary matter. 
Their body is clothed with flat scales which give them a greasy feel 
and the shiny appearance that characterises them. The surface of 
paper is commonly eaten by these insects probably because of the 
material used in glazing it and they can be in this way destructive. 

CoUemhoIa. 

We are not aware of any described Indian species and only a few 
have been collected or observed. Species of the first two families 
appear to be common in damp situations as in decaying vegetable matter 
and wet moss, under stones by streams, where water drips and undei' 
bark. In general one finds such conditions for so bi'ief a time in the 
plains that these delicate insects are probably not abundant, though 
they are so in the hills. 

Collecting. — Though of no economic importance, this order is well 
worth studying. The best method of collecting is to use a camel-hair 
brush which is dipped into a mixture of glacial acetic acid and strong 
alcohol and with which the little insects can be caught and put in a 
tube of this mixture. They are afterwards transferred to 70% spirit. 
Berlese's funnel trap is a good method of separating these insects from 
leaves, moss, etc. 



PLATE I. 



1 





cercus 



(arc V4^C 1 




y « 



or-^'-tx/ia 



PL.\TE I. — OuTHOrTEllA 



Fig. 1. Forficulid. 
„ 2. Blattid 
„ 3. Mantid 
„ 4. Pliasinid. 

Aciidiid. 

Locustid. 

Giyllid. 



ORTHOPTERA. 



The antennae filiform or setaceous, of variable length. The mouthparts 
mandibulate, of the herbivorous type. The first pair of wings (tegmina) 
thickened, coloured or ornamented, narrow with nearly parallel sides. 
The second pair of wings large, membranous, with many fine nervures, 
hyaline and often coloured, folded below the first pair in repose. The 
forelegs formed for running or for capturing prey. The hind legs formed 
for running or leaping, in the latter case long and poweiful Cerci are 
usually present. There is no perfect metamorphosis, the young differing 
from the adult chiefly in size, colour and the absence of functional wings 
and reproductive organs. A small proportion ne\/ev become winged. 
The imaginal life is often longer than the nymphal life and occupies 
the greater part of active life. The order includes moderate to large 
sized insects, the majority scavengers or herbivores, a part predaceous 
on other insects. None are aquatic, social, or parasitic in living plants 
or insects. 

The order is divided into seven clearly defined families, four of which 
form one series in which the hind legs are normal, three of which form 
a second series in which the hind legs are long and formed for leaping. 

Forficididip. Abdomen terminates in forceps. Teg- 
mina shortened. (Plate 1, fig. 1). 

BJaithJce. Flattened, head deflexed, coxa' large. 

(Plate 1, fig. 2). 

Muntida. Forelegs raptorial. Prothorax long. 
(Plate 1, fig. 3). 

Phasmidcp. Mesothorax long. (Plate 1, fig. 4). 

Acridiidw. Antenna' short. Auditory organ on ab- 
domen. (Plate 1, fig. 5). 

Locustidcp. Antenna' long. Auditory organ on fore- 
tibia. Tarsi four-jointed. (Plate l,fig. 6). 

GryUidw. Antenna> long.* Auditory organ on 
fore-tibia. Tarsi three-jointed. Teg- 
mina angled. (Plate 1, fig. 7). 

" Except Tridnnty/hifi loco^'nisablc by the absence of hind tarsi and Oryllotalpa. 



Hind legs 

NORMAL. 



Hind leg.s 

FORMED 
FOR LEAPING. 



48 ORTHOPTEEA. 

Whilst these families are in the main clearly distinct, their relation- 
ships are by no means clear. Many entomologists regard the Forficidi- 
dw as a separate order (Euplexoptera). Blattidce are a geologically an- 
cient family whose connection with present day insects is not clear. 
Phasmidce are also an ancient family from which may have branched 
the MantidcB on one side, the AcridiidcB as well as the Locustidw and 
Gryllidae on the other. The last two are nndonbtedly closely allied 
and such aberrant forms as Schizodactijhis may well be placed in 
either. 

GnjllidcB is much more an aggregation of divergent tribes which 
may or may not have a common ancestor and so be included in one 
family, than is for instance Acridiidce which is a homogenous family. 
Until further evidence is available, a reasonable view is to vegaid Blattida 
and Phasmidce as two archaic families still existing in a slightly modified 
form, from the latter of which descended the carnivorous Mantidw on 
one side, the common ancestor of the Acridiidce and the herbivorous 
LocustidcE on the other, from which we have the carnivorous Locxistidce, 
the burrowing crickets (from some such form as Schizodactylus), the 
various other tribes of GryUidce from other forms of primitive Locus- 
tidce. The Forficulidce are possibly an off-shoot from a primitive form 
of a Blattid ancestor and although retaining the characters of the 
primitive Orthopterous ancestor, are now distinct; it is equally probable 
that they are a distinct family more closely related to the primitive an- 
cestor of the Coleoptera. Whatever view may be held by science when 
more information is available, these seven families are usefully aggregat- 
ed in one order and the separate families are, as a rule, easy to distin- 
guish. It is unfortunate that the name Locvsta should have been applied 
by Linnieus to an insect that is not sufficiently close to the "locusts" to 
be in the same family ; the result is that taking the family name from the 
oldest named member, Locustidce does not include ' 'locusts' ' which are 
Acridiidce. Entomologists sometimes evade the difficulty by naming 
the Locustid family Phasyonuridce or by transposing the names and ap- 
plying the name Locustidce to the Acridiidce. Mr. Kirby calls our Acridi- 
ids, Locustidce, ourLocustids, Phasyonuridce, and our Gryllids, Achetidce. 

The more important papers are the following : — 
Stal, Recensio Orthopterorum (1873), Brunner, Revision du Sys- 
teme des Orthopteres (1893). Walker — Catalogue of Dermaptera Sal- 



FORFICULID.K. 



49 



tatoria (18W)-1871). Bolivar — Orthopteres de St. Josepli's College (Ann. 
Soc. Ent. France, 1897, p. 282; 1899, p. 7G1 ; 1901, p. 580). 

ForficuliDjE. — Earwigs. 

Slender insects, the forewimjs short and covering the hindwings, which 

are large and radially folded ; the abdomen terminates in a 

pair of processes formed like forceps. 




Fig. 5— An earwig with expanded wings. 

The earwigs are medium-sized insects, rarely exceeding half an inch 
in length, rarely less than one quarter of an inch. The forceps at the 
extremity of the abdomen is characteristic of the family and while very 
diverse in form, is at once recognizable. There is a superficial resem- 
blance to the Staphylinid beetles but the latter never have forceps. The 
colours are sombre, black, brown and chestnut predominating; none 
are brightly coloured but all have the dull colour of insects that live in 
concealment or on the surface of the soil. 

The head and body are somewhat flattened, the legs of moderate 
length, adapted to running swiftly on the surface of the soil. The an- 
tennae are about half the length of the body, composed of a number of 

IIL 4 



50 ORTHOPTERA. 

almost moniliform joints. The mouthparts are of the mandibulate type, 
the mandibles formed for crushing the food, the labium and maxillee for 
further mastication of the crushed food. The labial and maxillary 
pulps are apparently tactile organs, used to determine the nature of the 
food. The compound eyes are large with many facets; the thorax is 
of moderate size, its parts little coadapted ; the upper wings (tegmina) 
are short and thickened, rarely covering more than the base of the ab- 
domen. The lower wings fold into small compass, but are large, round, 
with short radial ribs, the outer part folding back on the basal, the basal 
folding radially as a fan does ; this wing is a beautiful structure, which 
can be opened with care and in which the method of closing is more com- 
plex than in the wings of any other insect. The abdomen is often 
broader than the rest of the body, the segments imbricate, terminating 
in the forceps which are in some species half the length of the whole body. 
These forceps vary immensely in size and structure in different species 
and are not constant in length even in the same sex of some species. 
Those of the male are commonly larger; bilateral symmetry is not 
always preserved, and in a few, one limb crosses the other. The sexes 
are similar in general appearance; the male, however, having a greater 
number (nine) of visible ventral segments, the female having only 
seven. There are wingless forms, also some in which the tegmina are 
reduced to functionless lobes. These species resemble the young of 
winged species, but the latter have a softer integument, less developed 
forceps and a smaller number of joints in the antenn«>. 

Little is known of the life history and habits of Indian earwigs, 
though that little agrees with what is known of the family elsewhere. Of 
these insects, as a whole, it may be said that the round white eggs are 
laid in a mass in the ground or in shelter, the female in some cases re- 
maining with them until they hatch. The young are white at first and 
while similar in general form to the adults are likely to be mistaken for 
Thysanura. The transformation is a gradual one, the number of moults 
not being known. The following account from Cuvier's Natural History 
relates to Forficula auricularia, Linn, the European Earwig : — 

"This curious insect," observes Mr. Kirby, " so unjustly traduced 
by vulgar prejudice — as if the Creator had willed that the insect world 
should combine within itself examples of all that is most remarkable in 



FORFICULID.E. 



51 



every other department in nature — still more nearly approaches the 
habits of the hen in the care of her family — she absolutely sets upon her 
eggs, as if to hatch them — a fact which Frisch appears first to have no- 
ticed — and guards them with the greatest care. Degeer, having found 
an earwig thus occupied, removed her into a box where there was some 
earth, and scattered the eggs in all directions. She soon, however, col- 
lected them, one by one, with her jaws, into a heap, and assiduously sat 
upon them as before. The young ones which resemble the parent, ex- 
cept in wanting elytra and wings, and, strange to say, are, as soon as 
born, larger than the eggs which contained them, immediately upon 
being hatched, creep like a brood of chickens under the belly of the mo- 
ther who very quietly suffers them to push between her feet and will 
often, as Degeer found, sit over them in this posture for some hours. 
This remarkable fact I have myself witnessed, having found an earwig 
under a stone which accidentally turned over, setting upon a cluster 
of young ones, just as this celebrated naturalist has described." 

Diplatys longisetosa, Westw. has a remark- 
able nymph (fig. 6), in which the abdomen 
terminates in a pair of long many-jointed pro- 
cesses, of which the basal joint, at the final 
moult, is transformed into the forceps (Green, 
Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1898, p. 381 [Dys- 
critina] ). 

Equally little is recorded or known of the 
food of earwigs. Apparently it consists of decay- 
ing vegetable matter, of pollen, of the sap of 
plants and possibly often of small insects or other 
small forms of animal life. Earwigs are found in 
decaying trees, under bark, among rotting vege- 
tation and the deposit of leaves under trees, under 
stones, in flowers, in the tangled roots of plants 
(e.(j., sugarcane), and in other similar situations; 
they hide away and live principally under 
shelter in damp places. Their form is adapted 

Fi..6-DiPLATYSLONG,8E.*° ™"""^g l"^''^^^^ ^'^^ easily amoug leaves, 
TosA, NYMPH. grass roots, etc., and flight is but rarely utilised, 

{After Green). o ? ? < v 




52 ORTHOPTERA. 

Labidura lividipes and L. riparia, fly at night and come frequently to 
light, the only Forficulids observed to have this habit. They are not 
formed for actual burrowing, but are part of the Fauna of the surface of 
the ground, as are the Carahidw, BlattidcB, Tenebrionidw, Lygceidce, etc. ; 
less is known of this "surface fauna" than of any other, from the great 
difficulty of observation. The function of the forceps is a mystery that 
will be cleared up only when their food-habits and general life are 
better understood. It has been suggested that the forceps, though 
not actual weapons of defence, appear as such and give the insect a more 
formidable appearance which protects them against the enemies that 
occur in their habitat; a few species can actually use their forceps as 
feeble pinching organs and the power to do so may have been more 
fully developed in the more primitive species; there is also some 
reason to believe that the forceps are useful in carrying out the rather 
complex folding of the hind wing ; neither explanation is a satisfactory 
one. 

Earwigs are most active in the rains and damp weather, being de- 
pendent upon moderately damp conditions ; in irrigated lands they are 
active throughout the year except when cold drives them to hibernation 
in shelter, as happens in colder parts of the plains. There appear to be 
no definite seasons for reproduction, and individuals of different ages 
may be found at any time. None are recorded as pests in India, though 
they are often believed to be injurious owing to their habit of coming 
to wounded tissues of plants to obtain sap ; they are thus found under 
very compromising conditions, but investigation has shown that the in- 
jury was caused by other insects, and there is no reason to believe that 
any can be regarded as pests. A few are constant frequenters of the 
sea-shore and are found almost throughout the world among the sea- 
weed and debris thrown up on the beach. 

Earwigs are found throughout the temperate and tropical parts of 
the globe ; they are less common in India than in other countries, but a 
fair number of species are already known from India. They do not fall 
into well-marked sub-families and may be regarded as a distinct and 
fairly homogeneous family. Bormans and Krauss describe 70 species 
from India including Burmah, the majority being Burmese species. 
Kirby's catalogue gives only 48 as Indian, and more have been described 



FORFICULID.E. 



53 



from India by Burr; this does not include species found in Ceylon only. 
The number of known species will be increased when more attention is 
paid to this group in India, and some of the commonest species have 
been found to be undescribed. The student should consult Burr's 
paper on Ceylon Forficulidije (Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XIV, 59), 
his papers on Indian species (Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1905, p. 27 ; 
and 1906, p. 387); and his revision of part of the family (Trans. Ent. 
Soc, London, 1907, p. 91). 

Diplatys is represented by several sub-tropical species ; D. longi- 
setosrt, Westw. is marked by the long multi-articulate setae of the nymph, 
the basal joint of which is stated to be- 
come the forceps of the adult. Forci- 
pula has three species in India ; Labidura 
is represented by several species. L. 
riparia, Pall. L. bengalensis, Dohrn. (fig. 7) , 
and L. lividipes Duf. are common in grass 
and are obtainable in numbers when a 
grass lawn is flooded with water. An- 
isolabis maritima, Gene, is a world-wide 
species, found in sea-weed on the beach. 
A. annulipes, Luc. is a wingless species, 
found abundantly in the plains on the 
soil. Labia minor, L., is a common insect 
not only in Asia but in Europe, Africa 
and America, found in flowers and on 
plants, rarely seen on the wing by day. 
(lielisoches is represented by nine species, 
C. morio, Fabr. being spread over 
the coasts of the South Pacific and 
Indian Oceans. C. melanocephalus, Dohrn. has been found commonly 
in sugarcane roots and also in the tunnels of the borer caterpillars in 
the cane. Apterygida gravidula, Gerst. is widespread and there are 
other species of this genus. Several species of Forficula are recorded, 
though the widespread F. auricularia, L., the common earwig of 
Europe, has not been found. 

Collecting. — Earwigs will be found only by patient search if the)' are 
to be specially collected. In the course of general collecting one finds 




Fig. 7— Labidur.\ bengalensis. 



54 orthopterA. 

them in flowers, under stones, among decaying vegetation and fallen 
leaves, among debris on the beach. Some are found in houses, especially 
in damp places, such as bathrooms in the hot weather ; others will be 
found at the roots of plants in the cold weather. Many come to sap, 
or are found in bored canes or in other situations where the sap of a 
plant is exposed. A few come to light, but this is rarely a useful me- 
thod of collecting them. When caught, they should be killed in a 
cyanide or B. C. bottle and pinned through the right wingcase. Care 
is needed to open the left lower wing, though this is not usually 
necessary. 



WHERE INSECTS LIVE. 

Insects are small creatures and very abundant; where are they all? 
At some times in the year one can easily gather at least one hundred 
thousand insects within one day over a space of, say a few acres; at 
another time there would not appear to be an insect obtainable in that 
space and yet the insects must be somewhere. It is when one comes to 
try to answer this question that one realizes the absolute truth of the 
statement that insects are to be found everywhere on the surface of the 
earth within a narrow zone which includes 20 feet of the solid soil, the 
vegetation that stretches vip from the soil for some 100 feet, and to a 
slight extent the air above. Excepting for the moment the artificial 
erections of man, we are not far from the truth in saying that this zone 
is very completely occupied by insect life in some form or other. It may 
be hoped that light will be thrown on this point some day by the very 
careful investigation of the fauna of, say one square mile of the earth's 
surface, including this zone we speak of, covering average areas of fallow, 
crop, grass land, bush, jungle and forest. The number of actual living 
insects in some form or other will be surprising. Commencing, say 20 
feet down, there are the deeply burrowing insects, the termites, the dung 
beetles, the Cicadid nymphs, and the crickets ; within six feet of the sur- 
face we come to the insects that burrow, but do not go so deep ; the ants 
are conspicvious examples, as are all the above-mentioned insects which 
cannot go deep in some soils; Scarabaeid grubs are near the surface, as 
are Tipulid maggots, Cicindelid grubs ; nearer still to the surface are 
the surface crickets which only make tunnels as shelters, the many 
digger wasps and other boring Aculeates, the burrows of some Carabids, 
such as Anthia ; quite near the surface our fauna might be immense if we 
dug in winter, as we should find the countless pup» of the hibernating 
beetles, of moths, of Diptera ; we should also find the many adults 
which seek shelter there, as well as abundant egg masses and many 
half-grown larvas not yet ready to pupate. At any season there 



WHERE IXSKtTS LIVE. 55 

would be many such, not hibernating, l>ut jnijiating or feeding or in tiie 
egg stage. The fauna of tliese few inciies woukl be of great interest, 
and we venture to assert that, in India at least, much light would be 
thrown on many insects' life-histories were it better known. Coniing 
to the actual surface a large fauna would reward us where any fallen 
leaves and the like offered shelter and food ; we have referred often to 
this fauna, a \ery extensive medley of black and dark brown insects, 
such as Ear»vi<js, Cockchafers. Embiids. Carabids, Staphylinids. Clavi- 
oornia of many families, Tenebrionid and other beetles, as well as the 
Cydnine division of the Pentatomida', the Lyga?ida?, the Reduviids and 
the C'apsids ; besides these there are the abundant larvaj of beetles, of 
Diptera a few of Lepidoptera. probably outnumbering all the remain- 
der and teeming in favourite places. A square foot of good soil covered 
in leaf mould offers a great variety anywhere, and it is only on very dry 
or hard soil that one can anywhere find a square foot unoccupied and 
usually no square inch. This little part of our zone is one centre, tb.e 
home of the light-shunning surface fauna which works at night and which 
makes uji so large and so unknown a portion of the fauna. It may be 
noted that this part of our fauna is probably far less imj^ortant in sub- 
tropical India than it is in tropical India, the surface fauna in the former 
being comparatively small. Above that we are on surer ground and the 
variety is not so confusing ; for each part of our plants will have their 
ow;i fauna ; the stems contain borers, the Buprestids, Cerambycids, 
Pyralids, Cossids and the like ; the bark shelters multitudes if it is 
at all loose or decomposing and here again is a centre of activity, 
nor rivalling our chief centre but very important and crowded ; 
even the outside of our stems and trunks has cocoons and such like, as 
well as a whole fauna of its own in the case of a large tree round which 
debris collects. No one has ever described the fauna of the heap of de- 
caying leaves, bark, etc., found round the base of the trunk of a large 
pipal, for instance, which is the home of numberless insects, the resting 
place of pupae, the place of deposition of eggs. Our low plants have their 
own fauna, a very large one too, of herbivorous caterpillars, of leafniining 
Diptera, Coleoptera and Microlepidoptera, of gall insects, of the seed- 
eating species of caterpillars, of the sucking bugs and aphids ; apart from 
theplant, thetwofeet orso of air space round the plants teems with the 
active flving forms, with bees and wasps, with butterflies and beetles, 
with flies and grasshoppers, all the lives that lives on and round and among 
low plants. It is this fauna which is, in moist sub-tropical India, with 
its immense flora, so extensive and which is of much greater relative im- 
portance in this zone than it is in tropical India. A reduplication of this 
fauna is found higher up, in or among the taller forms of vegetation, 
such as bamboos and grasses and to a large extent this fauna is quite dis- 
tinct if, as is true, human beings live wholly in the six feet of air space 
Iving immediately over the soil, so also insects are largely restricted each 
to its particular zone, and we believe there is a very distinct and peculiar 
fauna of the air at the tree levels ; the dancing insects that mav be seen 



5G ORTHOPTERA. 

in such myriads on a clear still day are certainly peculiar, and it is at 
least probable that a number never come, in this form, within our ken, 
but remain at higher levels ; then too no one knows what insects are 
found in the air above the trees or how far this zone extends ; what do 
swallows get when they are hawking high up, far above the trees ? Ait- 
ken speaks of a butterfly {Melanitis ismene) soaring far above into the 
air and no one knows what countless forms of winged insects may not go 
to these levels as soon as they emerge. There must be a limit to this 
zone, but we would hesitate where to put it unless, for the plains, we give 
an outside hmit of, say 3,000 feet. When the day of flying machines 
dawns we shall certainly find insects of interesting kinds above the trees, 
and we should like to see ' ' kite ' ' nets emj^loyed to investigate the 
fauna. 

It is perhajjs not unjjrofitable to consider, in the light of the above 
remarks, how little of our insect world we probably know or attempt 
to know. In this country, progress beyond the stage of classifying and 
naming the insects most easily got has scarcely been made at all and this 
must come first ; but it is certain that the only insects that have been 
found, named and placed in Museums are those which fly by day, or 
which live on bushes, etc., above ground, or which come to light. A 
great number of insects come to light, notably perhaps a part of the 
' 'surface soil fauna' ' and other retiring insects ; but we do not know that 
there are not hordes which never come to light, which are never seen, 
and of which we are quite ignorant. Thi.s is true probably of all countries 
and the fauna of the soil, except as regards the large forms, is extremely 
little known even where naturahsts and collectors abound. (The same 
is to some extent true of freshwater.) How much more will this not be 
the case with the tropics, especially with the drier parts where much of 
the fauna is known to go to the soil. We know from experiment that 
many species go to the surface soil to sjjend the hot weather ; but there 
are no records that they were ever found there ; pxit out a light trap on a 
still moist evening during the monsoon and see the countless insects 
that come and the number of kinds ; very many are never found in any 
other way, yet they and how many more, must be hidden somewhere. 



Blattid^. — Cockroaches. 

Flattened insects, the large forewings lying fiat on the abdomen, 

comnletehj covering the hindwings. Coxce large and covering 

the lower surface of the thorax. The head 

turned down and hidden from above. 

Cockroaches have a very characteristic general appearance and are 

usually recognizable at sight ; they include small fragile insects of a 



BLATTID.E. 



57 



quarter of an inch in length to larger robust forms which measure nearly 
two inches. They are coloured in sombre sheds of brown and black, 
only a few species with conspicuous bands or spots of yellow or orange 
which may constitute a degree of warning coloration and are usually 
found in the diurnal species living to some extent exposed. The an- 
tennae are long and filiform, functioning as delicate sense organs ; the 
mouth-parts are of the non-predaceous biting type, the mandibles short 
and massive, the labial and maxillary palpi well developed. The body 
is generally soft, the chitinous plates of the integument not firmly united 
and the chitin usually less thick than in other insects. The flattened 

body and slippery surface 
enable the insect to hide 
in crevices and render it 
more difficult to capture. 
The abdomen terminates 
in a pair of short jointed 
cerci, whose precise func- 
tion is not known. The 
legs are long, thickly 
spined and formed for 
quick running ; the first 
pair are reduced in some 
species. (Fig. 8.) Males 
and females are generally 
similar in appearance, the 
former in some instances 
with a pair of slender 
stvles at the genital open- 
ing. In several species the 
wings and tegnima are absent or only imperfectly developed, this being 
correlated with the general disuse of the wings throughout the family. 
It is difficult to distinguish the wingless adult from a nymph of a winged 
form ; the presence of lobes at the hind angles of the mesonotum and 
metanotum shows the insect to be a nymph of a winged species, in most 




-POLYPHAGA .EOYPTIATA. 
From below. 



The life-history of all known species agrees in the general features. 



58 



ORTHOPTERA. 



Eggs 'are laid in the forms of a caj^sule, (fig. 9) a brown hard structure 
of characteristic form containing a considerable number of eggs. In 
Periplaneta americana, out of seven egg-capsules, four contained 16 
«ggs, two contained 18 and one only 12. Each capsule consists of a 




Fig. ri.— Styloygia KHdMBIFOLIA. 
Ad III/ f email- mid eijij-euse. 

tlouble row of cigar-shaped eggs, surrounded by a chitinous coating 
which is joined by a wavy line which runs along the one end of the 
rows of eggs ; when the eggs hatch, this line opens, allowing the young 
emerge. It is probable that the expansion of the eggs before hatching, 
a common phenomenon, is the cause of the opening of the egg-capsule, 
but it is also stated that the cement joining the edges is softened by a 
fluid secreted by the embryo just before hatching. The egg-capsule 
is not always deposited by the female as soon as formed, but is in some 
species carried in the oviduct almost until hatching ; in a few foreign 
species this habit is carried to the extreme, and the eggs are carried till 
the young hatch. An egg cluster of Periplaneta americana laid on the 
2nd July, hatched on 27th July and the nymphs were only half-grown at 



BLATTID.K. 59 

the end of the following April. The young which eniergo from the egg- 
capsule are in general form similar to the adult, the skin softer, the 
antennto and cerci with fewer joints, the wings absent. The number of 
moults is not known ; in captivity, development is slow, the common 
household species (Periplaneta americana), requiring several months to 
come to maturity. There is reason to believe this is the case also with 
the free-living species, and since the possession of wings is usually a 
matter of slight importance and the habits remain unchanged, there 
would not appear to be any necessity for quick nymphal development. 
The total length of the life history is not known, but the imaginal, like 
the nymphal, life is probably comparatively long. 

In all stages, cockroaches are found amongst fallen leaves, on the 
surface of the soil, under stones, in thick grass, and on trees and plants- 
The majority are nocturnal, living in concealment on the surface of the 
soil and forming a part of the large "surface fauna." The tree and 
bush species are diurnal in habit. A few are household insects living in 
buildings and these are undoubtedly wild free-living species which have 
migrated into man's dwellings. The food consists of dead animal and 
vegetable matter; these insects are "scavengers" and none is known 
to feed on living plant tissue or to attack living insects. Plant sap, de- 
caying plant tissue, dead insects and the like probably represents the 
food of the free-living species. The household species have the same 
food-habits, a great variety of animal and vegetable substances forming 
their food while their dead brethren are freely eaten when hunger 
presses. Nothing is known as to the activities of Indian species during 
the different seasons. Hibernation, where necessary, is apparently pass- 
ed in any stage and there appear to be no special "seasons" when 
cockroaches breed. Excessive cold, excessive heat, drought or hunger 
cause a cessation of reproduction, development and activity but no 
definite seasons have been made out. No species is known as a pest, 
though those which live in houses are objectionable and destructive. 

Since these insects are dependent upon crumbs, scraps, and access to 
human food, cleanliness and care should prevent them thriving. Where 
they are abundant, the simplest precaution is the use of borax, mixed 
with double its weight of syrup, as a poison ; many ingenious traps are 
also useful when baited with intoxicating liquor. The principal check 



60 



ORTHOPTERA. 



on cockroaches are egg-parasites ; the ichneunaoiis of the genus Evama 
lay their eggs in the egg capsules of cockroaches and the household 
species are not exempt from attack. Field cockroaches are attacked by 
fossorial wasps of the genus Ampulex, which sting them, deposit them 
in holes or crevices and lay an egg on them. The unpleasant odour of 
the household cockroaches is probably protective and is due to the se- 
cretion of liquid from glands placed between the 5th and (ith abdominal 
segments. (Minchin, Q. J. M. S., XXIX.) 

It is known that cockroaches contain internal parasites belonging 
to the Gregarine division of the Protozoa, as well as parasitic bacteria, 
Nematodes (Oxyuris), Hair worms (Gordius) and a Filaria. It is also 
probable that the large centipedes which enter houses in India are 

seeking blattids. Rats also feed on 
cockroaches. 

The family is a comparatively large 
one, with many described species, 
occurring in all parts of the globe. 
The majority of the Indian species 
are described by Brunner and Bolivar. 




Kirby's recent catalogue of the fami- 
ly lists 123 Indian species, which 
probably include the majority of the 
larger forms. The family is being 
listed by R. Shelford in Genera In- 
sectorum ; it is divided into eleven 
tribes by Brunner, but it is unneces- 
sary to consider these in this place. 
Phyllodromia (Blatta) germanica, Linn. 
is one of the common small species 
found in houses in India and now cosmopolitan, probably introduced 
to India from Europe. P. humbertiana, Sauss. (cognata) {fig. 10) is a 
small brown species, the prothorax marked with black and light brown. 
It is perhaps the most common field species, found among decaying 
vegetation and also on trees ; its eggs are laid on the leaves and bark of 
trees. On the soil is its wingless nymph, a small black insect with me- 
dian and lateral light stripes. Phijllodromia suppellectilium, Serv., is 



Fiff. 10— Phyllodromia humber- 

TI.iNA. X 2§. 



blattid.t:. 



61 




11— PERIPLANETA AUSTRALASI.fi. 



the small household species, common throughout the tropics ; it is 
winged, of a brown colour with varied dark markings. 

Stijlopyija (Blatta) orientalis, Linn, is a widespread species, believed 
to have been introduced to Europe from tropical Asia and now carried 

over the world in ships. It is a dark 
coloured insect of a length of a little 
over an inch ; the tegmina do not 
reach to the apex of the abdomen 
and cover only the basal five 
segments. The males alone are 
winged. The development in Europe 
is stated to occupy as much as 
four years, the duration of each 
instar being very long. Sti/Jopyi/a 
rlwmhi folia, StoU. (fig. 9) is a larger 
wingless form, brown, with varied 
yellow markings, found also in houses. This is the most common 
household species next to the large winged Periplaneta australasicB, F. 
Periplaneta includes the two large cockroaches so common in houses 
and on board ships. Both are winged, red brown with lighter markings 
on the pro thorax. P. anstralasio', Fabr. (fig. 11) is smaller than P- 
americana, Linn, the prothorax more wholly dark. The latter has the 
startling habit of flying about in the house before rain falls and is 
accounted a reliable weather prophet. This habit is possibly a relic 
of the instinct of its original free-living ancestor, which flew up into 
safety before the fall of heavy rain. Rhijparobia maderw, Fabr. is a 
cosmopolitan species, carried over the world by commerce. Leucophcea 
surinamensis, Linn, is a smaller thickset insect, the prothorax black, 
the tegmina brown ; it is common in the open and is widespread over 
the tropics. Panesthia regal is, Wlk. is a peculiarly striking species, 
black with a broad band of orange across the tegmina. It is one of 
the rarer plains' species. Corydia petiveriana. Linn, is a beautiful 
cockroach of South India, the tegmina having large white spots. Hete- 
rogamia (Polyphaga) indica, Wlk. resembles a large round woodlouse, 
wingless and nearly circular in outline. 

Collecting. — Cockroaches are found by searching under stones, 
among fallen leaves, on herbage and bushes, on the bark of trees, and 



62 ORTHOPTERA. 

among the debris that accumulates at the foot of the trunk of a large 
tree. The smaller ones are found also in thick (doab) grass in the hot 
weather. Syrup or fruit juice smeared on the bark of trees is a good 
bait but unless this is alcoholised, it must be examined soon after dark ; 
if strongly alcoholised the insects get drunk and may be found at any 
time in the night till dawn. A few species are attracted by light. When 
caught and killed, they should be pinned through the right tegmen near 
the base, the legs and antennae set. Rearing is slow and difficult ; the 
right conditions of moisture and food must be given with plenty of 
shelter and space. 



COSMOPOLITAN INSECTS. 

A CONSIDERABLE number of insects have been carried by man from 
one country to another and have succeeded in establishing themselves 
not in one country only but in a large number of countries ; the spread 
of these insects is continuing and they will in time be world wide. 
These species are to a large extent those which can live in houses, or 
which infest grain and other merchandise, or which have been carried 
on living animals and plants. Naturally the household and grain 
insects predominate, since commerce is carried on between large cities 
in which these insects thrive, whereas those infesting plants have not the 
same chance of surviving in all cases. Many of our common house- 
hold insects are cosmopolitan ; the common silver fish of houses is 
now widespread and will become more so ; the Cockroaches, Stylopyga 
orientalis, Periflaneta aniericana and P. australasiw, RJitjparobia 
maderce and LeucopJiwa surinamensis, are common in India as else- 
where ; with them have gone their parasite Evania appendigaster, now 
a common insect and met with on board ship. It is probable that our 
household Psocids are also the same as the European though we are 
not aware that this has yet been substantiated. Ants, {e.g., Monomo- 
riwm) as is well known, constantly come with shipments of goods and 
establish themselves successfully in new cities. 

A host of beetles are cosmopolites. Hamilton gives a list of 100 
beetles which he styles cosmopolite or nearly so ; this refers more 
especially to Europe and North America and indicates how large a 
number of insects have been carried by commerce and have succeeded 
in establishing themselves in new countries. Only a small number 
of these appear to originate in the East. 

The following are Cosmopolitan beetles apparently found in India, 
some possibly originating there (indicated by*). 



COSMOPOLITAN INSECTS. 63 

Silvanus surinamensis. * Sitodrepa fanicea. 
LcBmophlwus jerrugineus. Dinoderus pusillus. 

„ pusillus. Bruchus chinensis. 

Dermestes vulpinus. ,, eniarginatus. 

CarpopMlus hemipterus. * Tenebrio molitor Linn. 

Trogosita mauritanica. * Triholinm ferrugineum. 

Necrobia rufipes. * ,, ronfusmn. 

Necrobia rufi.colh's. * Calandra oryzce. 

Necrobia violacen. * ,, granaria. 

Gibbium scotins. Ara>cerus jascindatus. 

Among Lepidoptera some of the genus Ephestia are constantly car- 
ried and are now almost universal ; so also are such forms as Tinea 
pellionella, SctO'»iorpha rutella, and other clothes moths. Of the flies, 
we know of few ; Eristalis tcnax is widespread and the common house- 
flies such as Musca doniestica are world wide, as are some of the fleas ; 
the cheese maggot, Piophila casei is also carried in its food and 
establishes itself successfully. 

Finally the malodorous bug Cimex hctularius is sufficiently familiar. 
The above are all household or grain pests and would naturally be 
readily spread. Amongst animal pests it is sufficient to mention the fly 
Stomoxys calcitrans established throughout India, as well as the three 
bot flies of the horse, cow and sheep, (ticks also are carried). When 
we turn to plant parasites, there are fewer true cosmopolite? since the 
vegetation varies so much, and since climatic conditions affect the 
insects more. (See Agric. Journ., India, III, No. 3. " Introduced 
Insect Pests." ) Many scale insects are extremely widespread and nume- 
rous species are known to have been carried, some reaching India. In 
fact, the introduction of living plants is practically certain to mean the 
introduction of scale insects if precautions are not taken. We can 
enumerate 25 species probably introduced to or from India, and 
we have seen more than one on consignment of plants from abroad. 
How our Aphids reached India is not clear but our worst are all cosmo- 
polites and have probably come on plants. Of other insects, it is ex- 
tremely hard to speak ; a few are cosmopolitan, such as Chloridea 
obsoleta, Danais plexippus, Vanessa cardui, Hellula undalis, Nomophila 
noctuella. Phitella maculipennis, but there is no evidence that they are 
spread by man and this cosmopolitanism possibly antedates man. 
Phthorimcea operculella is a widespread insect introduced to India 
probably in recent years and is the sole instance of its class we know of. 

We have barely touched the fringe of this subject as alone is possible 
in this place. Enough has been said to show that insects are carried by 
man and though India has not suffered from this cause, as for instance 
America and the West Indies have, yet when more is known it may be 
found that India has got nearly as much as she has given. 



64 



ORTHOPTERA. 



Mantid^. — Preying Mantises. 

The forelegs raptorial, long, the femora and tibice spiny. 
The head deflexed. The prothorax elongate. 

A moderately large family, recognizable by the raptorial forelegs, 
in which the tibia works in opposition to the femur like the blades of a 




Fig. l'2-HlEROUULA COARCTATA. 
And left cercus. 

scissors, and both are wholly or partially spined. Where this character is 
insufficient to separate from Phasmidw, the length of the prothorax is 
sufficient, this being short in the latter family. Mantises are commonly 
of large size and include no insects of less length than half an inch while 
some attain to four and even six inches. In appearance, these insects 
are extremely striking, including some of the most picturesque and 
bizarre forms of insect life. The form and colour is cryptic, designed to 
produce a resemblance to natural objects in their surroundings which is 
extremely marked. Many are stick-like, elongate, coloured in tones of 
brown and black as is a dry twig : in these, the attitude assists the 
deception, the creature poising itself on its posterior legs and swaying 



MANTIDiE. 65 

lightly from side to side as if moved h}' the breeze. Others that live in 
grass are slender and grass coloured, either "dry grass colour," greeu or 
green with the antenn* and cerci coloured like the dry tips of withered 
grass. Others are leaf green, living among the leaves of bushes or are 
the colour of bark and are found on tree trunks. The most striking 
instance is the Orchid munt'is, Gongylusgongyloides, -which is a floral simu- 
lator, the body and wings so formed as to suggest a flower when a par- 
ticular attitude is assumed. In this attitude, the lower surface suggests 
a blue flower, and insects coming to it are destroyed by the forelegs. 
Williams (Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond., 190-i, p. 125) states that the upper 
surface can be so arranged as to simulate an orchid flower, this being 
primarily as a means of defence (cryptic), the blue flower resemblance 
alone being used to obtain food. In general the cryptic form and 
colour serves the double object of protecting the insect from foes and 
allowing it to be invisible to other insects which it captures when they 
come within reach. 

The antennff' are filiform, in some short and inconspicuous, in 
others long. The head is elongate, sometimes produced at the apex, the 
compound eyes are large, the head very mobile and the insect has a 
curious habit of turning the head to look intelligently even at a 
human being as if it really saw it. The mouthparts are similar to 
those of the rest of the order, short biting mouthparts, the mandibles 
not elongate as in other predaceous insects, since the prey is captured 
by the forelegs and the jaws are solely for mastication. The prothorax 
is long, sometimes nearly half the length of the body, and this is ap- 
parently an adaptation to secure great mobility for the forelegs and 
head. The forewings are of moderate size, thickened, coloured and 
covering the large folded hindwings, which are hyaline and often 
coloured. Wingless species occur but rarely, one or both sexes being 
without either tegmina or wings. Wood-Mason describes stridulatory 
structures in certain MantidcB, but there appears to be no direct evidence 
that sounds are actually produced (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1878, 
p. 263). The abdomen is often expanded in a leaf-like manner and is 
carried in striking attitudes to aid the cryptic resemblance. The abdo- 
men terminates in a pair of short cerci. The forelegs are beautifully 
formed, the tibia closing on to the femur ; as both are set with spines, an 
I insect caught in them is firmly held and can be brought up to the mouth 



66 



ORTHOPTERA. 



to be eaten. The tibia is sometimes as long as the femur, sometimes 
very short and only closing on the apex of the femur, this portion of the 
femur alone being spined, the remainder smooth. Wood-Mason des- 
cribes femoral brushes used to keep the eyes and ocelli clean and found, 
he says, in the nymphs just hatched and in all later stages (Proc. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, 1876, p. 123). The posterior legs are long and enable the 
insect to run actively, as well as to balance itself ready to turn or to dart 
forward. There are few more [ striking insects than a mantis in its 
natural habitat on a plant waiting for food ; balanced on the two pairs of 
legs, it looks from side to side, turning the head with quick motions and 
seeming to look intently from the large eyes ; the antennae are active, 
moving constantly, the forelegs drawn up under the head but ready to 
dart out ; the creature is so intent, the attitude so expectant and yet 
suggestive of cunning ; in an instant it stiffens, becomes rigid, every 
part still, the long forelegs extended ; should its prey alight near, it 
moves stealthily, stalking it as a cat does a bird, gradually drawing near 




Fig. 13— Mantid egg-mass and newly emergedi nymph, 

THE LATTEK MUCH ENLARGED. 



67 



till its forelegs strike and the insect is held securely, drawn up to the 
mouth and devoured. 

The female deposits 
her eggs in a charac- 
teristic large egg case, 
(fig. 13) fixed to a 
plant. The egg case 
is made of gummy 
matter secreted by the 
female, which comes 
out as a frothy mass, 
and sets hard in a short 
time ; taking a firm 
position on the plant, 
with head down and 
the tip of the abdomen 
touching the plant, 
she extrudes a mass of 
frothy gum and with 
the end of the abdomen 
works it into the shape 
characteristic ; as soon 
as the base is formed 
and some amount of 
gum used, eggs are 
deposited in the midst 
of the gum. The 
emission of eggs and 
gum continues, the 
eggs in the middle, the 
gum round, until the 
whole egg mass is built 
up, layer by layer, 
when she finishes it 
off with gum and the 
whole hardens to a 
watertight obj ect firm- 




Fig. 14— Deiphobe ocellata. 



C8 ORTHOPTERA. 

ly secured to the plant. The eggs are in regular rows inside the egg case 
and the whole mass will last through the winter on the plant. 
The young mantids emerge from the egg almost simultaneously and are 
small active insects often dark coloured and with a general resemblance 
to an ant (fig. 13). Shelf ord records the mimicry of the nymph of 
Hi/menopus bicortms for the nymph of a Reduviid b\ig, Euhjes amoena 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1902, p. 2.30). They are active and lead an 
active life until they are full grown. In general their habits are not 
those of the parents, the young seeking small insects on plants or on the 
soil, and only adopting the peculiar habits of their parents as they pro- 
gress towards maturity. The form and attitude of the young is fre- 
(juently very striking, though different to that of the adult, and there is 
a large field for investigation into the habits and resemblances of these 
nymphs. All are predaceous at all times of their life ; the food of the 
full grown insect is large living insects, which are caught when they come 
within reach of the waiting mantis. None are vegetarian, none arc 
injurious, but the group comes into the class we may denominate as 
' 'General Predators, ' ' feeding on such insects as come to them and not being 
specially adapted to special insects. The length of the life history is not 
known. Hibernation appears to take place chiefly in the egg stage ; 
eggmasses are laid in early November in the plains, and hatch in early 
March. This is not the only time that eggs are laid, as they may be 
found during the rains. Wood-Mason found eggs laid by Mantis sp. 
to hatch in 18 days (July 17th to August 4th), while those oi SchizocepJialo 
bicornis took 30 days (July 17th to August 16th). Nymphs and adults 
of bark-infesting species have been found in winter under the bark of 
trees, and this appears to be the normal hibernation of such as can find 
shelter. Throughout the remaining months these insects are active and 
there appear to be no special periods when they breed or multiply 
extensively. They are distributed throughout India, more abundantly 
in the jungle but still commonly in the cultivated plains. They are 
essentially tropical insects, and are rare or non-existent in temperate 
climates. The eggmasses are the habitat of parasitic Chalcidw, the 
females of which have long ovipositors with which they pierce the 
eggmass and reach the eggs within. Apparently a large proportion 
of the eggmasses are parasitised. Other enemies are not known. 



MANTID.K. 69 

Mantidw are far less numero\is tliau some other groups of Orthoptera 
and fewer species occur. 

Wood-Mason catalogued tlieil7rtM</rfff' and more recently Mr. Kirby's 
catalogue has been issued by the British Museum (Cat. of Ortli., pt. I). 
In this 82 species are listed as Indian divided as follows : — 

Amorphoscelina' 1, Heniiaphilina' 7, Chaeradodina^ 1, Mantina> 
43, Miopterygime 0, Creobotime 17, Vatinie 10, Empusiina' 3. 

The majority of Indian Mantida? belong to genera widespread over 
the Indo-Malayan region. Five genera are purely Indian, accepting 
India in the broad sense, these being Sphendale, PhijUothelys, Heterochae- 
tula, Aethalochroa and Gongylus. Empusa is widespread, having but one 
Indian species, but occurring also in Africa, South Europe and Western 
Asia. 

Creoboter tirbana, F'abr. is a common small green form, each tegmen 
with a yellow black -ringed eye-spot ; it is an active species found upon 
bushes. Hierodula Westwoodi, Sss. and H. coardata, Westw. (fig. 12) 
are the robuster green insect seen upon bushes and in crops, which are 
the most familiar ' 'Mantis' ' in India. The former has been seen eating 
Scutellera nobilis. Eremoplana microptera, Wlk. is a long slender species 
of a dull brown colour with a narrow green costal stripe, found upon low 
bushes in the plains. It comes freely to light. Humhertiella indica, 
Sss. is a smaller dull grey species found upon the bark of trees, where 
its colouring renders it very inconspicuous. Schizocephalus bicornis, L. 
is one of the most delightful of the insects one can find commonly in the 
plains. It is a very long, attenuated insect, with long slender legs, and 
with short wings folding tightly round the body. Its colouring is green 
and the antennse and anal cerci are both the colour of a dry grass blade. 
Sitting among the grass, the insect is indistinguishable from the grass 
blades round it ; its antenna' or anal cerci give the idea of grass just dry- 
ing at the tip and one may search for these insects and not find one when 
they are abundant under one's eyes at the time. They are slow in move- 
ment and the femur is armed only at the tip, the tibia very short. 

Two species of Gongylus occur in India, of which we figure one. 
G. gomjyloides, Linn. (fig. 15) is a notorious insect of which much has 
been written. G. tnvchelophyllus, Burm. is the commoner Indian 



70 ORTHOPTKRA. 



insect, a graceful creature coloured in tints of yellow and brown and 
commonly found in jungles and woods. 




Fig. 15— GONGYLU.S GONGYLOIDES. 

Collecting. — The great number of mantids are found upon bushes, 
in grass, on the bark of trees. They are most abundant upon bushes, 
rare upon small crops. A number will be found in the bag when it is 
used to sweep insects on grass. These insects should never be included 
with others in a box or bottle while alive, but should be confined sepa- 
rately or at once killed. They are best pinned through the right wing case 
or prothorax, the left wings being set. Rearing is exceedingly difficult 
in most cases, though the eggs hatch readily, as the special food of the 
young cannot be ascertained or easily procured. What is now specially 
required is careful observation of the food of these insects ; we are not 
aware of any definite observations on the food of individual Indian 
species and no proper estimate of their economic value can be made 
until we have such facts. 



PHASMID^. 



71 



PhasmiDjE. — Stick and leaf imects. 
The prothorax small , mcsothorax large. Tegmina small or absent; 
wings often absent. Cerci of one joint only. 




Fig. 16— Necroscia pholihotus. westw , male. 



12 



ORTHOPTERA. 



A smaller group of insects, distinct from Mantidce by the small 
prothorax and by the forelegs which are not formed for the capture of 
prey ; they are distinct from the jumping Orthoptera by the hind legs, 
which are not formed for leaping. None of these insects are small, 
whilst some are of great length, four to six inches being the usual size for 
the full grown ones. They present a great variety of form and colour, 
some being stick-like, others leaf-like or resembling a blade of grass, 
while others closely resemble other natural objects. The colour schemes 
bear out this cryptic form and their whole appearance is designed to 
give them so close a resemblance to their habitat that they will escape 
the observation of their foes. 

The antennsv are commonly many jointed and long. The head is 
small and not deflexed. The mesothorax is long, as is usually the meta- 
thorax in the elongated species. The legs are long, formed for walking 
and without special structures. The tegmina are small or wholly absent, 
even in forms which have large hindwings. In many species the wings 
are wholly absent either in both sexes, or in the female only. The male 
hasclaspersat the end of the abdomen, the female a ventral process which 

directs the eggs as they are 
extruded. The differences be- 
tween the sexes are often very 
great, the male small, active 
and winged; the female large, 
clumsy and unwinged. 

The eggs are laid singly, 
dropped like seeds upon the 
ground. They are often of 
peculiar form, witli very thick 
covering, and closely resembl- 
ing hard seeds. Little is known 
of the life history of Indian 
species. The young are similar 
to the adult and are stated to 
develop slowly. There is a line 
of weakness (.suture) between 
Fig. 17 -Phyllium SCYTHE, NYMPH. thc trochanter and femur, 




PHA.SMIU^. 



73 



which L'iiabk>s the insect ti) throw off a h'g witii case, tliis leg being later 
formed anew. It has been observed that not only is this useful as a ))ro- 
tection from enemies but also in moulting, as few Phasmids can moult 
successfully without remaining attached to the cast skin Uy a leg, and 
this adaptation enables the moult to be completed, though with the loss 
of a limb. (Bordage.) The food is apparently wholly vegetable 
and no cases are recorded of these insects being carnivorous ; they eat 
the leaves of plants and some ])ossibly feed upon lichens. None are 
injurious in India and their habitat is practically confined to the forest 
and jungle areas of the warniei' ])arts of India. Not much is known of 




Fig. 18— Phvllium .scythe. 



74 



ORTHOPTERA. 



Indian species and none are likely to be found in the cultivated areas. 
Westwood figures a number of Indian species (Cab. Or. Entom., 1847). 
Brunner listed 19 from Burma, and Bolivar 26 from South India. Kir- 
by's Catalogue enumerates 6.5 Indian species. 

Pulchriphijllium (Phyllium) scythe Gr. (figs. 17, 18) is a large leaf- 
like insect, whose life history is described by Murray and quoted in Sharp's 
Insects. It occurs in forest areas in Assam. 

AcRiDiiD-E. — Short-horned Grasshoppers. 
The antenncB short ; the auditory organ on the first abdominal segment ; 
the ovipositor composed of short valves formed for digging ; tarsi 
three-jointed. Hind legs long, and saltatorial. 




Fiji. 19— ACRIDIUM MELANOCORNB. 

A family which can scarcely ever be confused in the field ; the short 
antennae and leaping hind legs mark a true grasshopper at once. The 
size varies from a length of a quarter and a wing span of nearly half an 
inch to a length of over two inches and a wing span of three to four. 
The majority are less than one inch long, the smallest among the Tetri- 
ginie, the largest among the Acridiinre. Size is usually sufficiently 
constant to be valuable as an indication of species. With few exceptions 
the colour is cryptic ; the colour schemes harmonize so closely with the 
natural surroundings that the insects are difficult to see. Since the life 
is a long one and the surroundings vary with the change of season, it is 
common to find that, wliile the nymph is also cryptically coloured, the 
colour may not be the same as that of the imago. There may be two or 
more actual colour schemes in the whole life, both cryptic and adapted 



PLATE II.— The Bombay Locust. 

ACRIDIUM SUCCINCTUM. 

Fig. 4. Hopper .vfler thiid moult (in fourth stage), magnified five 

times. 
„ 5. Hopper after fourth moult (in fifth stage), magnified three 

times. 
,. fi Hopper after fifth moult (in sixlli stage), magnified twice. 

Tlie wing lobes are turned up. 
,, 7. Hopper after sixth moult (in seventh stage), magnified twice. 

(Reprinted from The Agriculturnl Journal of India.) 









■:» 



^ 




^</-' 



THE BOMBAY LOCUST. 



ACRIDIID^. 



75 



to changes of season. Young grasshoppers hatching in the rains are 
frequently green to harmonize with the growing vegetation ; this often 
gives place to "dry grass colour" in the adult which is found in October. 
Others which live on dry soil, on rocks, on moors, on sand dunes are 
coloured in shades of grey and brown with lighter markings and spots; 
in nearly all the colours are dull, and though varied, evidently cryptic. 
In the true locusts further and more striking colour changes take place, 
one of which is the "swarming colour," a vivid red, that probably facili- 
tates migration by rendering the swarm visible at a distance and enabl- 
ing all to join it. A very few are vividly coloured and undoubtedly exhibit 
warning colouring; this is correlated with the habit of living exposed 
on the plant and the young are also warningly coloured, though not 

always in the same 
tints as the adult. 
In a large number of 
cryptically coloured 
forms, we find that the 
lower wings are bright- 
ly coloured ; in flight 
this colour is very con- 
spicuous and it is not 
difficult to follow the 
j erky zigzag flight with 
the eye; but as the 
wings close on the 
insect settling, all trace 
of the colour is lost, 
the tints of the upper 
wings and body blend 
with the surroundings, 
the insect sits still and 
vanishes before one's 
eyes. There is no 
doubt that the bright 
Fig. 20-TvLOTROPiDius DiDYMus. colours of the lowcr 

wings, which sometimes extend to the sides of the abdomen, are 
"deceptive" and materially assist in the escape of the grasshopper 




76 ORTHOPTERA. 

from birds or otlier enemies. Although the general form of the body 
is usually uniform throughout the family, a few are modified in con- 
nection with their habits. Thus the surface grasshoppers (Chrotogomis) 
which live on the soil are very much flattened, the prothorax and 
tegmina roughened. Some of the species that live among long grass 
are elongated, the body cylindrical, admirably adapted to cling to and 
resemble the long grass stems. 

As in other Orthoptera, the chitinous integument preserves the 
primitive form of the lower insects, the segments being easily distin- 
guishable, the plates little differentiated. The hea'd is of moderate size, 
distinct from the thorax, with large compound eyes and three ocelli. 
The antennae are filiform, with less than thirty joints, flattened in some 
species. The mouthparts are of the herbivorous type, the up2)er lip (la- 
brum) well developed, the mandibles large with cutting teeth, the maxilla- 
and labium distinct, fitted for mastication and bearing sensory palpi. The 
hypopharyiix is well developed as a blunt tongiie-like organ on the floor 
of the mouth. The prothorax is large, its form and markings useful in 
the discrimination of genera. In one sub-family (Tetrigince) the pro- 
notum is produced backwards as a long process between and over the 
wings (fig. 21). In some sub-families there is a tubercle or tooth-like 




21— SCBLIMENA LOUANI. 
(After Hnneock) 

projection on the prosternum betweeir the base of the forelegs. The 
meso- and meta-thorax are distinct, covered by the tegmina, which are 
long and narrow, opaque and variously coloured or ornamented. In 
many species they project beyond the abdomen, in others they are shorter. 
In the Tetriginw they are reduced to tiny lobes and the wings are 
covered by the prolongation of the pronotum (fig. 21). In some species 



PLATE III— The Bombay Locust. 

ACRTDIUM SUCCINCTUM. 

I'^ig 13. ■) The Bombay T.ocusf as ordinarily found when it does not 
14. ) swarm and change colour. 
(Reprinted from The Ayricultural Journal of India.) 



^^^*^^ 





THE BOiMBAY LOCUST. 



<»,,.«i ..rf fr„ 



ACRIDIU)^. 



77 



\vin"s are slioit or lediioeil, tlic tegniiiia reduced to l()l)o.s or only 
partially developed. In the majority the wings are large, hyaline and 
many -veined, folding under the tegmina ; they are frequently coloured 
at the base with red, yellow or black. The tegmina and wings in flight 
function as one. The abdomen is long, the segments distinct ; it con- 
tracts and expands telescopically to a great extent in the female, in copu- 
lation being excessively retracted, in oviposition extremely elongated. 
The external genital organs are well marked ; the principal features of 
the female are the upper and lower chitinous valves, which are used for 
digging, the anus being above, the genital aperture below. In the 
male, the genital a])erture is on the upper surface of the usually cons})!- 
cuous ventral shield, which often ends in a point. There is a small pair 
of cercion the apex of the abdomen at each side of the anus. Males and 
females are frequently of different sizes and also of different colours. 
The anterior legs are short, fitted for slow walking and clinging ; the hind 
legs are conspicuous by the great development of the femur and tibia ; 
the tibia bends back on to the femur, the apex of the former reaching 
the base of the latter and from this attitude the tibia kicks back, giving 
the impetus of the leaping motion. The tibia is outwardly set with thick 
spines. The femur may be specially modified to produce vibration 
when rubbed against the tegmen. The inner face of the femur bears a 
row of knobs ; the femur is rubbed up and down against a projecting 
vein of the tegmen, causing the latter to vibrate. Under the tegmen, on 
the side of the basal abdominal segment, may be seen the auditory 
organ, visible as a round depression in the integument, and containing 
the tightly stretched tympanal membrane. Spiracles are situated on 
the thorax and on the membrane connecting the notum and sternum of 
the first eight abdominal segments. The tracheal system is character- 
ised by having bladder-like dilatations of some of the vessels, which are 
inflated previous to flight and while increasing the bulk of the insect, 
diminish its specific gravity and facilitate flight. 



The life history of the known Indian grasshoppers is uniform in the 
main outlines but only a small proportion have been worked out. Eggs 
are, so far as known, universally deposited in the soil in a compact 
cluater, with gummy matter which hardens and compacts the mass 




78 ORTHOPTERA. 

(fig. 22). The number varies with the species, and all are not necessarily 
laid in one mass. About sixty eggs are laid by Hieroglyphus about 
100-120 by Acridium. The eggs remain 
;. .' in the soil for a considerable period, and 
:■■ ' loosen slightly owing to their expansion 
before hatching. The young hoppers 
I have the general form of the adult, the 
antennae with fewer joints, the wings and 
internal genital system absent. The 
number of moults is generally from five 
to seven, the wings appearing as lobes at 
the third or fourth moult. The nymphs 
are active from the first ; the colouring, 

Fig. 22— CHROTOGONUS TRACHY- ,^11 1 1 • 

PTERus, BOGS IN SOIL. xi. as stated above, may change durmg 

nymphal life or may change slowly until with the penultimate moult 
the colour approximates to that of the imago. The duration of the 
nymphal stage varies with individual species but is usually long. 

It is at present impossible to generalise as to the duration of each 
stage of the life of these insects. Apparently most have definite seasons 
for reproduction, governed by climatic conditions and which are rigor- 
ously adhered to. Thus some have but one brood in a year, the three 
stages occupying the whole twelve months ; the Bombay Locust lays 
eggs in June, which hatch in July (after six weeks), the nymphal devel- 
opment is completed in late September and the imago lives until the 
following June : the Rice Grasshopper on the other hand remains in the 
egg stage from October to June and the nymphal and imaginal life occu- 
py about four and a half months. There are probably many grasshop- 
pers having only one brood yearly. Others have two, as does the 
Migratory Locust, the imaginal life being longest, but the two broods of 
about equal length. Others appear to have two broods during the rains, 
but the eggs laid by the second brood in November remain dormant until 
the following rains ; in this case the two broods are of unequal length. 
A number probably will be found to agree with these, having two or more 
broods from June to November, or from March to November, but always 
one hibernation brood which passes the cold weather, and generally the 
hot dry weather in the egg stage. A number have several broods a year 



PLATE IV.— The Migratory Locust. 
AcRiDioM (Schistocerca) Pereorinum. 

Fig. 15. Migratory Locust Hopper, in first stage, niagnified five times. 
,, l(i. Wigrator)' Locust Hopper, in second stage, magnified four 

times. 
,, 17. Migratory Locust Hopper, in tliiid stage, niagnified tiireo 
times. 
18. Migr.itory Locust Hopper, in fourlli stage, magnified 2^ 
times. 

(Reprinted from 'The AyricuHnral Journal or Iwiic^ 







THE NORTH-WEST LOCUST. 



ACRIDIID^. 79 

but apparently have no regular seasons. They breed tliroughout the 
year except in the veiy cold weather and probably not when food is 
scarce. The Black Spotted Grasshopper (Cyrtacanthacris ranacea stoll) 
is an example, as are the species of Chrotoyonus and Atractomorpha 
crenulata. Hibernation and astivation appear to be passed almost 
wholly in the egg in the plains, only a small proportion as imagines ; 
this varies however with different degrees of cold and dryness in different 
localities. A few hibernate as imagines or nymphs in the colder parts of 
the plains. Apparently there is a great variety in this respect and a far 
larger number of species require to be worked out before one can gene- 
ralise on this point. So far as known no Acridiid is anything but herbi- 
vorous, feeding on green plants ; some have a single food plant, others 
several and many appear to be to some extent omnivorous. Grasses and 
gramineous crops are the principal food plants but flowering plants, 
shrubs and bushes are not exempt. Locusts have a very wide range of 
food plants. 

Nymphs and adults live free lives, and are found wherever there is 
vegetation. The greater number are to be found in grasslands, in open 
waste lands, among low herbage. Others live among shrubs, a few 
on trees. Open moors, sand dunes, fallow land also contain other 
species and they range from the plains to considerable altitudes in the 
hills, with their maximum development in the grasslands of the plains. 
This is one of the few families in which the number of purely " plains 
species " is as great as the number found in submontane forest and 
jungle areas. 

This family, being wholly herbivorous and very abundant, is one 
of the most injurious to Agriculture. Besides the two locusts, there are 
grasshoppers which attack special crops and the many species, which 
when abundant, attack gramineous crops. Few of these are specific 
pests of particular crops, they occur spasmodically and irregularly and, 
since grasshoppers are of universal occurrence, nothing is done to check 
them until they are already abundantly destructive. A distinct class 
of pest are the Surface Grasshoppers, species belonging to the genera 
Chrotogonus, Efacromia, Atractomorpha, which live on the soil and 
attack young crops. Little is known of which species of grasshopper 
are destructive since the actually destructive species is not always the 



80 ORTHOPTERA. 

one sent in as destructive and there is liere a large field for research. 
The student may be cautioned against accepting the reports of injury 
by Acridiids in Indian Museum Notes; often an entirely harmless 
species is sent in, being the first one to come to hand. Not more than 
two locusts and six grasshoppers are actually and positively known to 
be injurious in India. 

Whilst there is some information available as to the enemies of the 
two locusts, little is known of the checks on the increase of the family 
as a whole. The eggs of the locusts are attacked by Hymenopterous para- 
sites, the young by ground beetles (Carabida), the adults by parasitic 
insects and the young of a mite (Trombidium (jrandissimum., Koch.). An 
Oligochaet worm (Henleija Lefroyi, Bedd.) has been found destroying 
the eggs of one locust and probably attacks those of other Acridiids. 
Birds, monkeys and squirrels feed on locusts and the larger grasshoppers ; 
mynas, hoopooes and other birds eat hoppers and fossorial wasps store 
their nests with small hoppers. Certain fly and beetle grubs attack the 
eggs, but while these are probably insects of the families Bombyliidce and 
Cnntharidce, respectively, the species concerned are not known. 

The family is a very large one, the largest of the Orthoptera, but no 
complete list exists. It is universally distributed through the tropical 
and temperate zones, with a large number of species. Indian forms ai-e 
largely Indo-Malayan, or have a wide distribution over Southern and 
Eastern Asia ; a few are European and African. In India, the species 
are, so far as known, widely spread and not local, though Burmah 
appears to have many species not found in India. No catalogue of 
Indian species has been compiled and the information is buried in the 
literature of the past century. (See page 48.) Bolivar records 100 
species from a small area of South India, Brunner records 157 from 
Burmah. There are probably 500 recorded Indian species and at least 
1,000 now existing in India. Brunner divides the family into nine sub- 
families, which are on the whole well marked. Indian species fall 
mainly into five of these, the characters of which are as follows : — 

Tetrigina. The pronotum produced backwards over the abdomen, 
the tegmina lobelike, no pulvillus. 

PneumorincB (African). 

Mastacince. Antennae shorter than the anterior femora. Head 
short, 



PLATE V. — MlORATORY LoCl'ST. 

AcRiniUM (Schistocerca) Pereghinum. 

Fit;. 19. Migiatoiy Locust in swarming colouiJit ion. 
,, "20. The same in '"gglivving colouration. 

(Reprinted from J'he^Ayricnlini n/ Jonrna' of Iwiin 




--"''■f^^ 



li 






JV.V 




-r^-^V^"^"' 



> V 



THE NORTH-WEST LOCUST. 



AORIDIID^. 81 

Prosco/ninw (American). 

TryxaJince. — The face looking down, the vertex of the head pro- 
duced forward forming an angle. Prosternum unarmed. 

OedipodincB. — The face looking forward, vertex rounded. Pros- 
ternum unarmed. 

Pijrgomor-phinrr. — Face looking downwards, prosternum with an 
elevated lamina. 

Pamphagime. — (Europe, Africa and E. Asia). 

Acridiinw. — Face looking forwards, ])rosternum with a tooth-like 
process. 

The classification is best studied in the works of Brunner, de Saus- 
sure and Bolivar. The Tetrigince are recognizable at sight ; the Acri- 
diincB and Pyrgomorphince are clearly distinct, the TnjxalincB and 
Oedipodince are not always easily distinguished as tjie characters are 
not universal in both sub-families. 

Tetrigina [Tettigides). — Small insects, of a dark-brown colour, 
found upon the soil and in grasslands. There are a considerable number 
of species which are not easy to distinguish. The sub-family as a whole 
are sharply marked off from the remainder of the family. Most are 
roughened and warty above, as are the Chrotogoni , and this with their 
colouring renders them difficult to see on the soil. Some are leaf-like 
and live among dead leaves ; all are bizarre in appearance and superfi- 
cially resemble Membracids. They are most abundant on damp soil and 
near water ; some are aquatic and have the hind tarsi more or less 
expanded to serve for swimming ; at least one species in India is 
aquatic, feeding on vegetation at or below the surface. 

Hancock lists a total of 434 species from all parts of the world, with 
34 Indian species. Scelimena (fig. 21) is a semi-aquatic gents with 
three Indian species, S. produda, Serv. ; S. harpago, Serv. and S. unci- 
nata, Serv. Crioteitix has five Indian species ; in this genus the inser- 
tion of the antennae is on a level with the lower part of the eye, in the 
former below the eye. Acanthalobiis has three species. Mazarredia is 
an Oriental genus with four species in India. Paratettix has two Indian, 
two Burmese species ; Coptotettix has four Burmah species, and Saussu- 
IlL 6 



82 



ORTHOPTERA. 



relln two, one also from India. The student should consult Hancock 
(Genera Insectorum) for the genera, Brunner and Bolivar for most of 
the species. 

Eumastacince. — The species of this sub-family are not found com- 
monly in the plains and are confined to the moister forest areas. Burr 
lists 23 Indian species (Genera Insectorum) including the aberrant 
Choroetypus fenestrattis, Serv. 

TryxaUnw. — The genus IryxaUs (Acrida) includes a small number 
of very variably coloured insects, distinguished by their slender form, 
produced head and flattened antennje. One specie.s (fig. 23) is common 




Fig. 23— TRVXALIS TURRITA. 

(F. M. H.) 

throughout the plains, formerly known as Tryxalis turrita, L. ; there is 
confusion in the present nomenclature and it is also referred to as Acrida 
turrita, L. and as A. exaltata, Wlk. This species varies in colour from 
green to "dry grass" colour, some with bright markings, others without; 
the males are smaller (36-46 m.m.) than the females (52-64 m.m.). Tryx- 
alis higubris, Burr is a second large species separated by Mr. Burr in 
his revision of the genus (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1902, p. 149). T. 
brevicollis, Bol. and T. variabilis, Klug. are also Indian. Acridella is 
repreifented by A. indica, Bol. and Gelastorrhimis by two species from 
Burmah and Sikkim, respectively. 



PLATE VI. — The Black-Spotted Grasshoppki!. 

CyRTACANTHACRIS RAXACEA (ACRIDIUM AERCr.INOSt'M). 
(Reprinted from The Agrictdlnrcil Journal nf India ) 




■i 



♦ 




THE BLACK SPOTTED GRASSHOPPER. 



«»,r».rf •.■< /• 



PYRGOMORPHIN.E. 




El'ACROMIA llOKSALIS 

(I. M. N.) 



Efacromia. — A genus of small grasshoppers, common throughout 
India. E. dorsalis,'Y\mnh. (fig. 24) is the most abundant species, found 
as a surface grasshopper destruc- 
tive to young crops. It has the 
unusual habit of coming to light. 
There appear to be two broods 
yearly during the rains and 
hibernation takes place in the 
egg stage. 

Oedipodmrp. — This is a large 
sub-family including a large 
number of species difficult to 
distinguish. Oedahus (Gastro- 
margus) marmoratus, Thunb. is 
universal in the plains, marked by 
its brilliant orange and black lower 
wing. Sphingonohis, Trilophidia, 
Acrotylus, Heteropternis, Chloeo- 
bora and Dittopternis are also represented. Pachytyhs (Locusta) cine- 
rascens, Fabr. (danicus, L.) is a large insect of a dull grey colour 
sometimes marked with brilliant green with a median keel on the prono- 
tum. It has a wide distribution over Southern Europe and Asia and 
though known to form .swarms and migrate in Europe, has not been 
recorded as a locutt in India, where it is a somewhat uncommon insect. 
It has been found in numbers in grasslands and there is some reason to 
believe that, becoming abundant in extensive tracts of grasslands in the 
less cultivated districts, it migrates in swarms over the country. Such 
swarms are apparently rare and they remain in uncultivated areas, but 
it will probably be definitely ascertained that the swarms of green locusts 
occasionally seen are of this species. 

Pyrgomorphince. — Aidarches miliaris, Fabr. (Phymateus pimctatus, 
F.) is the brightly coloured grasshopper found in the lower hill slopes ; 
it is black or dark green, with roughened tegmina and thorax, with 
yellow spots on the tegmina, the abdomen with red bands, the prothorax 
and head with a broad continuous yellow band. This insect when seized 
emits from pores in the thorax a liquid that froths up and diffuses an un- 



^i ORTHOPTERA. 

pleasant odour. The habit is a very striking one and is apt to disconcert 
the unwary person who does not expect it. The warning coloura- 
tion of this insect is very striking and this emission of evil smelling frotli 
is probably a good protection. A chirping sound is produced in this 
species by a method unusual in the family ; at the base of each tegmen 
and distinct from it is a small chitinous plate, the convex curved 
edge of which meets the concave curved edge of the median 
chitinous plate at the base of the tegmina (the Scutellum) ; the former 
moves in an arc so that the curved edge which is striated , rubs 
against the striate fixed edge of the Scutellum, producing a vibration 
which is probably intensified by the tegmina. The sound is distinct but 
not loud and is probably protective as it is produced by the female. 

This is the so-called " Coffee Locust " since it occurs plentifully 
on coffee estates but it is practically harmless. It is recorded as 
destructive to coffee in Ceylon and E. E. Green has published a circular 
on it (Circ. Roy. Bot. Garden, Ceylon, 111, 18). There is, in Ceylon, 
one brood yearly, eggs being laid in October-November and hatching 
in March, the nymphs being full grown by September. Several species 
have been made of the varieties of this species. 

Poecilocera picta, Fabr. is the conspicuous Painted Grasshopper so 
common on the ak plant (Calotropis spp.). It is brightly coloured in 
blue and yellow, living openly on its food plants and evidently protected 
by its bad taste from birds. There are at least two broods a year, the 
last (in November) laying eggs that pass through the winter. The nymph 
is coloured in yellow with black stipples and red spots, this colouring 
gradually giving place to that of the adult in the last two instars before 
the final moult. The distribution of this species is peculiar and follows 
that of its food plant which thrives in the drier portions of India from 
the north of the Punjab to the Southern extremity of Madras. Atracto- 
inorpha cremdata, Fabr. (fig. 25) is extremely common throughout the 
plains, and is a serious pest to young plants. The males are smaller than 
the females and often brown, while the female is commonly green. 
Tobacco is a favourite food plant of the insect in all stages and the 
round holes eaten in the leaves of this plant are frequently the work 
of this species. It is reported as injurious to cane in Java. 



85 



Chrotogonus (fig. 2()) includes the common surface grasshoppers, 
flattened, theupper surface of a dark earth colour, roughened, with spots 

of white or yellow, the 
lower surface white. These 
insects are found in fallow 
fields, on newly-sown land, 
in grass and low crops. The 
male is smaller than the 
female. The latter lays 
about 60 eggs in a mass in 
the soil and there appear 
to be no regular seasons 
for breeding. They are 
among the most common of 
insects in the cultivated 
plains and are often serious- 
ly destructive. The number 
of species concerned is very 
uncertain. ( lirotoijomts trac- 




Pis. 25- Atkaitomorph* irknilata 



hypterus, Bl. appears to be the 
common plains' species but it is 
either a variable species or several 
are confused. C hiyubris, Bl. is a 
smaller insect of similar appearance. 
(See Ann. Soc. Ent., France, V, 
(507, where Blanchard describes 
Ommexecha trachypterus. Imjubris, 
etc., from India.) 

Acridiinw. — A large sub-family 
which includes the locusts and large 
gras.'hoppers. They are readily- 
recognised by the tooth between 
the base of the forelegs. 

Caiantopn is a large genus of mo- 
derate sized insects found commonh 



M 


^ 


/f 


f\ 


) i 


r\ 


. < 


> 


^ 


^ 



Fifr. 26— Chrotogokus LroruKis 
(T. M. N.I 



"O ORTHOPTERA. 

in grass lands. C. indicus, BoL, C. humeralis, Thunb. and C. axillaris, 
Thunb. are the species of general occurrence. Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, 
Stoll. {Acridiiim aeruginosum, Bui'm.) is the very common large grass- 
hopper found in the fields especially on cotton. There is no record of 
its migrating. It breeds apparently at all times, the eggs as usual in the 
ground, the nymphs being green, a pinkish line developing on the pos- 
terior edge of the pronotum &s development proceeds. In the insectary 
eggs were laid in November, hatched in January, and, after six moults 
the nymphs became full grown in May, the total nymphal life being 113 
to 138 days. They were fed wholly on cotton. Males are smaller than 
females. The adult is distinctly more markedly black and white in 
colouring than any commoh Indian Acridimn (Plate VI). Schistocerca 
(Acridium) peregrinmn, 01. is the North-West or Migratory Locust of 
greatest notoriety (Plate V). It occurs now over North India, Afghanis- 
tan, Arabia, Persia, Northern Africa and Cyprus ; it has been found far 
out in the Atlantic Ocean and is believed to have actually originated in 
South America and spread thence to Africa ; it is known to have spread 
so far West as England and constantly reaches the Assam valley and the 
most Eastern Hills of Northern India. It has been much discussed and 
written about, but we are not aware of any one really good account of 
its life history, depredations and movements. In India it is deatractive 
only in the dry areas of the Punjab, since only in these does it breed ; the 
swarms of adults can be frightened away, but it is the hoppers (Plate IV) 
which are really destructive. The student should see the article on 
"Locusts in India" in the Agricultural Journal of India, Vol. II, p. 238, 
and consult the voluminous literature on the subject. Acridium suc- 
cinctum, Linn. (Plates II and III) has been the subject of investigation 
recently and while we require to know more of its enemies, its move- 
ments and life history are well known (Mem. Agric. Dept. India, Ent. 
I, " The Bombay Locust"). The most interesting point is the very 
curious colour changes which are more complex than in the Migratory 
Locust. The following extract is interesting as it almost certainly 
refers to this species : — 

" A friend of Mr. Kirby informed him, that at Poona an immense 
cloud of locusts ravaged all the Mahratta territory, and was thought to 
have come from Arabia. This, indeed, was a. most astonishing swarm, 



PLATE VII. HlEROGLYHHl-.S FrRClFEl! 

The Rice Gkasshofpek. 

Fig. 1 . A single egg. 

„ 2. Egg mass. 

1. •5- ,. divested of the outer covering. 

,, 4. NympI), last instar. 

,, 5. Imago, male. 









RICE GRASSHOPPER. 



ACRIDlINii;. 



87 



if Mr. Kirby's friend was correctly informed. The column extended five 
hundred miles, and was so dense as thoroughly to hide the sun, and pre- 
vent any object from casting a shadow. This horde was not composed 
of the migratory locust, but of a red species, which imparted a sanguine 
colour to the trees on which they settled." (Cuvier's Natural 
History, 1832, Vol. II, p. 207.) Avridium is also represented in the 
plains by rarer forms, large robust insects found chiefly on trees and 
bushes. 

Demodociis {Heteracris) includes large grasshoppers distinct from 
Acridium in having the pronotum more flattened with two dorsal light 
stripes enclosing a central dark fascia. D. rohudus and D. capensis, 
Thunb. are common species. 

Hieroglyphus banian, Fabr. (furcifer, Serv.), is known as the Rice 
Grasshopper and breeds freely in rice land and wet grassland (Plate 




Kiff. 27— HiBROCLYPHUS FLRCIKKR, MICROFTEROUS I'ORM. 



VII). There is but one brood yearly, the eggs remaining in the soil from 
November to June. The tendency to abbreviation of the wings is very 
marked and in the same place can be found macropterous forms with 
intermediates to micropterous ones. There is a considerable amount of 
variation in size and a species {H. cotesii) was described which is prob- 
ably not valid. The common species can be found over a wide area of 
the moister parts of India. Amongst the most delightful of Indian 



88 



ORTHOPTERA. 



insects is the large Teratodus monlicollis, Gr. (fig. 28) ; it is dull green or 
"dry grass " colour, with brighser colouring under the wings; the pro- 




Fij;. '28— Tkk;»todus montioollis. 



notum is produced up as a sharp hood over the body, giving it a most 
striking appearance; in flight (fig. 29) it is extremely beautiful, the bright 
colours showing out. While it is common in Western and Southern 
India, it does not appear to occur East of the Deccan and the dry parts 
of Central India. The young forms have the hood well developed and 
are extremely striking in appearance, the lateral compres.sion being very 
marked. They look like green leaves. 

In thick vegetation and in green crops, one sees numbers of little 
active green grasshoppers, feeding on leaves and often very destructive ; 
these are Oxya, the common siJecies known as 0. velox, Thunb. ^nedomi- 
nating ; these are of small size, and have a dark streak along each side 
and on to the tegmen. They are found commonly in the rains and 
appear to emerge only at that time. 

Collecting, etc. — Grasshoppers are easily collected, either with a net 
or by hand. Many forms are got by sweeping in vegetation and this 
is perhaps the best method. Few come to lights [E-pacromia, Chroto- 
gonus, etc.) or to any bait that can be put down. When killed in a cya- 
nide bottle they make good specimens ; benzene, chloroform and othei' 
riuidp are not good, the hindlegs being often shed or broken. They are 



ACRIDIIN^. 



89 



easily stored in paper cylinders and travel well through the postin this 
way : if pinned, the left wings should bo spread, the pin through the right 
wing or thorax. Large specimens may be stuffed, but this is not neces- 
sary if the specimen is properly dried. Rearing from the egg is some- 
times difficult unless done on a really large scale and even then the right 
conditions must be maintained, especially an adequate amount of 
moisture in the air. Adults mate in large cages and lay eggs freely if 
not disturbed and given suitable conditions. 




vie. 29— 'rEUATonrs montkiollis. 
{From Cuvier.) 



DECEPTIVE COLOURING. 

The AcridiidcB more than any other group of insects exhibit that 
combination of colours which is designated under the above term, a 
scheme of colouring designed to deceive birds and other predators which 
pursue these insects. The essential features are a cryptic scheme of 
colouring functional when the insect is at rest, with bright and conspi- 
cuous colouring revealed only when the insect is in flight and concealed 
by the forewings or by the attitude when the insect alights. If one goes 
into a grass field, intent on observing large grasshoppers, one will sud- 
denly see a brightly coloured insect jump up, fly a little distance and 
disappear. One sees it by the bright colours and one can, as a rule, 
easily follow its flight by them. These bright colours are in the lower 
wing and perhaps part of the abdomen ; they are visible only when the 
forewings are expanded in flight revealing the large expanse of lower 
wing and the abdomen. The insect in flight is easily visible owing to 
these bright colours and the Acridiids fly with a swift jerky motion, at 
the end of the flight suddenly wheeling down and settling motionless 
with closed wings. The eye has followed the bright colours and loses the 
insect as these disappear with the closing of the wings at the completion 
of the flight. One's eye is not seeking the cryptically coloured grass- 
hopper, which thus escapes attention, even if one could easily see the 
motionless insect coloured in shades approximating to its surroundings 
and marked with darker colours to suggest the light and shade in the 
vegetation. With the exception of the warningly coloured grasshoppers 
and the vividly coloured locusts, deceptive colouration of this kind, de- 
pending upon bands of yellow, red or other vivid tints, is very common 
among Acridiids. Exceptionally beautiful examples are found in Gas- 
tromargus (Oedaleus) and in the extremely striking Teratodus monticollis, 
the colouring in the latter being on the body under the wings rather 
than on the wings. An instance is also found in the Leaf butterflies 
(Kallima inachis, and K. Horsfieldi) in which the upper surface of the 
wing has a bright orange blotch, visible in flight, whilst the form of the 
wings, the colouration and the resting attitude are extraordinarily like 
a leaf ; at rest the insect is invisible, in flight it is conspicuous and the 
transition from the latter to the former at the close of a brief zigzag flight 
is extraordinarily deceptive. 

Another group with conspicuous examples is the Sfhinyidw, the 
body and forewing of the large species being commonly coloured in dull 
cryptic tints which harmonize with bark, while the lower wings are 



Deceptive colouring. 



01 



banded in bright colours which extend oEten to the sides of the basal 
abdominal segments. The same colouring is found, for instance, in Noc- 
tuid Moths of the genera Ophideres, Opliiusa, Hi/blaa and Catocala, as 
well as in the Mantidce, a few of the Arctiince, and an exceptional Pyra- 
lid. Some Coreidae also exhibit it and it is probably commoner in cryp- 
tically coloured insects than is generally supposed. The commoner Ci- 
cadas exhibit it in exceptional beauty, the cryptic colouring being very 
marked and the lower wing very vivid, the flight jerky and in zigzags. 
We are probably correct in concluding that in all these, the insect relies 
on its protective colouring first, but if disturbed, the deceptive colouring 
is brought into play in the sudden quick flight to another tree, when 
cryptic colouring is again predominant. This colouring gives us a glimpse 
into the inner life of insects which is, in its way, instructive. There are 
so many adaptations of this kind in insects that one can realize dimly 
that, always and at all times, they are in danger from birds, from lizards, 
from Asilid flies, from Dragon flies, from Locustids, from Mantids and so 
on. To enable tliem to escape they have various forms of colouring but 
the mere fact that they are in constant danger of being destroyed shows 
how far their mentality must differ from ours and how constant is the 
working of that balance of life that prevents the undue increase of any 
one species above its fellows. 

L0CUSTID.S. — Long-horned Grasshoppers. 

The antenna tong, inamj-jointed. The auditory organ on tlie fore tibia. 
Tarsi four-jointed. The female with a conspicuous ovipositor. 

This family is at once distinguishable fi-omthe Acridiids by the long 
antennse and the position of the auditory organ ; it is less clearly dis- 




Kig. .Sll— ME(OPO[iA elonoata. 



92 



ORTHOPTERA. 



tinct from Gryllids in the wings and tarsi. These insects are usually of 
large size, none of less than half an inch in length, a few exceeding two 
inches. They are less robu.stly built than the Acridiids and include a 
greater variety of forms. Many are elongate, the body narrow, the 
general colour green variegated with darker tints, their form and colour 
blending with the grass or vegetation among which they live. Others 
are larger, the tegmina broader and leaf-like; (fig. 31) the colour is green 




Pig. 31 -HOLOCHLORA ALBIDA. 



and the veins of the tegmina suggest the veins on a green leaf. These 
live upon bushy plants and are well concealed. Others living upon bark 
are grey, the tegmina roughened, and so closely adapted are they to theii' 
habitat that they can scarcely be seen until they are in motion. 

The antennae are very long and fine, with many joints, functioning 
as delicate organs of touch. The mouthparts are of the herbivorous 
type, the mandibles short and powerful, the palpi well developed. The 
prothorax is large and distinct ; the tegmina are thickened and coloured, 
usually sloping over the abdomen, with a small basal flat area. In the 
males, this flat area is modified to form a sound producing organ ; the 
right tegmen overlaps the left and has on its lower surface a sharp point: 
the kft on its upper surface a file ; by the movement of the tegmina, 
vibration is produced, the sound being intensified by the stiff tegmina. 
In some species this organ occurs in both sexes. The hind wings are large 



LOCUSTID^. 93 

and folded below the tegmiua. A iminber of species are wingless or liave 
wings reduced in size. The foreleg has a swelling on the tibia, in which 
is situated the auditory organ, closed externally by a tf>'mpanal mem- 
brane situated in a small depression. This organ is not present in all 
species. The hind leg is similar to that of the Acridiids, the femur 
dilated near the base, the tibia long and reaching to the base of the femur. 
The female is characterised by the ovipositor, a conspicuous external 
structure, often of large size and shaped like a sword. The male has 
external clasping organs. The abdomen is soft and fleshy, not exten- 
sible. 

The life history of no Indian species appears to have been worked 
out, though the eggs and nymphs are common. Eggs are laid in the 
edges of leaves, in the stems of grasses, in the bark of trees and in the 
soil. As a rule these eggs are flattened ; the female makes a slit with 
the ovipositor and deposits her eggs in the slit. Nymphs are found in 
the habitat of the adults and pass through an \mknown number of 
moults, the wings appearing gradually. 

Locustids are, as a rule, nocturnal in habit, remaining quietly in 
concealment during the day ; this is not an invariable rule. While 
many are herbivorous, some are predaceous on insects, probably only in 
part and with the power of becoming herbivorous if food is scarce. The 
holes eaten in the blades of leaves of ornamental shrubs in the plains are 
probably the work wholly of Locustidw and a large proportion appear 
to feed in this way. Diurnal species have been seen to capture butter- 
flies, but as most are nocturnal their food is not known. Many are con- 
spicuous songsters, the sounds produced varying from a deep harsh note 
to a sustained high shrill one. Some come to light, as do so many winged 
nocturnal insects. Locustidce are most abundant in the rainy months 
and are practically never captured during the cold weather where this is 
well marked. Hibernation appears to take place in the egg stage but this 
is not certain and if it occurs, the eggs must presumably be laid in some 
situation more permanent than a grass stem or a leaf. 

In India none are recorded as pests except the aberrant burrowing 
Schizodactylus whose habits place it among Gryllids rather than Locus- 
tids. Elsewhere are few which become sufficiently abundant to be des- 
tructive to cultivated plants. These insects are rarely found in numbers 



94 



ORTHOPTERA. 



in India and appear to increase slowly. The Conocephali that live in 
grass are perhaps the most abundant. 

The most recent catalogue of the familj- is Kirby's in Volume II 
of "Synonymic Catalogue of the Orthoptera" (1907). Following Brun- 
ner he divides the family into 24 sub-families half of which are unknown 
in "India" or known from single genera only, while four only contain the 
majority of our species. A total of 20.'J species is enumerated from India, 
Burmah and Ceylon, though the family is extremely little known in 
India and many species remain to be found. In this as in other Orthop- 
terous families, the number of tropical forms far exceeds the Himalayan 
and palcearotic, though in this family more than others the vast major- 
ity are forest species and are found but rarely in the cultivated plains- 
The literature of Indian forms is given by Kirby ; the works of Brunner, 
Bolivar, Redtenbacher, Saussure are the most important. The distri- 
bution of species is as follows : — Stenopelmatince 5, Rhnphidophormw 3, 
GryUacrinxe 40, Dectkince 1, Scyince 1, Conocephalince 13, Ayrcpciina' 
10, Xiphidiince 8, Listrocehinne 0, Eumegahdontina 1, Prophalangop- 
sinw 1, Pseudophi/llhra' 4."i, Mecophodince 2. Ph)iUophorince 7, Phane- 
ropterince 57. 



Stenopelmatince. Oryctopus includes two species found in burrows 
in a river bank near Trichinopoly by the Professors of St. Joseph's Col- 
lege. The male has rudiments of tegmina and wings, well developed 
eyes and tarsal claws ; the female has quite small eye spots, the antenna? 
are very small or absent, the tarsal claws rudimentary, the ovipositor 
absentand the insect is 
wholly apterous. Both 
sexes were found to- 
gether in the burrow. 
Two species are des- 
cribed, 0. Bolivari, 
Brunn. and 0. prodi- 
giosus, Bol. (fig. 32). 
We figure the female 
from Bolivar (Ann. 

tig. 32— CtKYCTOPUS PKODIOIOSliS, KE.MALE. X 1'. 

Soc. Ent. France, 1899, ,^/,^,. Boih-ar.) 

784). 




looustid.*;. 



95 



Grifllacnno'. Schizodadijlus viovstmosus, Don. (tig. 33) (the blier- 
wa of Behar) is an e.xtraordinary insect, rather doubtfully placed in 




Fig. 33— SCHIZODACTYLUS MOXSTRUOSDS. 

(F. M. H.) 



this family. It is a large insect, robustly built, with long tegmina 
which roll up into a spiral ; the sides of the tegmina turn down 
abruptly as in the GruUidce and the tarsi have curious flat expansions. 
The appearance of the insect is extremely striking and its large jaws 
make it appear ferocious. It is wholly a bu^ro^ving insect, living in 
sandy soil and often near rivers, making deep burrows in which it 
lives. The eggs are laid in the burrow, the female having no ovipositor 
and behaving much like a cricket. It is believed to be carnivorous, 
and is destructive to crops only when its borrows are so abundant 
that it cuts the roots of plants. Its distribution in India is a curious 
one including Tirhoot, parts of Assam, Bellary, parts of Sind and 
Multan. .Vpparently it is dependent upon peculiar conditions of soil 
and moisture. 



96 ORTHOPTERA. 

Conocepkalinae. — Conoa'phahis includes narrow grasshopper-like 
forms which live in grass. '^Their eggs are laid in the stems of grasses 




Fig. 34— CONOCEPHALUS INPRl'S REDT. 

and the insects of all ages are found in waste lands and long grass. 
The males produce a sustained shrill note wliich is exceedingly difficult 
to locate and the shrill music heard in long grass is mainly produced 
by these species. C. indicus, Redt. and C. paUidus, Redt. are the 
I'Oinmon species. 

Mecopodinae. — Meiopoda elongata (fig. 30) is a very large form, of 
a dark brown colour, of the "' dead-leaf " tint, the tegmina often with 
markings such as are found on decaying leaves ; it is found sparsely 
over the plains, among trees and not in the open. 

PseiidophyUinae. — Sathrophi/lHa includes the large flattened forms 
eoloured like bark, which are found sitting motionless on the bark 
of trees by day and are active by night. Their roughened upper 
surface, their colouring in dull shades of brown and grey, their 
flattened form and motionless attitude pressed against the bark renders 
them a very notable case of cryptic form and colouring and they are 
extremely diflScult to see. 

Collecting. — Locustids are best collected by careful search among 
grass, on bushes, on the bark of trees, under the loose sheets of bark that 
are found on some trees and between the sheathing leaf-stalks of palms. 
Rearing is apparently possible only when the food habits of the young 
are first ascertained. When killed (in a cyanide or B. C. bottle), they 
should be pinned through the right tegmen, the left tegmen and wings 
set. Drying must be veiy thorough as the abdomen is very fleshy, but 
if properly done, stuffing the abdomen with carbolised cotton or other 
similar treatment is not required. 



GRYLLIOi^i. 



97 



(Jryllu)^. — ('rickets. 

l^eapiiKj imi'cls, irilli usual 1 1/ loiuj fiiifonK aiilciuiw. The (tuditortj onjaii 
is on the fore tibia. The wim/s are turned over at right angles Ironi 
the dorsal to the lateral surjaee of the body. Tarsi three-jointed ; 
female with a loiu/ oeipositor. 

Gri/llido' luv distinct from Loeustidee in the tarsi and the wings; 
they are, however, a group whicli contain many different types of insects 

which hardly fall into one 
family and which, with further 
kuowletlgc, will probably be 
split up. All do not have long 
antenna' ; some have no ovi- 
])ositor, and in others the 
wings are not deflexed. If 
we remember Sehizodactylus 
which may be a Gryllid, and 
are familiar with GryUotalpa 
and Tridactylus, it is easy to 
realise that Locustidw and 
Gryllidce are hard to separate 
and that peculiar environ- 
ment has produced such 
changes in some forms that 
they scarcely come within the 
definition of the family. The 
Gryllidce as a whole are a 
large family not of great importance economically and not interesting 
to the ordinary student of nature. The Indian species are probably 
very impei-fectly known. Brunner lists 43 species from Burmah of 
which he describes 20 as new to science ; Bolivar lists 35 from South 
India of which 14 were new. Kirby's Catalogue lists 130 species 
from India, Burmah and Ceylon of which 80 occur in India. There are 
probably many new species to be found and there is much interesting 
work to be done in the biology of all of them. The works of Saussure, 
Brunner van W^attenwyl and Bolivar inchule the most important 
literature nf the familv as a whole. 

III. 7 




Fi(.'. 3.5— LlOGRVLLUS BIMA<TLATrs 
(I. M. N.) 



98 ORTHOPTERA. 

AUowiufT tlienitoheafiioup wluch will eventually be split vi]) and are 
now maintained for convenience rather tlian logical fact we can discuss 
them individually and need make no general statements about the 
family as a whole. The family is by de Saussure divided into seven 
tribes, regarded by Kirby as six sub-families. The following key 
follows de Saussure's arrangement and is given in Sharp's Insects : — 

1. Anteiin-ip ten-jointed; posterior tarsi aborted. Tribe 1. Tri- 
(l<ict;/Iifles. 

W Antenna' many jointed; posterior tarsi normal. 

2. Tarsi compressed, the second joint minute. 

.'5. Anterior legs fossorial ; anterior tibia? at the apex with two to 
four divisions. Pronotum elongate, ovate, rounded behind. Female 
without ovipositor. Tribe 2. Gri/Uotalpides. 

3'. Anterior legs formed foi' walking. Ovipositor of the female 
visible (either elongate or rudimentary). 
4. Posterior tibia* biseriately serrate. Tiibe 3. MyrmcrofhiJides. 

W Posterio]- tibi;o biseriately sjnnose. Ovipositor straight. 
."). Antennseshort, thickish,almostthread-like. Facial scutellum ex- 
serted between antenna*. Posteiior tibia* dilated. Gen. Mjfniiecopln'la.* 
.5'. Antenna^ elongate, setaceous. Facial scutellum transveise. 
visible below the antennae. Tibia* slender. 

(5. Posterior tibi:c armed with two strong spines, not serrate be- 
tween the spines. Tribe -1. GnjUides. 

6'. Posterior tibia^ slender, armed with slender spines, and ser- 
rate between them. Tribe 5. Oecanthides. 
2\ Second joint of the tarsi depressed, heart-shaped. 

3. Posterior tibia^ not serrate, but biseriately spinose. 

4. The spines on each side three and mobile ; apical s]iurs on the 
inner side only two in number. Ovipositor short, curved. Tribe (i. 
Trigonidiides. 

4'. The spines numerous, fixed. Ovipositor elongate, straight. 
Gen. StenogrylJus. 



* The genus Miirmediiihila, lieinj; exceptional in several vesjiects, is treated separately. 



ORYLMT)^;. 99 

■V . I'otjtcrior til)i:r stTViitc ami spiiidsc mi cik'Ii side, llic ii|)i(Ml 
spurs, as usumI, tlircc on cnflt side ( )\i|i(isitiii- straiiilit nr curved. 
Tribe 7. Em-opteridi's. 

We may hei'e diseuss tlie jirdU)! under divisions ini-lndint; the Tiiddc- 
ti/lino' (small surface criekets). GrijUotdlfina' (mole ei'ickets), fjri/llivd 
(house aud field erickets, burrowiug crickets), Oecanthinrr (]dant 
crickets). 

TridaclyJiiKv are small insects, measuriufi; about oiie-quartei' of an 
iucli in length ; tlie antenna' are short witli about ten joints, the wings 




Kiy-. :<(i— TKiriAcTYl.t's SI'. ■ N. 

in some are imjierfeotly develojied, in some fully (!evelo|ied : the abdo- 
men terminates in six processes Hke cerci, whicli are hairy and strongly 
suggest tlio hairv jirocesses used by some aquatic larva- to support 
themselves on tlie surface film of water while they get air. The liind 
legs terminate in two straight processes, the tarsns not being formed, and 
the tibia also bears lateral processes, which apparently are spread out 
upon the wet soil on which tlie insect lives and act as supports ; these 
lateral processes are also capable of being closed up. These little insects 
live upon damp soil; they are common on the banks of tanks, in irrigated 
fields, in watered gardens : they prepare small galleries by burrowing 
along the surface of the soil and live in tliese burrows. They form a very 
large part of the tiny "flies"" which crowd in hordes round lamps in sucli 
places as Calcutta and are enormously abundant in places near large 
rivers. Tridncti/lus varie(jatas, Latr. in Europe is said to burrow in tlie 
sand of river banks. Tridacti/lns thomricus, Guer. from the Nilgiris, T. 
major, 8cudd. from "India"' and T. cnfttctsi, Bol. from Trichinopoly aic 
our recorded species. 

Gri/Uotnlpince include large insects, which are characterised readih- 
by the forelegs, which are ]n'ofoundly modified to form ])owerfid digging 



100 



ORTHOPTERA. 



instnunents. These insects grow to a length of over one inch, the head 
and prothorax very hard, the antennse short, the wings tightly wrapped 
round the soft abdomen (fig. 37). As in other Gryllids, the hind 
wings are extended backwards and appear as a slender process beyond 




Fig. 37— Gryllotalpa africana. x 2. 

the tegmina when at rest. There is a pair of cerci at the end of the 
abdomen. The forelegs are extremely powerful and by digging and press- 
ing, the hard head and prothorax is forced through the soil, the soft 
abdomen and weaker posterior legs following. The female is destitute of 
an ovipositor and lays her eggs (fig. 38) in the burrow, which extends to 
a considerable depth below the surface. These eggs have been found in 





Fig. 38— Gryi.lotalpa africana : Eoris, REOucFn to J, and nymph. 



a cluster in the moist sand of the river bank, soft white oval eggs lying 
loosely in a round chamber at some de]ith in the sand. The young 



GRYLLID.K. 



101 



uyinplis tluive on a diet of tiy grubs, worms and otlu'r small aiuiiuil lite, 
making small burrows in the loose sand. 

Like other parts of the earth's sui'faee. the soil for some twenty feet 
down contains abundant insect and other life, which forms the food of 
the mole cricket and in search of which it burrows through the soil. 
When its burrows are near tlie surface, damage is caused to the roots of 
plants and the in.sect is destructive to this extent. 

The winged imago Hies at night and comes to liglit very readily. 
In the rains they are often flooded out and in dry weather descend 
deeper for soil moisture. There are many ingenious ways of destroying 
them, none sufficiently effective to appeal to any but an economic 
entomologist. Two species occur in India. Gryllotalfa africana, Pal. B.. 
which is widespread over the plains and lower hills (also through the 
warmer parts of Asia and Europe), and G. vulgaris, Latr., found in the 
Himalayas and common also in Europe, Egypt, Western Asia, etc. 
Throughout our area, africana alone appears to occur. 

The Mynnecophilinw are small insects chiefly interesting because 
they are found in anfs nests. A variety of Mijrmecophila acervorum, 




Fij;. SO -Ptkroplistl's PLATYCI.KIS. 
iAflfv Bnlirm-A 



102 ORTHOPTERA. 

Paiiz., was found by VVroughton, M. ■phKjiolepidis'Wa.fii'.m, by Assnuitli, 
while Ornebius Guerini, BoL, and 0. nigripalpis, Guer., a.nd Pteroplistus 
plnti/deis. Bob, are recorded from South India and several from 
Burmah. (8ee below under Myrmecophilons Insects after Patissida-.) 

We come then to the Gri/llince, the "crickets." These insects are 
distinguished from Locustides by the characters given at the head of the 
section. They vary in size from half an inch to over two inches in iengtli : 
the colours are dull, mainly cryptic, brown predominating with black 
and rarely yellow-brown. None are brilliant or conspicuous, and the 
colouring is that of other surface-living insects. The antennse are long 
and filiform ; . head large, the prothorax distinct. The tegmina are 
deflexed, the inner area lying flat on the upper surface, the outer area ver- 
tically against the side of the body. The lower wings are produced back 
and when at rest, give the appearance of a projecting sting or process. 
Xt the apex of the abdomen are two cerci, and as the female has a long 
tine ovipositor, the hind end of a female cricket bristles with formidable 
looking structures. Auditory organs are situate in the foreleg, as \n the 
Locustidge. 

Gryllidie produce loud and sustained sounds, often very shrill, by 
the rapid vibration of the wings, one (right) working over the other (left), 
the edge of the one acting on the file on the other. The males have the 
flat area of the tegmina modified to intensity the sound, though to a less 
extent than is the case in Locnstida>. The sound is peculiarly shrill and 
sustained, extremely difficult to locate in the field. Some of the smaller 
species may be seen to be vibrating theii' wings but the sound produced 
is not audible to everyone, the pitch being so high it is beyond the regis- 
ter of the normal human ear. Apterous forms also occur and species 
in which the wings are I'educed in size. Almost nothing is known of the 
life history of Indian crickets. The young are similar in general apjjear- 
ance to the adults, but tlie numljer of moults is not known. 

There are practically three distinct classes of crickets. Some bur- 
row deeply in the soil, making very extensive burrows which have several 
openings at the surface. Others live on the surface, among fallen leaves 
and other debris and make short burrows into which to retire but do not 
habitually live concealed in them. Of these a few are household insects. 
( ithers live on iilants, ]iassing their life among bushy vegetation 



GUYLLID.K. 10:5 

Tlu' b mil) wing sprcics avv vegi'tariau feeding upon mots and also 
coming up at night to cut off green vegetation. Little is i<no\\ii of tlie 
food of otlier species. Tlie small bush crickets are to some extent i)re- 
daceous on small insects and there is no reason to believe they are vege- 
tarian. The surface-living si)ecies are possibly also predaceous but one 
at least is found feeding upon living plants. Crickets are universally 
distributed in India and are perha])S as a])undant in the diier plain aicas 
as in the moist tracts of the delta and forest districts. 

'Phe large brown cricket (Brarhi/lri/jx'.s (tclKttinus, Stoll.), is the most 
familiar burrowing species, found commonly in the Himalavas and tlu' 




Fi};. 41(— BKArHVTIlVl'KS AlHATINCs. Kl 
INSTAR X 1.',. IMAlM 



4. NVMI'll. KdlKTH 



adjacent plains, in Assam and Burma. It has a wide distribution in 
Eastern Asia and may be widely distributed in suitable localities through- 
out the plains. It grows to a large size and is rarely seen on the surface 
save when the heavy rains flood it out from its burrows. At dusk, the 
male comes to the surface, and pours forth its strident note, the sustain- 
ed shrill vibration being very piercing and, as one approaches, beating 
in the ears with extraordinary intensity ; even a Cicada hardly produces 
such intensity of sound At nisjlit the cricket seeks its food, the lea\es 



104 ORTHOPTERA. 

and shoots o£ plants wliich it eats or draws into its burrow. The life 
history occupies one year, the winged adults being found from late April 
to September, only nymphs being found in the cold weather. It has been 
successfully reared in the Pusa insectary on a diet of green lucerne and 
other plants. This species is the prey of Sphex lobaius the metallic green 
digger wasp (see SphegidcB). Liogryllus biniacuhitus, de(4. is black, with 
an orange spot at the base of each tegmen. It appears to occur through- 
out India, and is stated to be found throughout the East. It has been 
found in Khandesh to cut through the stems of potato plants at soil 
level. (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. Ill, p. 97 .) 

GnjUodes melanocefhalus, Serv. (fig. 41) is reported as injurious to 
cro])s and has been found in some number in parts of the Punjab. It is a 




Fig. 41— Gryllodes melanooephalu.s. 
(I. M. N.) 



surlace-burrowing S[)ecies, living in the fields and not making ileep bur- 
rows. There are a large number of species to be found in the plains and 
an investigation of the Indian species is much to be desired. 

Kirby (Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera, Vol. II, 190G), records 
Paranemobius 1, Nemobius 4, Brachytrypes 3, Gymnogryllus 3, Gryllus 12, 
Gryllodes (i, Cophogryllus 2, Scapsipedus 2, Homaloblemmus 1, Loxoblem- 
musl,Landrena 1, as genera represented in India, apart from Himalaya, 
Ceylon and Burmah. 



105 



Sail 88. 
as the 



a deli- 
general 



The Oecanthince are represented liv (hraiilliiis indirns 
cate whitish insect with a tinge of pclhuid green. It li 
characters of Gri/Uidn bnt is 
easily recognisable. This in- 
sect is found upon plants, 
in rice fields and in dense moist 
vegetation. Its life liistoi'v 
does not a])pear to have been 
worked out in India, it is. to 
some extent at least, preda- 
ceous and has been observed 
eating insects it has captured 
in the field. Other recorded 
Indian .species are Arachnomi- 
mus pictireps, Wlk.. A. ditbiKs, 
Bol., and OecanlJnis rufescens, 
Serv. 



The Tn'gonkliinrF are l)ut 
little known and only five / 
species are recorded from if 
India proper : these are 
Trigonidium cicindeloides, 

Ramb., T. gigas, Bol., Cyrtoxipha (Eneoptera) jaacipes. Wlk.. C. cov- 
color, Wlk., and C. niboatra, Wlk. 

The Eneofterinw include MadasKDuiia (7 spp.) as well as Paliscus 
guadripunctatus, Bol., CorixogryUus abhrcvinUts, Bol., and Meloimorpha 
cincticornis, Wlk. 

Collecting. — A knowledge of their habitat is the surest guide to the 
methods of obtaining crickets of all kinds. Tridactylides are readily 
found in moist places, and also at light ; Gryllotalpa comes to light and 
may be dug out ; the Gryllides can be dug out, found among fallen 
vegetation, or caught in the evening when they emerge ; some come to 
light and some are flooded out in the rains. Oecanthides are found upon 
plants and are best looked for when sweeping pests in rice. 

The lesser forms are very little known, on account of their fragility. 
and the number of nndescribed forms is ]irobablv verv large ; equallv 




Fit;. 4'J— Oecan'THUk inmcu.s. 



10(J ORTHOl'TEHA. 

little is iviiowu of tlieir habits or life-histories and tliere is room here for 
a very extended investigation by an observer situated in the plains. 
wliere these little insects abound. 



ATTRACTION TO LIGHT. 

Among the many methods ado])ted Ijy Entomologists to obtain 
insects in number, the light trap is one of the simplest and most effica- 
cious. In India, the attraction of insects to light is so disagreeably and 
abundantly proved, that it is familiar to every one, though there is little 
exact information as to which insects come to light. The real difficulty 
is not to get the insects to come to light but to catcli them in good condi- 
tion when they come. 

Generally speaking, a little is known as to the groups that are 
attracted by light and some careful collecting at liglit for a few years 
woukl soon furnish the data necessary to list the light-loving species. 

A curious point is the kind of light ; tlie intense white of an arc light 
brings insects in hordes as can be seen on Howrah bridge or on a river 
steamer : the same is true of the acetylene light, a very white intense 
light ; the yellower oil light may attract fewer insects because of its less 
range but this is by no means certain. Whether coloured lights exert 
the same influence, and which colours are best would appear to be a ])ro- 
mising line of research, es]iecially in relation to injurioiis insects as one 
might then be able to discriminate the harmful and not destroy the harm- 
less. Actually no experiments on this jioint seen to have been made 
in this country and our data refer to white light entirely. 

A consideration of the insects that are known to come to light in 
any country, has not, so fai' as we are aware, led to any facts concerning 
the nature of the attraction light exerts ; Crepuscular or Nocturnal 
insects are not attracted as a body, though naturally nearly all that 
are attracted to light are insects that are active after daylight. 
Only flying insects are known to be attracted, but so far as we are 
aware all experiments have been made with a light elevated above the 
ground and without means of trapping walking insects. A considerable 
proportion that come are ground insects, such as the Ground beetles, 
but the proportion is only what one would expect when one considers how 
large is this part of the fauna. The principal families found at white light 
in India are mentioned below but this account is a very incomplete one. 

Blattids are rareh' caught but some species have found their wa}- 
to light traps. Of Acridiidw. Kyacromiu domalis is a very notable ex- 
ample, coming abundantly to lights even into houses. A small Jiumber 



ATTRACTION lO LIGHT. I"? 

of other Acrid iida liavp tlic sainc liabit. ('(hkici'ii/kiIiis aiiKint; Loaiti- 
tidfjf. as well as Srhiznddcti/lns ami a few ;,'reen species, are found at light. 
Of GrijUidw. the burrowiui; mole crickets. linnlnjtriuxs. (InjUits. Semo- 
hius and otlier GniUincf, are attracted ; tlie little Tridaclijlince come 
in hordes to lamjis and are extraordinarily abundant at some seasons 
even at a feeble railway station lamp, hmbiids. winged termites and 
Myrmeleonids come readilv : Phrvganeids are con8])icuous by their i)i('- 
sence, as are /■'i)lie»i()>d>i. Montixiiidrs. Asralnphidfti and Clni/Kopidcs. 
Nearly all Hiiim tioptcni are diurnal, but tiie Hying ants are often caught 
in very large numbers at light tra])s and sonu- few Parasitica. Of Colcoi'- 
tera the nocturnal Scdrabrrids. ])rincipallv Mcloloiithids and I)i/nastids 
with some of the Coprids {Geolnipids) are attracted, as are the Vamhidw 
(especially Scaritides). Paiissidce. Cmithdrida'. some ^lalacodermids ami 
an occasioiuil weevil (Asetnus). 

Moths come freely, especially the Soctdidts and Pi/idlidn. with some 
Sphinijidf but not every species is atti'acted and the fact has to be 
ascertained for each species. Ci/dninw are the oidy I'uddtoniida known to 
nietobe freely attracted to liglit and this is jjossibly due to their habits: 
the (Janges terry steamers are sometimes swarming with StUuovpns. and. 
as all know, the "Oundi"" (Ci/diiiis) is only too fond of coming to the lani)) 
at dinner time. Sezdni viriduld. Ijinn.. is exceptional as being attract- 
ed to light, and there are others. A(|uatie Bluinchota are not uncommon 
at light and the little Corixa Iiieioglyphicd is occasionally very abundant. 
C/cflrfi'rf.s are caught at light occasionally, the giant water bug {Bfloxlonid) 
constantly. 

Of the Fidijoridfr. the small Ik-lphdvina come in swarms, as do the 
Jassida : 1 am not aware of other Honiopteru thougli there are very like- 
ly others, and 1 am not ac([uainted with any Diptera, except ( liirono- 
midce and Psi/cliodida>. The reader can see from the above how 
diverse are the insects that are attracted and what a curious selection of 
the nocturnal insect.s it is : whether there is a real physiological ex|)lana- 
tion, whether some are more curious than others, or whetiier some have 
more leisure to investigate strange phenomena, we must leave to others 
to decide. 

The use of lights and light traps has been a favourite method with 
agric\dturists in dealintt with certain classes of pests, but it is a method 
of verv uncertain value and it is not a method generally useful : it is 
essential to be certain that the pest to be captured does really come to 
light freely and this is a point usually neglected. 



NEUROPTERA. 



An assemblage of heterogeneous families, united in one order rather for con- 
venience than scientific accuracy. There are two pairs of wings, with 
many veins, both functional in flight and often of equal or nearly equal 
size. The mouthparts are mandibulate, usually of the predaceous type. 
The metamorphosis is incomplete in a part, complete in the remainder, 
the pupa usually active at the emergence of the imago. 

In a large number the nymphal or larval life is the only period of long duration 
and activity : in the remainder tlie imaginal is as long as the nymphal 
and of equal importance. The order includes predaceous and scaveng- 
ing, land and aquatic insects. None are parasitic, and none herbivorous. 

The order is here divided into ten families ; grouped in series ;— 

No Metamorphosis. 

I. — Wingless and Semiparasitic. 

Mallophaya. — On warm-blooded animals. 

Emhiidce.-~-Ymo pairs of narrow equal wings, 
few veins. Prothorax small. 



II. — Laud Insects. 
Pse udone uroptera. 



III. 



-Aquatic Insects. 
Neuroptera 
amphihiotica. 



Termitidce. — Two pairs of narrow equal wings, 
manj' veined. Prothorax large. 
.Social. 

Psocidw. — Forewing larger than hindwing, 
with few cross veins. Prothorax 

small. Gregarious. 

Perlidw. — Hindwings larger than forewings, 
folded. Coxse small, wide apart. 
Antennae long. Cerci in some forms. 
Tarsi 3 -jointed. 

Odonata. — Antenna> short. Two pairs of sub- 
equal wings, not folded over ab- 
domen. 

Ephemeridce. — Antennie short. Two or three 
cerci. Hindwings small or absent. 
Wings held upwards. 



NEUROPTERA. 



109 



IV. — Mandiblesin adult 
Neuroptem 
Planipennia. 



A Metamorphosis. 

\ Siiilidd'. SiaUnw. — Anteniiic loiifi. wiiijis 
, not reticulate. No ci'itI. 

Rdphidiina: — Protliora.x loiij;. 
PiiiKirpida-. — Head rostrate. 
Hinicrnhiida'. — Antenna- long, wings equal, 
much reticulate, no cerci. Tarsi 
■")-jointed. 
M i/niH'Ifonina'. — Antenna' knobbed, 

short. 
A.scalopliina'. — .\ntenn8e knobbed, 

Ncmopterince. — Hindwings long and 

very narrow. 
Mcnitispina'. — F o r e I e g s a s i n 

Mantidse. 
HemerohiitKe. — Antenna' nionili- 

forni. 
Chnisopinw. — Antennae setiforin. 
I Coniopteripjitue. — Wings powdery. 

V. — No Mandibles in iPlii-i/i/dneida-. — Wings hairy, an anal area to 

adult. I hindwing. which is longer than 

Neuroptem j forewing. Coxae long, oontigu- 

Trichoptern. I ous. Tarsi -^-jointed. 

The relationships of these families are obscure, and it is probably 
useless to atJtempt to derive them from any common stock. The prob- 
lem is complicated by the number of aquatic families, which we may take 
to have been derived from terrestrial air-breathing forms. Equally the 
semi-parasitic MaUophaga are probably derived from free-living forms. 
It is reasonable to accept present-day Termitidce as a separate branch, 
derived possibly from forms which were connected with the Blattid 
ancestors : Emhiidw and Psocidce are off-shoots from some primitive 
form of Xeuropteron possibly related to Forficulidcp. Ephemeridce and 
Odonata are derived from insects found far back in geological times, 
which had probably a common ancestral race, which was terrestrial: 
the Perlidae are related to the Ephemerida> and probably are a recent 
branch. Sialidw and Panorpidce may be branches from one stock, in 
which metamorphosis was developed, and from which came, far back, 
the Hemerobiidce. Trichoptem also remain and in the absence of data, 
it may perhaps be placed as an offshoot of the ancestral race in which 
metamorphosis had been developed, emerging therefore from tin. 



110 NEUROPTERA. 

terrestrial aiiee.sto]- of the Pldiiipennia. Quite ])ossibl\- this Ijraiicli 
leads on from an ancestor of the present Trichoptera to the Lcpidopteni. 
tlie ancestor of Micropterjix and of Trichoftem being the same and thus 
ijivin}); the point of contact. 

Mallopha(;a. — Biting Lice. 

Sviiill ir/)i(jle>is insects, nearly all parasitic on birds. Theij liave bitin</ 

mouthparts and the body is flattened, the head 

often large and broad. 

The Mallophaga or Bird-lice are sometimes confused with the Pedi- 
culidce (Head-lice and body-lice). Although both are parasitic on warm- 
blooded animals and have somewhat the same appearance, they are 
(|uite distinct, the Pedieulidce being sucking insects, allied to Hemiptera. 
while the Mallophaga have well-developed biting mouthparts and never 
suck, living on the dry skin, scurf, and feathers of their hosts. Their 
relationship to other insects is doubtful, and Kellogg, who has monfi- 
graphed the group (Genera Insectorum Fasc. ()(>) reckons them as a 
distinct Order. Mallophaga spend their whole life on the host, and soon 
die when removed or when the body of the host becomes cold in death. 
Observations on their life-histories are for this reason difficult, and little 
is known except that the metamorphosis is incomplete. Kellogg puts 
the known species at over a thousand, and a large number of these are 
restricted to one definite species of bird ; others are found on several 
different birds, but usually these birds either are accustomed to associate 
one with another in flocks, or belong to closely related species, though 
these related species may occur onh- in widely sejiarated ]>ai'ts of the 
world. 

Kellogg explains this curious fact by reference to the sedentary 
mode of life of the insects, which prevents their spreading from bird to 
bird except by actual contact. He supposes that the species of Mallo- 
phaga have remained unchanged since the remote periods when many 
different species of birds, (now settled in different parts of the globe and 
separated from their near relations,) had not yet diverged or evolved 
from their common ancestral species. Those ancient bird-lice which 
infested the ancestral bird continued to infest the ancestral bird's des- 
cendants: even though these descendants in time diverged into several 



MAM.OPHAOA. 



Ill 




4S— Cdl.l'OCEPHAr.I'M 
CUIKAENSls 

{Afirr hyilnri;/}. 



distinct si)(>ci('s, tlic coiulitions of life rciiuiiuod 
so nmcli like wliat tlicv luul always liccii that 
the bivd-lici' liaxc t<i this da\' ri'taiiiod tlic 
same specific charactoi's whicli thi'\' jiossosscfl 
in those far-off times. 

A few MdUopluHja (about ■")() known 
species) are found on Mammals, and tliey are 
distinguislied from the bird-infesting species 
by having single-clawed feet ; the species on 
birds have two claws. Tlie mammalian liosts 
include most of the domestic animals, as well 
as others of very various kinds. Kellogg's 
classification into families is as follows: — 1 
iiave included the names of the )iriiiri]ial 
gei\era in each family. 

Antenna- visible, ;^ or .")-segment/<>d : no ma.xillaiT ])alpi : niaiulibles 
vertical: mesti- and meta-thorax usually fused. Sub-order 
Ischnorera. 

Antenna" .">-segmeuted ; tarsi with 1 claw ; infesting mam- 
mals. Family Trichodectidcp. tJenus Trichndectes 4") sp. 
Antennae 5-segmented ; tarsi with 2 claws ; infesting birds. 
Family Philopteridce. Chief genera Dncnphorux 210 sp. 
Nirmus 228 sp. Lipeurus 181 sp. 
Antennae concealed 4-segmented; with 4-iointed maxillary palpi; 
mandibles horizontal ; meso-meta -thoracic suture usually visible. 
Sub-order Ambli/cera. 

Tarsi with 1 claw; infesting mammals. Family (hirophhr. 

Genus Gyropus 7 sp. 

Tarsi with 2 claws; practically all infesting birds. Family 

Liotheidce. Chief genera Colpocephahini, Menopon 211 sp. 

Kellogg' s list does not record any species as coming from India. 

(Perhaps Tn'chodectes tujris, taken from a tiger is from this country.) 

If, however, one takes the trouble to examine a few birds, especially at 

the roots of the feathers about the neck and base of the wings, it will not 

be long before these insects are discovered, and evidently there must 

be a large number of Indian species. Those named by Kellogg as having 



112 



NEUROPTERA. 



been obtained from birds belonging to species which occur in India are 
fourteen in number, and belong to the nine genera Docophorus, Nirmus, 
Goniocotes, Akidoproctus, Goniodes, Ornithohkis, Lipeurus, Colpocepha- 
ium, Menopon and Trinotum. 

Fig. 44 shows the egg, a young stage, and tlie adult of the louse of 
one of the big Indian buzzards (Pernis cristatus), and indicates how 






Fig. 44— Egg, nymph and adult of a biting louse on an Indian buzzard 
(Peknis cristatus). Magnified. 

slight is the difference between the young and the full-grown parasite. 

The eggs are found firmly attached to the feathers of the bird. Fowls 

or other domesticated birds, if infested with lice, can be rid of them by 

carefully brushing any non-irritant vegetable oil (not paraffin or crude 

oil) on the skin and about the roots of the feathers. The oil .stops u]i 

tha breathing-spiracles and suffocates the insects. This treatment is 

also effective for clearing fowls or other animals of ticks. (F. M. H.) 

Emhiid.e. 

Narrow delicate insects, the profhorax small, the wings, 

when present, with few veins. 

These little insects have an extremely characteristic appearance 

due to the elongate body, the short legs, the small abdominal cerci, and 

(in the males) especially the narrow, usually dark coloured, wings. 

They are black or dull-coloured, small and very delicate. The anteinise 

are well developed, the mouthparts are of the biting type ; the prothorax 

is small, the tarsi three-jointed, and there is, in the male, an asymmetry 

of the cerci. The insects are suggestive of a primitive condition, 



113 



especially in (lie thcinix, llic wiiif^s attaclicd tn scgiiiciits that aro in i 
way fused i)r ailaptcd to tin- imrixiscs of liiglit. 

Very little is kmiwii of such fiajiile insects. The males are rominon 
at ligiits and are often found in houses. In the field, they are found 
on the surface of the ground, usually under stones or in some damp 
sheltered locality. Tliey have been seen to prepare webs from threads 
whicli are produced by glands in the forefeet. This is a remarkable 
circumstance and very different from the nu'tliods of silk ])rodu(tion 
general in the in.scct world. 

Tlie nature of tlie food is unknown, but as the insects are rare and 
very few, they are not of economic importance, and while of interest 
to the naturalist, are not likely to be found except at a lamp indoors 
by any but a skilled observer in the field. 

One species [Olujotoma michadi Mad.) has been found in London 
and is believed to have been imported with orchids from India. 
Another species (0. saundersi, Westw.) (fig. 45) is described from 
Bengal (Trans. Linn. Soc, XVII, '-VSl). 




^P\ 



Via. 4.')— Olicotoma saundersi. 
{A ftfr Wealwood.) 



Iffi 



NKUnni^TK.UA. 



.). A\'oo(l-Mas(m in I SS.S (I'l'oc. Zool. Soc'.. JSs:;, p, :S2S) (Icscriljcd 
and fijiurpd Indian Embiidcs and recounts the capture of nymplis and 
females. The female he describes as wingless, shinino; black and more 
firmly chitinized than are the males. Males, as he remarks, are common 
at light, Olnjolonin saundersi, Westw., being the common sjiecies. Tlie 
nymphs he found gregarious undei- bricks and he figures the asymme- 
tric male appendages. 




\. 



; 



>w 




We have found colonies of these delicat(> little insects in the shelter 
of the long dry culm-sheaths of th(> (iiant Bamboo (Banihitxa ariin- 

(linnren). as also under 
bricks on the soil and in 
decaying leaves. They live 
in tubes of fine wliite silken 
material, which ramify over 
the sheath : we were unable 
to find any except where 
the sheath had been exten- 
sively bored by a minute 
Scolytid and in captivity 
they refused to make tubes 
or to remain alive except 
on such sheaths ; whether 
they fed on the dust pro- 
duced bv the Scolytid or 
on some othei' material could not b(> ascertained : the (piite snuill 
insects are white, and very active, running (juickly along the 
tunnels and with ecpuil facility liackwurds or i'oi'wards ; on seeing 
them scurrying backwards along the tube our is led to think that 
the anal cerci serve as the antenna' do when the ijisect is rumiing 
forwards. The half-grown nymph has a leddisli head, tjie body 
whitish and soft. The student should consult Hagen's monograpli 
of the giou]) jiublished in the Canadian Entomologist, \o]. XVJll 
(liSM5), wherein 17 species are discu£sed. Embia Braliniina, Sss., 
was described in 1896 from Bombay (Mt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., IX. 
]). 352), and E. LatreiUei, Ramb., in 1."'42 from Bombay, Mauritius ami 
Madagascar (Neuropteres, p. .">l:'). 



-Ol.KUVroMA SACNDKKSI, MAI.K ([.Kt'Tl. 
KiTOMA SI'.. KKMAI.K (llICHT). ■ 4. 



TERMITID.i:. 

'kkm iTm.lv Tcnin'IfS. 



115 



/''()(//■ lanjr iriii<is. in rijiDxc h/imi jlnl on tlif dnisioii ; llirrc jrr 

thnrnrir sn/nx'iils. A mil icni arc jircsoil. Social, inlli 

liKirki'il jiiih/iiiorjiliisiii oj (isc.raal Itidiriihuils. 




'I'liosc little insects are I'ainiliaj- eliielly I'roin tiieir (lc|ireilati(iiis and 
are |iractieaJ|y never seen except in the wiiificd I'drni, unless liioked lor. 
Tln'vare clearly distinct iVnni all otlici' Xciirojifcid 
by theii- InihitM, and I'rnin social // //tiioiapli'ra 
hy (lu'ir structure. 'Die antcnne are shoit 
and strai^iit. 'i'lie segnieiils <d' the thorax ai'c 
distinct, tlic abdomen moderately larf^e with a 
, trxfffjrw \ I'ii'i" of cerci. TJio legs are foiined f(M- lunnini;, 

/ \V///m\ \ ''"' m<"itli])ai-ts for hitiiifi'. The colour of nearly 
all is the dull white of insects which live alwa\-s 
in concealincnt, and the inteynment is corres- 
[)ondin<;ly .'<<d't ; only in those winged individuals 
which einei'ge to the air is the skin haiilened 
and tlie ns\ial colour (d' su(di insects is a deej) 
chestnut brown. 

l'"i;;. 47 — Tkumks oiiKsus, 
"IX(.F.l) FOKM. X -J. 

'riie most strildng feature of tjie tei'mites is 
tlie gj-eat d(>\-elo|)nieiit of the social svstcm. 
Tlie nest is peopled and managed by the tiny woikers, small insects, 
sexually immature, wliich are active and do the necessary work of 
the nest ; there aic also a uumbei- (d similarly sexless indivi- 
duals, usually with larger Iioads and more luoniinent jaws, whose 
function apjiarentlv is the defence of the nest and the overseeing 
of the work of tlie nest carried on by the workers. .\s neither of these 
castes can usually re])roduce, a limited luunber of sexual indixidnals 
are maintained, namely a wingless mature and fertilised (pieen, a 
wingless mature inale, reserve immature (jueens and males. These 
suffice for the ])eo])ling of the nest and the establishment of new nests 
is provided for by the production of huge luunbers of winged males and 
females at a special season of the year. 



1 16 NEUROPTERA. 

The conduct of tlie nest apparently rests with the woikers, wlio 
feed the whole community and who regidate the supply of each class of 





Fij;. 4S— Ter.mopsis wroughtoni male and soldier : X s. 
{From Desneux.) 

individuals. The queen is a lielpless individual, whose sole function is 
the production of eggs ; she lives in the nest and is usually an immensely 
developed creature with great egg-producing capacities ; to provide 
for fertilised eggs a male is kept. In reserve are immature males and 
females which can be brought on when desired. The perplexing problem 
is how so many individuals are produced from one kind of egg. We meet 
with the same problem in ants and bees, and undoubtedly there is signi- 
ficance in the fact that in both cases the food is "artificial," it is food 
prepared by the workers and whose composition can be varied ; probably 
they administer different kinds of food to the larvaj according as they 
want a particular kind of individual. The food of the whole nest con- 
sists of vegetable fibre, chewed up by the workers and partially digested ; 
in one species it is stated to be regurgitated from the anterior part of the 
alimentary canal or excreted from the posterior part and is apparently 
in both cases used for food, which pi'obably has very different degrees 
of juitritive value, 



117 



It is a most striking thing to eonsider tliat the control of tin- wiiole 
system of develo{)ment is in tiie hands of tlie lowest of all, the workers, 
and to the philosopher, the social system coiii- 
^ Z' i)ares favourably with the pitch of development 

*>k. 1^ .*#< reached by the human race. New nests are pro- 

vided for very simply. .Vt certain seasons, 
immense numbers of winged nudes and females 
emerge. They are clumsy insects, and fiy badly. 
They rise in a cloud and are at once attacked by 
innumerable birds and enemies. Those that 
escape shed their wings at the suture and couple. 
They then get into shelter and start a new nest if 
possible ; the female lays eggs, the eggs hatch 
to workers and tlie new nest starts. In spite 
of the immense numbers produced, few such 
females escape to found nests. The emeri-ence 
of these sexual winged individuals is constantly 
observed during the rainy months, and appears 
to occur after 'heavy rain when the air is still. 
A small opening is made in the surface of the 
soil and immense numbers of the winged insects 
])our out, crowding one after the other. As they 
emerge they attempt to fly and flutter upwards in a cloud, a phenome- 
non very quickly observed and one which attracts the attention of 
birds. Many cannot fly on emergence but run on the soil first and 
these are the prey of ants which at once carry them ot? living. The 
phenomenon strikes one as curiously interesting, the immense num- 
ber of individuals pouring out, their feeble upward flight into the air 
where they become the food of birds, the hasty death of those that do not 
at once fly, carried off living to the nests of ants and there devoured ; 
there is an immense waste of life, and the appearance of these winded 
termites is the signal for so great a gathering of ants and birds that one 
imagines it to be a well-known thing for which they are on the look-out 
at this season. Very few have a chance of surviving and even those which 
shed their wings do not escape, being the more readily carried off by ants. 

The nest is a most remarkable structure, consisting of numberle.'-s 
chambers and galleries, the walls of a moderately hard substance which 




Via. 4n-TEK.MEs 

OBESIS, IJCEEN. 



118 NEUROPTERA. 

is apparently a product derived from the chewed fibre tlie workers bring 
in. These nests are often two and three feet in diameter. Tlie situatioji 
of the nest varies with the species; the nests of some Indian species are 
deep in the soil, of others near or at the surface or in banks. Apparently 
this varies with the nature of the soil, the same species building its nest 
at different depths in different localities. 

The student should consult Fetch's paper on the fungi of certain 
termite nests in Ceylon (Ann. Roy. Bot. Garden, Peradeniya III, p. 
1S5, llKXi). Though dealing with species not occurring in our fauna, 
the account of the fungi is of special interest. The "small white, stalked 
or almost sessile spheres" observed Ijv him on the spongy masses are 
probably similar to those observed in the nests of Termes obesus in India. 
The origin and nature of these spheres or their connection with other 
fungus forms connected with the nests is not clear. The author states 
that the spongy masses are wholly formed of the excrement of the work- 
er* ; that thi.s material is probably sterilised by its passage through the 
alimentaiy ca)ial, and that not only are special fungi cultivated on it 
l)ut that other fungi, not desired by the termites, grow which are 
weeded by the workers ; when a nest is abandoned these 'weeds' grow 
unchecked. He also states that it is probable but not proved that 
these white spheres form the food of the termites, and that it is not 
clear if a difference of food causes the differentiation of the forms 
seen in a termite's nest. The hills are formed wholly of material 
removed from the nest in excavating and covered with saliva, which 
the workers take out of the nest and build up into masses ; there is 
no definite object in these chimneys which would probably blow away 
were the material not covered with saliva and of such a nature as to 
compact firmly. 

Termites are extremely destructive in houses, owing to their fond- 
ness for woody matter. On obtaining entry to a house, they will 
destroy wooden beams and rafters, door frames, window frames and 
other wooden portions, without such a fact being at all evident 
at first. Having obtained access to wood at the soil or having 
taken a tunnel up to it, they work wholly within an:l remove the 
woody fibre. No estimate is ])()ssil)l(" of the anunnit of damage thus 
caused in India, and the ])revalence of termites varies immensely 



I'KKMITID.K. Il'.l 

from |iliici' 111 |il;icc. It is (III rrciiiil tliat in |S|| i Hivciiiincnt Hchim'. 
<'iilriitta, was sn-iiiusly attacki'd and tln-ic sccnis mi n^asdii win- anv 
i)uildinj; in wliicli wond was usrd slimild luit lie di>st niycd in time. 
Termite communitii's aj-i' sn imiiii'iiS" and tlii'ii iiidu.str\- sn <;i'fat tluit 
their t-ombined eHoits aiv vciv ctTcclivc. In ntlicr parts nl tlic 
world, eatable objects an' said to disapiicai' in a nij;]it : tlir oiil\- paral- 
lel case of recent occurrence in liulia that can lie (|note(l is a prison in 
Hengal, iu which tlie bedding of the prisoners was destroyed in the night 
wliile tile prisoiu'rs were sleeping on it. Their etl'orts are not contined 
to dead vegetables tissue, but they are ])articularly dcstiiutive to 
wheat, to sunflower, groundnut and sugarcane. Tlp'sc litt'e insects 
excrete an acid li(|nid cajialile of attacking metal and it lias been 
lonnd tiiat where their galleries cross metal, the metal corr<ides. 

In jcviewing the Termites in Genera InaeetonuK, Desneux regards 
them as distinct from all families of Nenroptera and as an ofl'shoot of a 
simpler form of Hlattida'. According to tliis view, the family should 
follow the BhtUidw. but owing to their degree of specialisation he regards 
them as a separate order under the terni hiijilera. 'I his is poss'bly a 
correct view, and it is undoubtedly misleading, if convenient, to uron]i 
Termites and the other miscellaneous familiis in SenKiiiti ni : the time 
has as yet hardly come to separate Neuroptera into orders as homogen- 
ous and natural as others, and we have ])referred to keep them as a 
family, the order Neiiroidem being regarded as a convenient group of 
miscellaneous insects whose position is not (piite clear, just as the large 
series Puh/iiiorplid includes many very diveise families of ('oleuptera. 

There are nearly 4U0 species listed by Desneu.x. of which 15 arc 
recorded from India exclusive of Ceylou. 

The following species are known from India : — 

Teniiupsis icroi'ijlitoni. Desn.. is from Kashmir (Jo. 13u. Xat. Hist. 
Soc, 1904. p. -i-iy. nidCi. p. L'lci). The only known Himalayan termite 
{fig. 48). 

rt'/'Hifx' (Leucotennes) iiidieulu. Wasm.. from "India."' 

Termed (Arrliinotermes) Heiiiii. Wasm.. from ■■ India." 

Termes (Coptotermes) (jeslroi. Wasm.. from liurina, and Malaysia. 

Termcs briinneun, Hagen.. from Hengal. 



120 NEUROPTERA. 

Ternten fatalis, Koii., from Ceylon and India. 

Termes jew, Wasni., from Burmah. 

Termes Horni, Wasm., from India and Ceylon. 

Termes obesus, Ramb., from "India" (figs. 47 & 49). 

Termes taprobanes, Wlk., from India and Ceylon. 

Termes ferriiginosus, La,ti., from "India." 

Termes (Eutermes) Assmuthi, Wasm., from "India." 

Termes (Eutermes) cyclops, Wasm., from "India." 

Termes (Eutermes) Heimi, Wasm., from "India." 

Termes (Eutermes) longicornis, Wasm., from "India and Ceylon." 

Termes (Eutermes) quadriceps, Wasm., from "India." 

Termes (Eutermes) xenotermitis. Wasm., from "Burmah." 

In a recent paper, Desneux has described a further number of In- 
dian species from Sind (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XLIX, 1905, p. 343). 
These were found by T. R. Bell who adds notes of the habits. 
Hodotermes macrocephalus, Desn., is described as the common termite of 
Sind, building underground nests and cutting pieces of grass stems 
and Heliotropum which it stored in the nest. Termes mycophayus , 
Desn., is described as a fungua-growing species, filling chambers 
underground with masses of soft yellow globules, on which it is 
supposed fungi grow. Termes Belli, Desn., was found nesting in the 
same spot as the Hodotermes above. Termes Sindensis, Desn., was also 
found in Sind. 

The termite of the plains of India is Termes obesus Ramb., speci- 
mens having been obtained from widely scattered places in India. This 
species nests either deep in the ground, or near the surface, depending 
probably upon the nature of the soil, but this is not certain. Nests have 
been found and examined, as also have the small outlying fungus cham- 
bers that they make. In some parts of India the nests begin near the 
surface of the soil and stretch upwards in the form of conical mounds; 
in other places they are at the surface but not above it ; elsewhere they 
are deep in the soil. This termite never shows above ground unless in a 
tunnel or gallery : the insects are seen only when they emerge in the 
winged state ; their tunnels were found in Pusa 11 feet below the soil 
level and were occupied by workers. Where they tunnel so deeply nests 
are never found ; small fungus chambers have been found but no nests ; 



PLATE VIII.-Termks OBEsrs. 

Main and subsidiary fungus chambers, sh.iwn from below and from tlie 
side. Reduced three times 



PLATE VIII 





psot'in.i!. 121 

and though the insects appear for instanee in every part of the Piisa es- 
tate (1,300 acrea), no nest can be found; excavations made at the spot 
whence the winged forms emerged in a great swarm revealed nothing. 
Usually the ([ueen is found in a cell deep in the nest, with fungus cham- 
bers round ; her eggs are found in masses in cells in the fungus bodies, 
small soft white eggs from which the tiny white nymph hatches. ■ 

The fungus bodies are found, flattened and concave below, rest- 
ing on the Hoors of the cells in the soil but not touching the walls or the 
roof; they are sponge-like, witli ramifying cavities on the walls of 
which the fungus fruits grow in the ahape of small round white knobs. 
(Plate VIII.) 

The forms this termite takes are shown in the figures. We believe 
this to be the termite responsible for all the damage done to crops, trees 
and building.s in India, and it is to be hoped that a really thorough in- 
vestigation may some day be made into its economy and habits. 

For a list of insects found in its nests see below under Myrnie- 
cophilous Insects (after Paussidae). 

PsociD.E. — Book Lice. 
Soft inscctx, oj !<m(ill size, ivith hvo pairs of 'irinys, the hind jHtir 
smaUcr ; prothorax very small, except in the iriiujless 
forms. Tarsi of two or three joints. 
The Psocids are a .small group of inconspicuous insects, easily recog- 
nised by their general appearance and nuist similar to the smaller forms 




Kifr. ."()— KOLBEA SOLAX. 

{A/fer Enihrh.in.) 

of Termites. The colouring is generally dull, the wings occasionally 
banded and the body bright. The smaller forms are all less than one- 



122 



NEUROPTERA. 



fifth of an iiK-li long, tlie largest never exceeding oiie-tliird of an incli. 
The antenna' are slender, moderately long ; there are simple and com- 
pound eyes. The mouthparts are peculiar, and are apparently very 
greatly modified biting mouthparts, small and inconspicuous. The 
wings and legs are well developed, the former with comparatively few 
veins. Males and females are similar in general appearance. 

The life history is very imperfectly known. Eggs, often covered 
with excrementitious matter, are laid under webs produced by the pa- 
lents from silk excreted from the mouth. The young are nymphs simi- 
lar to the adults in general features and found gregariously with them. 
One species seems to be common in the plains, its eggs being laid on the 
leaf under webbing. A far larger and brighter species is found in the 
moister parts of India on tree trunks ; this appears to be Psoctis leni- 
niscatus. Endl., found also in Java. The species live in the open on 
bark, under leaves, in damp places under shelter, on leaves; their food 
consists of animal or vegetable matter in the form of fungi, moulds, 
bark, etc. Others {Atropides) live in houses in damp close situations, a 
damp wall being a favourite place. The commonest species lives thus 
in houses, in damp paper, in damp corners, and this attack^ and 
destroys dried in.sects. New insect 
store-boxes, if damp, breed them in 

great abundance, the little insects ap- ♦ \ v i 

parently finding food upon the damp 
paper: when insects specimens are put 
in, they feed within these and in time 
tlestroy them. 

The number of species of Psocids is 
apparentl}' a large one, but as little 
attention is paid to them, few are 
described. Two sub-families are re- 
cognised, the winged Psocinw with 
ocelli, the Atmpince which have rudi- 
mentary or no wings and no ocelli. 

Dr. Enderleins' paper (Die Copeog- 
nathen des Indo-australischen Gebiet) 
enumerates ten species of the former from the Indian region, chiefiy 
collected by Biro. One European species has been found in the 




l'"iy. ol - Aluul'OS SP. 

(A,fh>- Smilh.) 



O H KO A lUKl'SN KSS . 1 "JS 

Himalayas, the remaining .spcfit's arc Ideal. Seareely anytliiiii: can lie 
said to he known of the familv in India, their miiiuti' size and extrnni' 
<leii(aey l)eing unfavourable to eolleetion and ]ireseivati()n. 
The recorded species are : — 

PsocHS lontiicontlg- K. 

PsocKS nebiiloiiiis. — St. 

PsocKs tai)roban('s. — Hag. var. hcmjiili usis. Koliic. 

PsocKS cinereus. — Enderl. 

Copostigma indicum. — Enderl. 

Carilius liiDttilai/duus. — Enderl. 

Ainphijisocug pilosKs. — Mad. 

Ertopiiocus (leu iiddtdn. — Enderl. 

Myopsoviis fraternits. — Hagen. 

Perientomum morosuni. — Hagen. 

Lepium chrysochloriiui A"«rf.— (Spol. Zeyl. I'.iUd, \>. si). 
None are of the smallest economic im])ortance though the insect 
eating one {Atropos sp.) is a great nuisance in the rains wlien specimens 
cannot be kept dry. The study of these insects, especially in tlie moister 
parts of India, would very greatly increase our knowledge of t]ie gronj) 
and yield valuable results from the biological, as from the systematic 
aspect. 



GREGA RIOUSNESS 

If we exclude the purely .social insects, in which for the good of tlie 
conununity there is a well marked division of labour accompanied by 
polymorphism, we find that the great mass of insects are, as far as we 
know, wholly solitarv. Consider the commonest insects there are about 
us. and watch their ways ; all live for themselves individually and appear 
to take no notice of each other, except when impelled by the mating 
instinct. It is perhaps s.ife to say " apparently " because for all we 
know there may be modes of inter-connnunication not revealed by 
external movements, as there must be certainly in some species of ants. 
There are, however, a small number of insects constantly gregarious, as 
apart from ' " Social ' ' and it is these forms we propose now to mention. 
The student will think of insects that migrate but these are gregarious 
only wjien this migrating instinct overtakes them and at other times are 
whollv solitarv. 



124 NEUROPTERA. 

Perliapis the coiunionest iii«taiice of truly gregarious insects are the 
free -living Psocidw whicli live under a common web in little colonies on 
the leaves and bark of trees and other plants. Possibly the common 
link is the shelter that the web provides, possibly there is some faint 
approximation to the truly social condition. Another instance are the 
Embiidce. One finds numbers of these delicate insects together using 
the same silken runs and living in a little colony together. It is doubt- 
ful if they ever live in any other way but why they should do so is not 
clear ; the reason that suggests itself is that there are few spots suitable 
to them and that here they naturally gather and make common runs 
and shelters. A better and more striking instance is the PyrrJiocorid 
bug Iphita liiubata : great numbers of this bug cluster together on one 
spot on a tree trunk, and that they remain there is shown by the heap 
of exuvise below the spot. Why they do so is not at all clear ; their ally 
the Red Cotton Bug (Dtjsdercus chuiulatus) appears to have the same 
habit, but this is clearly a case of food or of enhancing their warning 
eolour and they cluster on the seeds or pods to feed or sleep only. The 
Coreid Corizus riibicundus, Westd., lives till mature in clusters which look 
like vivid red flowers. Some moth caterpillars and a few Pierid cater- 
pillars are gregarious, hatching from eggs laid in clusters and remaining 
together for a longer or shorter time. Some remain in webbed leaves 
till they pupate ; others for a short time only and in these cases, which 
are fairly numerous, the web made as a shelter is often the reason. Thus 
Caradrina exiqua larvae remain together for a few days in the webbed 
leaves as do the larvae of Diacrisia obliqua and many other Noctuids and 
, Arctiids. An interesting gregarious insect is the common Machilis found 
on rocks and under leaves ; it is apparently always gregarious. Young 
Pentatomids are often gregarious for the first two or three instars, and the 
persistent way in which some remain together when newly hatched out 
shows that it is instinctive. Cockroaches are gregarious also and 
apparently often prefer being in company to being alone. Gyrinidce are 
distinctly and markedly gregarious and apparently take delight in their 
combined evolutions on the surface of still water. Opatrum among 
Tenebrionids is gregarious in the sense that the beetles like to crowd 
together in groups and clusters instead of remaining solitary. Haltica 
cyanea, Web., is another beetle that lives and feeds in company, 
though such instances are very rare. 

Perlid.-e. — Stone flies. 

Delicate Insectx, n-ith the hind winijs large and folded beneath the 
jorewings. Leys widely separated, with small coxa. 
Larva aquatic. 

These typically Neurojiterous insects are distinguished from other 
allied groups by the above characters, by the long antennae, and the 



125 



tliri'c-jointcd tarsi : as a rule tlicic arc two Imiji anal corci (('xc-pi)t in 
Nenioura). They arc in((ins])icn(iiis insects of wliicli apparent!}- no- 
thing is yet known in India. In <jcncral the Periida> are, in tlie immature 
stages, aquatic ; the eggs, laid on tlie surface of the water, sinl< to tlie 
bottom and hatch to active nymphs ; these are flattened, with an 
elongate body, the iicad witli biting mouthparts ; air is obtained by 
means of tufts of gill filaments ; two long many-jointed cerci terminate 
the abdomen. Those known elsewhere are predaceous, and are found 
under stones or at the bed of rapidly flowing streams. The full grown 
nymph is said to crawl out of the water before the emergence of the 
imago. The family is often classed with the order Pseudoneuroptera 
or is treated as a separate order Plecoptera. When more attention is paid 
to Neuroptera in India, they may prove to be abundant in species ; they 
are of no economic importance, direct or indirect. No species appear 
to be recorded from India. 



( )i>().\.\T.\. DnvjoH-fiies. 

Two pairs of lomj narrow wifigs of equal size ; antenna' vcr// ■•oiinU 

and frrminafimj in n bristle. Head large and mohilc. 

Tarsi three-jointed. 

A large group of large insects, easily recogni.'sable from nearly all other 
insects by their wings, (which are in repose held out horizontally and not 
resting over the body,) by the 
peculiar antennae, the large mobile 
head and the active habits of the 
flying insect. The imagines vary in 
length from an inch upwards with 
a span across the wings up to four 
inches. They are, as a rule, bright- 
ly coloured, black with blue, yellow, 
red, metallic green and other bright 
colours predominating. The colour 
is possibly warning, probably simply 
beautiful, though it is difficult 
to generalize about insects so vari- 
ou.°ly coloured. (^,.o,„ j/„,.,;„., 




12fi NEITROPTERA. 

'Plie liciul is large and very mobik', witli imiiuMisi' (■(inipduiKl eyes. 
Ill some cases tlie facets on the upper surface are larger than on the lower 
and this difference may be an adaptation to both long and short sight. 
The active habits of these insects necessitates very perfect siglit and 
the compound eyes appear to be very highly developed. The antennae 
are .small, with few segments, and are bristle-shaped. The mouthparts 
are of the sharp biting type. The thorax is large and the individual seg- 
ments consolidated into a s-ngle mass. The long wings are attached to 
the sides ; the powerful muscles and well-built thorax give the insect 
very great powers of flight. The legs are placed very far forward on the 
thorax and this is apparently an adaptation to the predaceous habits 
of these insects. They catch their prey on the wing, hawking for fly- 
ing insects ; the legs extend forwards below the head in the form of a 
basket ; as the dragon-fly rushes through the air and pounces on an insect 
the legs grasp the jirey and hold it below the head, the dragon-fly remain- 
ing in motion throughout. The captive is then devoured. Dragon-flies 
are found only on the wing or resting on twigs, leaves or grass stalks. 
The peculiar position of the legs facilitates this method of repose but 
does not enable the insect to walk. The abdomen is long and thin 
terminated in claspers or processes. The method of fertilization is some- 
what remarkable, the .seminal fluid which issues from the tip of the ab- 
domen being transferred to a pouch on the second abdominal segment, 
which is provided with coupling organs ; the male then grasps the female 
by the neck and she brings the tip of her abdomen to this pouch : in 
some species this process takes place over the water and eggs are laid in 
the intervals of coupling. In others the female descends under water, 
carrying air with her between the wings and body and there deposits her 
eggs ; others deposit the eggs while flying over the water, or while 
lying motionless on it with extended wings and a few are known to lav 
them in mud. 

The life history is, so far as known, 
the same throughout the family. Eggs 
are laid in water, a mass of eggs in a 
transparent mucilaginous envelope 
being deposited. The larvae are 
Fifr. .-iS.-AEsrHNii. NVMi'H. active, with three pairs of legs, short 




(IDOXATA. 



12'; 



aiiteniuv mihI liitiiiit iniiutli|iavts (if a pi'ciiliar t>'|ii'. Tlic Idwcr 
side of t]u' licad is roncoalcd liy a (Icvcliiimicnt of tlic Unvcr li)i. in the 
form of a loiiu jointed arm-like stnietiii'e. wliicdi folds down onci' tlie 
moutli and whicli is armed at tlu' tip with ]>rocesses heariiiij strong 
s|)ines. This jointed arm extends very ra])idl\' to a consideralile length 
seizes the ])rey and withdraws it to tlie month, wliere are tlie sliarp max- 
ill e and mandil)les with wliieh the prev is devonicd. Like otiier a(|iia- 
tie laiva\ tliese must obtain a snp]ily of air and as tlu'y li\c l)eh)w the 
snrface, tliis air mnst he ol)tained from the water. 'Iliis is effected in 
tlie LiheUiilindc and Aesriivindr by taking water into tin' leetnm, tlie 




Fiir. r)!. — Ai.niKNTARY iaxai. anh tk.\(HE i-: of AK-scuxin nvmwi. 

))osterior portion of the alimentary canal, wliich is modified to act as a 
gill and to extract air from the water : this part of tlie alimentary canal 
is penetrated by trachea, into which the air is absorbed and which dis- 
tribute it as in other insects. (Fig. 54) The nymjilis can be seen to 
take in and eject water from the hind end. 
the violent ejection of water also serving to 
propel the nymph forward and assist it 
to obtain its ]n'ey. In the Af/rioninac. 
the nymph is provided with three flat lamel- 
lar appendages at the apex of the abdomen. 
which fnnction as gills. (Fig. 5-")). 

Like the adult, the nymph is jiredaceous, 
the teeming fauna of fresh water snjiplying 
it with an ample supply of food. When 
fnllgrown, the nytnphs climb nji ont of 
the water, the skin breaks along tlie 
dorsnm. aiul the perfect insect emerges ; 
the wings are gradually developed out- Fi". .Vi.-AonioMn i.auv.^. 




128 NEUROPTERA. 

side of the body in tlie nyiiiplis, as in t]ie OrtJioptera, and the metamor- 
phosis is thus an incomjjlete one. It is more complete than in the 
Orthoftera, as there is one sudden change from nymph to adult, when the 
insect from being a repulsive crawling creature becomes suddenly winged 
and aerial ; but it is incomplete in the sense that there is no resting 
pupal stage as in the Hymenoptera. 

It is impossible to discuss the extremely interesting variations, 
which are found in the nymphs of various species, in the manner of life and 
respiration ; the aquatic insect fauna of this continent appears to be a 
sealed book and nothing is known in detail. Nymphs have been found 
living in dried up pools, apparently not injured by the absence of water 
and obtaining air directly. It is doubtful to what extent this occurs, 
and whether there are any species that live so habitually. 

Odonata are found abundantly througliout the plai)is and in forest 
areas. The number of species is very large and an account of the family 
as it occurs in India is much wanted. The imagines have quite peculiar 
habits, and are very characteristic. They play a large part in the des- 
truction of smaller winged insects, especially flies, their appetite being 
apparently insatiable. It is often observed that each individual has 
its own beat and it is known that when they are abundant, each 
confines his operations to a particular spot, returning to rest on the 
same twig. 

The length of the life is not known but it is apparently long both in 
the nymph and the adult condition. A few dragon-fiies are among the 




Fig 56— Rhyothemis variboata. female. 



129 



gregarious insects and it is not uncdnunon to lind larj^e innnhers liyin;^ 
together over pools in the jungle. The l)right winged species of the 
moister areas of Bengal are frequently seen flying in gronjis. and one 
brilliant yellow species (Rhijothemis variegnta F.) is eonmionly seen 
in Calcutta. Migration lias l>een l<no\vn to occnr elsewlieic, thougli 
not recorded in India. 

The Odonala are l)y some authois treated as a single family, with 
two divisions and seven sub-families as is <l(me here, or as a sub-order 
with three families, or with seven families. 



ANISOPTERinE 



\ I. IjinEi.i.ri.iD.E 
(. 2. Ae.schnid.^ 



ZyGOPTERIDES ... 3. CALOPTERYOin.^ 



f Corduliin-J?. 
{ Libellulinne. 
I (iomphinav 
-J Cordulegasterina). 
( Aeschnina?. 

f Calopteryginae. 
( Agrionina'. 



Anisopterides. — Hindwings broader at tlie l)ase than the forewings. 
Wings held horizontally outwards from the body when at rest. 
(Figs. '■>', 59.) 

Zi/f/npterides. — Wings equal or hindwing small ; wings held closed 
together vertically above the body when at rest. (i^ig. 58.) 




'l".— AlI.'^OMA PANORPOIIiF.>i 
{from Ramliur.) 



ISO 



NEUROPTERA. 



Over I'M) species are listed or described from India. Kamlnir mono- 
graphs tlie older species (Neiiroptera 1S42), De Selys" niaiiv papers 




Fi". 58.— AciiloNin AT KEST. 



contain descriptions of a large number of specie? : Kirby lias described 
species from Mnrree and f'anipbellpur (Proc. Zool. Soc. 188(5, p. 325), the 

European Sympetrum fons- 
cohmbei de Sel. being 
found there ; he has added 
descriptions of species from 
Ceylon and Upper Burma 
(Ann. Nat. Hist. VI, 14, and 
VII, 15); a large collection 
made by G. C. Nurse at 
Deesa and Quetta is des- 
cribed by Martin ( Trans. 
Ent. Soc, London, 1907. 
p. 303). The species up 
to 1890 are catalogued in 
Kirby's Catalogue of 
Odonata and there have 
been stray descriptions by 
other authors since then. 




Fip. ."ig.— Akschnip at rest. 



AQUATIC IXSECTS. J 31 

AQUATIC INSECTS. 

A considerablo portion of the insect world live in or on the surface 
of still or running water, and are more or less specially ada])ted to tlie pe- 
culiarities of this mode of life. These insects are derived from terrestrial 
ins?cts and there is no hard and sharp line between terrestrial and 
aquatic insects. We have, for instance, the])redaceous Heduviid bugs on 
the earth which live also on mud and in the neighbourhood of water. 
It is but a small transition to the IIi/droDictiidrr. bugs which run on the 
surface of the water and which rc(|uire very little modification, chiefly 
in the structure and motions of the legs. Tlic a(iuatic carnivorous beetles 
are very closely allied to the land carnivorous beetles, the modifications 
mainly consisting of those necessary to enable the beetle to swim, to obtain 
air below water and to catch different prey. The II i/dropli Hid <t mchide 
both land and aquatic forms in one family, and were our knowledge of 
past and present day insects greater, we might be able to trace the steps 
by which a land insect gave rise to aquatic forms. The atjuatic Diptera 
are excellent examples, some living in mud, sonu> in shallow water, some 
in deep water. We nuiy suppose these to have more recently acquired 
the aquatic habit than such a homogeneous group as Odonala or Ephe- 
meridcp which are now whollv a([uatic and were jiroliably derived from 
primitive land ancestors. 

Among aquatic insects, one of the most interesting features is the 
manner in which the air supply is obtained. Assuming that all aquatic 
insects are descended from terrestrial ancestors, and not from a single 
form which became aquatic, we would expect different groups to solve 
this problem in different ways and to find a great variety of devices to 
secure an air supply. In general mature insects obtain their air direct 
from the atmosphere, rising to the surface to do so, and there are among 
them fewer modifications in the respiratory system, possibly owing to 
the greater rigidity of the outer skeleton and the far smaller degree of 
plasticity of the adult constitution as compared with the larval. We 
may, therefore, consider the larval and pupal forms of aquatic insects, 
extremely briefly, solely from this point. Insects are commonly pro- 
vided with one or two thoracic spiracles, and a series of five to eight on 
the abdominal segments. This, the so-called holopneustic (2 thoracic) 
or perineustic (1 thoracic) system obtains in adults but not. so far as we 
are aware, in larvae. The first modification we find is the closure of all 
spiracles but the two terminal pairs, one near the head, one nearest to 
the tail (Amphipneustic). The closure of these spiracles is actual, but 
the spiracle remains, a tracheal vessel runs to it which contains no air 
as a rule. The larva of Pericoma (Psj/rhodidce) and allied larvae are 
examples, and air is obtained by bringing either of the pairs of spiracles 
to the surface. A far commoner modification is the metapneustic one, 
where only the terminal abdominal spiracle persists in a functional state, 
being usually very large. A large number of insects exhibit this charac- 
ter in the larval state including A)npInzoa, Dysticidw, most Hijdrophili- 



132 NEUROPTERA. 

da', Helodes (Dascillidce), Ciilex, Dixa and Anopheles {CuJicidw), Tipu- 
Udw, Strotiomijs, Tabanidce, Si/rphido', and Scionu/zidw ; in these it 
obtains in the larva, and not always in the pupa, though in Stratiomijs 
and Hamonia, lor instance, the pupa also exhibits it. In a few, we get 
the complementary state, in which the anterior spiracle alone is func- 
tional, as in the pupse only of Cuhcidce, Chironomidcr and Dixidw. 

In the above there have been in all cases at least one spiracle func- 
tional and the normal tracheal system. In those that follow, there are 
no functional spiracles, unless one of the above systems is combined with 
it ; most larva? exhibit one of the above modifications, with one or sev- 
eral of the following, though the latter may occur alone or in combination 
with each other. Tracheal gills alono, with no other definite system, 
occur in a number of larvse ; in these the skin is produced into thin- 
walled tubular structures in which the body-fluid circulates, in which 
there are tracheae, and which function as gills since they absorb 
(or are supposed to absorb) oxygen but are tracheal and not true 
gills since the air is passed into the trachea and not, apparently, 
into the "blood" system. Such gills take many forms but are common- 
ly tubular or paddle-like, in tufts, in spongy masses ; they occur in 
larvee which do not come to the surface but live wholly in the water at 
some depth usually, as in the Pcrlida-, Ephtmeridce, Sialidn\ Sisijra 
(Hemerobildre), Haliplldce, and Cakijitiri/fiides (Odonata), and in the sub- 
families Phri/ganeides, Sericostoinaddes and Leptocerides of the Phri/ga- 
neidce. These gills may be on the eight basal abdominal segments 
{Haliph'dw), on the seven basal abdominal segments {Sialido'), on the 
apex of the abdomen {Chironomidw), Corethra (Culicidw), Simulium, 
and the C'alopteiygine division of Odonata, on the base of the 
abdomen (Perlidce, some Ephenieridw) or on the whole abdomen 
(Gjjrinidce, Phryganeidce). 

Accessory tracheal gills also occur, in combination with a spiracular 
or other combination, as in Dixa, Cvlex, Mochlonyx and Helodes. iSuch 
accessory gills are extremely common and cannot always be easily dis- 
tinguished. Rectal respiration is another modification of tracheal res- 
piration, in which water is taken into and discharged from the rectum, 
which is set extremely densely with tracheae and functions as a "water- 
lung " or gill. Odonata (exc. Calopterijgida) are the best examples, the 
very young Chloeon (Ephemerid<T) is anotjier and both Culex and Cera- 
lopogon also exhibit it. 

There are finally some modifications in which tracheae play no direct 
part: the skin possibly functions as a "gill ' ' in many of the young larval 
forms, in which there is no other system developed ; this is a matter of 
conjecture largely, but there is no other available explanation of the res- 
])iration of many young aquatic forms. Some Phryganeidce and Perlido? 
never exhibit any other respiration throughout larval life, and it is pre- 
sumed the air is obtained through the skin. 



AVL'ATK' INSECTS. i-i.> 

" HI(Hul-f,'ills "■ are j^ills as opjxpsi'd to tracheal frills, siiiee only the 
body-tluid circuhites in them and no tracliea- enter tlieni, or if tliey do, 
do not eontain or carry air : the gills of Pelohiim, II ijd roc;/ phon and some 
ChiruHoinuis, the rectal pouches of Macronewa. the gills of some young 
Phn/i/aneidii and. Ephemerids are of this class, though in the last there 
is little real distinction from tracheal gills. 

There are a small number of insects in which air enters the body 
cavity and this is so extraoidinary a jjlienomenon that though we kjiow 
of it in only two insects, we mention it here. It deserves fuller investig- 
ation. Another peculiar method is found in laivse wliich take aii' into 
the alimentary canal, either swallowing it as does one a(|Uatic lar\a, or 
as Odonata do, at the hind entl ; this is often seen in the latter in captiv- 
ity, and is simply a modification of the rectal gill. 

Finally, there are the insects which contain a red pigment allied to 
or identical with Haemoglobin, the constituent of man's blood that 
carries oxygen in weak combination from lung to tis.sue and Carbon 
Dioxide to the lung. Chirononms is the familiar example, found in 
every Indian tank, and we use this generic name in a very broad sense 
to include many forms allied to Chironomus but not identified. 

For the benefit of the student we attach the table of modifications 
mentioned above. 

I. Tracheal : 

1. Stigmata : 

a Hohpnciistic. 
b Piii/inrustic. 
c AnipJiipmnistic 
d Melnpneustic. 
e Propneustic. 

2. No Stigmata : 

/ Trci'-'heal giUs, mam. 

(/ Tracheal gWs, arcessar!/. 

h Rectal gills. 

II. Without tracheic : 

i Skin, wholly or in part. 
/ Blood-gills. 
k Entrance of air to body. 
/ Entrance of air to gut. 
)u Pigment. 
SumnKiry of aquatic jamilies. — The following review does not pre- 
tx?nd to mention every aquatic form or group, but contains the majority, 
and probably every important family. 

Aptera include aquatic forms living on the surface of water. Pod- 
itrinw are known to have this habit and, were we to include the marine 
forms, the well-known Aniirida could be cited. Aquatic Orlhoplera, 



134 NEUROPTERA. 

while rare, are not unknown. A description of an aquatic Gryllid (Hij- 
dropedeticus vitiensis Mial. and Gil.) will be found in Trans. Ent. Soc, 
Lend., 1902, p. 281. Tridactijhis is found on the surface of water but 
usually lives on mud. (See p. 99.) Annandale has found an aquatic 
Blatta in Malaya and an aquatic Epilampra in India (Journ. Asiatic 
Soc, Bengal, 1906, p. 105). In India, one genus at least of TetriginaD 
{Scelimena) is aquatic and an Acridiid allied to Hieroglyphvs has the 
habit of diving below the surface. 

Amongst Neuroptera, there are several important groups. The 
Perlidce (8tone Flies) have aquatic nymphs, which have ten jjairs 
of closed stigmata, and functional gills as a rule. A few are stated to 
have no gills but to have special tracheal developments at the skin. 
Others have gills on the first thoracic segment {Nenioura, Pteronarcys) 
on the sides of the thorax (Peria, Pteronarcys, Nenioura), on the apex of 
the abdomen (Perla, Pteronarcys) or on the head (Dictyopteryx signata). 
The Odonata are wholly aquatic with two modifications ; the Calyptery- 
gidce have leaf-like processes functioning as tracheal gills, the Aescknidcf 
and Libellulidce, rectal gills with anal valves to admit water, the 
gills in the former being papillifonn, in the latter lameUiform. The 
Ephemeridce are also aquatic with gills in the older stages. Lubbock 
has remarked that the skin of Chloeon functions till the third instar, 
when gills appear, but the trachete are functional only in the fourth 
instar (there are 20 instars). Gills take several forms, and may be 
large and exposed, flat lateral plates, tubular under a gill cover, or 
concealed. The long caudal setae have a circulation and are probably 
also respiratory. Of the Sialidw, the Sialince live in mud, the first 
seven abdominal segments having filaments functioning as gills. Of 
the Hemerobiidce, the HemerobiincE contain two aquatic forms, Osniylus 
and Sisyra, the latter with abdominal tracheal processes. The Trichop- 
tera are wholly aquatic in the larval stage, having no gills (some 
Hydropsy chides, RJiyacophilides, Hydroptilides), or having gills in the 
form of tufts or slender processes, which may be placed all round the 
body. 

The Hymenoptera include a few remarkable parasitic forms which 
deposit their ova in the larvoe of Trichojitera or other aquatic insects. 
Prestwichia in Europe is parasitic in the eggs of six species of aquatic 
insects. 

The Coleoptera include eleven families aquatic wholly or in part at 
least in their larval stages. Amphizoidce are metapneustic as larvae. 
The PelobiidcB arc represented by Pelobius whose larva is said to have 
spiracles and blood gills. The larval HaJipUdce have long filaments on 
the abdominal segments. Dytiscidcp are wholly aquatic, the larva 
metapneustic, the imago carrying air under the wings. Gyrmidcc live 
on the surface of the water as adults, but the larva> are provided with 
ten pairs of abdominal tracheal processes. The H ydrophUidce are only 
in part aquatic ; their larva' are either meta]ineustic or have tracheal 



AC^l'AriC IN.SKCTS. 135 

l)roce.sse.s (Bcrusus). I'lali/pgyllida- arc scarcely aquatic save in tliat 
their host the beaver is so. Hetcrocerida- are semi-aquatic in nuid or 
wet sand in all stages. Parnidw, so far as known, are peripiieustic or 
have filamentou.s branchi» ; tlie EIniides have three pairs. 

Dascillidce are aquatic and while some have functional spiracles, 
others are .said to have exsertile respiratory pouches {Hijdrocyphon); 
a few forms of tiie Donnciinre among t'hrvsomelida' have aquatic larvn', 
the larva being found in tlie roots of aquatic ))lants. (Donaciu, Hcpdki- 
»i(i.) \\ e have omitted to mention tlie abnormal aquatic Carabid found 
extremely rarely in England and Annandale lias recently described an 
aquatic weevil from Calcutta (.lourn. Asiatic Soc, Bengal, 190(i, p. 
197) as well as an acpuitic glow-worm larva (loc. cit. 190(5, p. 107). 

Few Lepidoptera are aquatic but .some are very notably so in this 
country. A single Pyralid genus {Acenlropus) has an aquatic larva (not 
known in India) ; the Hydrocampmce include at lea.st .several aquatic 
forms including Ni/mphuhi depunctalis Guen and N. fiiKiuonalis in 
whicli the larva is set with short respiratory processes. Both these 
are common in India, wdiile Hijdrocumpa, Parapo7ii/x tnd Calacli/nta 
are known elsewhere. 

A single abnormal Eupterotid is aquatic, the larva of Palusira Bur- 
westcn being holopneustic but having a covering of long hairs in which 
air is retained : it comes to the surface to renew the supply. Oi Diptera 
we are still largely ignorant but the Cidicido' have aquatic larva', 
variously modified, as do the Chironomida. Corethra is in the larval 
state dependent on tracheal gills : Cidex, Anopheles and others are 
metapneustic. bur have tracheal gill processes as well ; in all, the 
pup* are propnextstic. the anterior spiracles lying within large trumpets 
wliich are brought to the surface of the water. Chironomidce include 
the forms with haiiioglobiit {Chironomiis) as well as those with tracheal 
gills ; the pupte are propneustic or have tufts of gills. The aquatic 
Ceratopogon larvae appear to have no gills and to breathe through the 
skin. Psi/chodid(p have aquatic or semi-aquatic larva^, living in 
alg» and weeds, with four ciliated processes at the hind end forming 
a basin round the spiracles, as well as a functional pair of anterior 
spiracles. Dixido' have metapneustic larvae with tracheal gills, the pupa 
with propneustic trumpets. Aquatic Tipulid larv!e are well known 
and are metapneustic. some with a long telescopic tail process 
(Biitacomorpha, Ptijchoptera). One at least has long tracheal filaments 
(Phalacrocera rcplicaia). The larvae of BJepharoceridce are known to 
live in torrents and near waterfalls, clinging firmly to rocks. Siniuliid 
larvae are found in swiftly running water and have five retractile gills; 
the pupa has a tuft of filaments. Stratiomf/idw have some aquatic 
larval forms, the larva metapneustic with an expansible ring of hairs 
that hold an air bubble. 

Tahanidce have metapneustic aquatic larvae, as do the Sijrphidie in 
some cases, the latter having in .some forms (ErisiaUs, Hehphilus), the 



136 NEUROPTERA. 

long telescopic tail process with the spiracles at the apex ; the pupa is 
propneustic with the spiracle on the tubular filaments. It is known that 
some Acahjptmte muscidcr have aquatic larvse, Basycerides, Ephydrules 
and Sciomyzides being thus found. 

The above includes the majority of the forms with aquatic nymphs 
or larvae, but we may remember that in almost any tank or stream there 
are abundant new forms a.s yet unreared, and that aquatic insects are 
by no means well known. We are familiar with many fresh-water larvse 
which do not come into any of the above groups, and the Indian aquatic 
fauna is almost unknown. 

The following Hemiptera are aquatic in all stages, but all are holop- 
neustic or peripneustic. The Hebridce are scarcely truly aquatic, living 
in damp situations, the body beneath densely pubescent. Hydrotnetridw 
live on the surface of the water, being also pubescent below. The divi- 
sion Crypiocerata are aquatic, living below the surface but being holop- 
neustic or peripneustic in all stages ; Pelogonidce (Galytdidce) are alone 
found on wet mud and near water. Nepida live in shallow water and 
obtain air by means of two processes which unite to form a slender tube ; 
the nymph obtains air by means of two ventral pubescent grooves 
leading to the apex of a short process. iVaHcor^rfcp carry air down with 
them in a bubble attached to tlie hind end and come to the surface to 
renew it ; Belostomidce are also aquatic and obtain air from the surface. 
Notoneclidce and Corixidce carry air on the lower side of the body and 
come to the surface to renew it. 

So far as we are aware, there remains only one aquatic Hemipterous 
insect, an Aphid (Rhopalosiphum nymphew Fabr.) found in India 
below the surface of fresh water on an aquatic plant. 

In the above aquatic insects, we have indicated the fact that the 
actual habitat in the water may be very different, and it will be useful 
to briefly note the habitat conditions that we find. There are many 
forms which never or only exceptionally leave the surface, such as the 
Gyrinid beetles, the larvse of Dixa and Anopheles and tlie various Hy- 
droinetridcB ; they are aquatic only in the sense that they live on water 
and are adapted thereto. 

Others live near the surface and always within reach for air-getting 
l)uri)0ses. Of these some live in alga? or weed masses as Paludra larva', 
the ])up8e of aquatic TipuUds, the larva of Stratio'mys&\\d.i\m larva and 
pupa of Psychodidce ; others are in mud at the margin, as Ptychopkra 
and Bitiacomorpha, the Tabanid larvse, the larva and pupa of the Eris- 
talis and Helophihis sections of Syrphidw. 

A number are dependent on the surface, but go deep in search of 
food or shelter ; such are the predaceous beetles (Dytiscidce and tlie like), 
the Hydrophilus beetles, the aquatic Crypiocerata, as well as the (hdicidae 
and DixidcB. 



El'HKMKIUD.E. 137 

Wlit'u we leave tlie siiiface, we find a numln'r that live in tiie inidclle 
deptiis ; tlie peeuliar miniiif; larva of Duri/cerd. the red Vhironomid 
larva' found in the soft stems of a(|uatic jilants, the larv;e of Epheineri- 
(lev in the holes in the liank. the many larva' in masses of alga- or weeds 
(Vi'mtopoijon. Acditropus, Hi/drocaniixi, ('dlarh/std, I'drajionijx, Nyin- 
p/iulfi and Siiiniliuin), the few larva; that live actually free in the water 
in the middle dejjths {Coirtlini and Chironomid larva-), are examples of 
insects neither dependent upon the surface for air iior finding food 
at the bottom, and which are coninioidy obtained with a net in the middle 
depths. 

There are also the insects in the depths oi' on the bottom ; the Pcr- 
lid larv£e are under stones ; the nuid -loving Sialidcc, the larvic .of cad- 
dis-Hies and dragon-Hies are found on nuid ; some are found only at the 
bottom of shallow running water, including caddis larva', the nymphs 
of Odonata, Perlidrv and Ephfvieridw, as well as such aipuitic Hfniov- 
biides as are not found in sponges. 

P^inally, there is the remainder, which are at all depths except near 
the surface, which range over the bottom and middle ; these include the 
more active Odonata and Trichoptera, the larvae of Haliplidcr, Gyrinida- 
and Parnidce. as well some of the Hijdrophilidw (Berosus). A far larger 
part of the aquatic fauna would naturally come within this last division 
were one to go minutely into it, which is impossible in this place. 

Sufficient has been said to show that a(juatic insects live in a world 
of their own, one as complex in its internal relations as that of the land ; 
we find herbivorous insects, preyed on by carnivorous ones, occasionally 
attacked by parasitic ones ; it is a teeming world of life of all kinds, of 
immense interest from every point of view and especially so from the as- 
pect of the immensely ingenious contrivances by which insects obtain 
their air supply. But it is a subject which has been scarcely touched 
in this country, though there are unrivalled opportunities at almost all 
times ; we anticipate that the investigation of how these insects pass 
through the time when tanks dry up will yield some extremely interest- 
ing results, and we may hope that, though there is no economic side to it, 
this fascinating branch of entomology will some day be attacked. 



Ephe.mekid.e. — Maij-FIws. 
.Slender insects irith hnye foreviiK/s and small hi7Hhcinijs. The antenna- 
are short. There are tiro or three lonij processes 071 the abdomen. 

Tarsi four or five jointed. Larva aquatic. 
This is the last family in which the wings are formed in the active 
nymph outside the body as in Orthoptera. The wings are, in repose, held 



138 NEUROPTERA. 

together above the body in an upright position and, with the long anal 
processes, are ver}' distinctive. Some are small very delicate insects, 
not longer than 5 mm. with a span of nearly 10 mm. ; others are larger, 
but none are very large. Eyes are larger in the males than in the females, 
the upper portion with larger facets than the lower and sometimes 
divided. In some cases the upper half is much larger and raised on a 
large projection above the head. The antennae are .short, the mouth- 
parts feebly developed or absent. The mesothorax is well developed, 



// 







.^.^' 



El-HEMKltlli. (F. M. H.) 



the abdomen sessile, ten-jointed and glabrous. There is no ovipositor; 
the male has longer forelegs (often very long) than the female, and dis- 
tinct jointed claspers. The venation is complex. The colours are grey 
or pearly, the wings transparent, faintly tinged, or with dark markings. 
The life-history is similar to that of other aquatic insects. Eggs 
are laid in water, either loosely or in compact masses ; Eaton records 
seeing Baetis descend under water to lay her eggs under a stone 
and this is apparently habitual in some species. The nymphs are 
slender insects, usually with long abdominal processes, with long 
antennae and well developed biting mouthparts. The food is said 
to be mud, or minute aquatic vegetation, but some are certainly 
predaceous. They live in various situations and beyond the fact that 
they are to be found in fresh water in India, not much is known. All 
have gills on some part of the body for the purpose of extracting 



KIMIKMK.KID.K. 



130 




Fig. 61. -Pai.ixcenia 

LARVA, Ceylon. 

(After Eaton.) 



air from tho water: tliesp are situated on the abiloineii and 
consist of thin walled processes in which the body fi>iid circulates 
and in which tracheic are found. In fact, the 
•iills supply the tracheae with air and are not gills in 
the same sense as in fishes. Tlie form of tjiese 
nymphs in general is very varied, as are their 
habits and there will probably be found a similar 
variety in Indian species. The reader will find 
general information in MialTs Aquatic Insects, 
in Sharps" Insects and in Eaton's Monograph. 
.V curious feature of the life-history is the 
very sudden transformation ; the full-grown nymph 
comes to the surface, the skin breaks along the 
back, the flying insect emerges ; but its meta- 
morphosis is then not really complete and the 
insect (now called a sub-imago) flies to a spot on 
which to settle, then sheds another delicate skin. This phenomenon is 
known only in this family. One species common in the plains flies some 
hundreds of yards before doing this and comes to light, settles on the 
wall and then emerges fully developed, leaving the delicate skin behind. 

The nymphal life is probably as long relatively as the imaginal life 
is short. The May-flies are types of the brevity of life, but in reality 
these insects have previously enjoyed a very long life (for an insect) in 
their aquatic form. Lubbock found that the nymph of a European 
species underwent twenty moults. The perfect insects apparently emerge 
to a brief career of enjoyment. May-fly dances are a common feature of 
a still warm evening, the delicate insects (males) performing intricate 
evolutions in companies on the wing. A dance in three dimensions may 
have advantages over the dance on the two dimension dance-floor and 
we can compare it only to a dance of flying machines. These dances 
take place often at a considerable distance from water, a number of the 
insects gathering together for the purpose and forming a very striking 
sight. Coupling and egg-laying closes the brief life. As the mouthparts 
are absent and no food is taken after emergence, an active life must soon 
close, and it is probably correct to say that May-flies do not live for 
more than one or a few days. The immense swarms of May-flies that 
emerge simultaneously in some countries do not seem common among 



] lU NEUKOPTERA. 

Indian species, and these insects appear during long periods in the hot 
weather and rains, but not in large numbersat any one time. As these 
insects in their feeding life live a purely aquatic life, there are none of 
economic importance and the group, as a whole, has attracted little atten- 
tion in this country. The number of species known is small, as they are 
not attractive to collectors. 

In his monograph, Eaton describes the known Indian and C'eylon- 
ese species (Trans. Linn. Soc, Zool. III). Eaton also mentions ten spe- 
cies from India (J. A. H. B., LX, p. lOG) and discusses them, mentioning 
also that McLachlan possessed nine species from Tenasserim. The total 
recorded by him is twenty-two species, but our common plains species 
are apparently undescribed, the recorded species being from eleva- 
tions above 4,000 feet in Ceylon or the Himalayas in most cases. 

Collectinij. — Imagines and sub-imagines are best preserved in spirit 
as their integuments are weak, but when plentiful, a series may also be 
pinned. 



THE RELATIVE DURATION OF LIFE. 

The actual duration of life measured in human units, is a matter 
of very considerable variation among the diverse forms of insect-life. 
From the extremely short-lived Drosophilid fly to the long-lived Cicada, 
there is an infinite variety ; this is a matter of small importance since the 
passage of time has a relative value and the insect which lives for but a 
few days may pass through as many experiences as a human being in as 
many years. The point is, perhaps, interesting as popular ideas are often 
extremely erroneous and forget to take into account the fact that a 
winged insect whose life is but a day may have passed weeks or months 
in an immature form. 

Factors which govern the duration of life are many and varied ; 
fall of temperature .susjjeuds activity to a greater or lesser extent, and, 
while prolonging the actual length of life, does not add to the active 
living period. Abundant food by hastening maturity and the develop- 
ment of the reproductive system may materially shorten the life of an 
insect ; unnutritious food or the lack of food may immensely prolong 
life either by preventing the immature insect from deriving sufficient 
nutriment from its food or by checking the development of the repro- 
ductive organs, so that life is maintained for long periods until the eggs 
are formed and egg-laying becomes possible. The absence of the larval 



RELATIVE DURATION OK LIFE. 141 

food -plant is aiu.th.-r factor wliirli iiioloiifjs tlie life of tlic adult, since the 
mother insect will remain alive until efigs are laid <in the fcxid-iilant uidess 
this period is so lonji as to exliaust her vitality. 

What terminates an insect's life ? If we consider the insects which 
escape their foes, which do not die of injury, of parasites or of disease, 
but wliich die a natural death, what brings about the cessation of life ? 
Speakint; very broadly, the fidl exerci.se of the natural functions of re- 
production brings a speedy end, i)erhaps from exhaustion, ])erha])s from 
a lack of vitality now that there is no further object in life. The locust 
dies, if a male after coujiling, if a female after the deposition of all the 
eggs, though food may be abundant and the conditions apparently 
suitable for further life! The moth dies after mating or laying eggs, and 
the life of many moths is limited to one or two nights if reproduction 
is effected, though it may be much extended if mating and egg-laying 
be not possible ; and this is true even of moths that cannot feed and in 
which the alimentary system is wliolly undeveloped. 

In estimating the natural life of an insect, we have to consider tlic 
time required to build up the tissues of the larval or nymphal as well as 
those of the sul)se(|uent imaginal form, the time required to reproduce, 
as well as the conditions of food-supply and temperature under which 
life is carried on. For many, the conditions of food-supply and tem- 
perature are such that a yearly period covers the whole life, there being 
one brood yearly. For others, one active season is not sufficient for the 
larval form to lay up sufficient nourishment to provide for the tissues 
of the imago ; or this may be possible during the limits of a season or two 
seasons, but the processes of transformation cannot be completed in time 
to allow of the imago to emerge, mate and lay eggs at a favourable sea- 
son and before the rigours of winter or drought prevent the imago from 
))roviding for the voung. Thus we get a two-year or a three-year period, 
the whole life from egg to egg occupying multiples of one year. In rare 
cases (so far as known) this period may be peculiarly long and the Cicadas 
are notorious in this respect : the 17 years of Tihicen septindecin, and 
the 1 3 years of r/crtrfr; tredecin, both American insects, are notorious in- 
stances. Turning to shorter-lived insects, we find for instance the two- 
brooded butterflies, in which there is one (juick brood in the rains, and 
one longer brood which persists in some form through the cold and dry 
weather till food is again available on the coming of the rains or perhaps 
at the opening of the buds in spring. From these, a large class probably, 
we come to those which have several broods in the limits of the hot 
weather and rains and which have one longer brood, with a long inactive 
period in the colder weather. The active periods in these cases are the 
same, but one brood must pass through the long inactive period. 

We come finally to normally very short-lived insects such as many 
Diptera, in which the egg, thelarval, the pu])al and the imaginal life 
are contained within perhaps 14 davs. the actually known shortest 
being about 7 days. For these insects life may be long, but given the op- 



142 NEUROPTERA. 

timum temperature, plentiful food, abundant flies liatching out together, 
and a suitable food-supply for the young, on which the parent may lay 
eggs, the period is reduced to the least possible, the egg hatches quickly, 
the larva quickly lays up food, the transformation is quickly accomplish- 
ed and the flies quickly find mates. It will serve no useful purpose to 
attempt to summarise more closely than above, but we may indicate briefly 
the characteristics in this respect of some of the larger groups, with 
regard to Indian insects primarily, but where our knowledge fails, to the 
group as a whole. The known Cicadas are the longest, the known Dro- 
sophilides, C'ulicides and some other Diptera the shortest. Blattids ap- 
pear to be long, four years or less for some species. Mantiche are pro- 
bably at most two-brooded in the year, many probably one-brooded. 
The same is probably true of Phasmids ; Acridiids require one year, or 
have two, three or four broods yearly, probably more only in rare cases 
(such as Clirotogonus and Atractomorpha). LocustidcB are probably one- 
brooded in most cases and nothing is known of Gryllids, though there is 
reason to believe that some are many brooded, most one-brooded. 

Most of the known aquatic Neuroptera seem to be two or more 
brooded, images appearing several times in the year and the period in 
Ephemeridw. for instance, is probably normally short enough to give 
several broods yearly. The larger Neuroptera Planipennia are apparent- 
ly one-brooded, but the predaceous Hemerobiides and Chrt/sopides are 
many brooded. Predaceous land Neuroptera, like many other preda- 
ceous forms, seem to have the power of enduring long fasts and the life- 
history may be much prolonged accordingly. 

Tenthredinidce are many brooded so far as known, and the period 
for many parasitic Hymenoptera is very short, shorter than that of their 
hosts in many instances. Aculeata have short lives, several broods usual- 
ly being produced in a year, and here we have an instance where the com- 
pletion of sexual functions does not bring death, since workers have none ; 
their life is however not long, the worker being exhausted within a com- 
paratively short time (in the bee six weeks). A large number of Coleop- 
tera require a year for complete life and many emerge as imagines only 
at one season yearly. This does not apply to Coccinellida, to some Bu- 
prestidce, to household and grain beetles, to some CJiri/somelidce and 
Curculionidce (e.g., Apoderus, Hypera, Cionus). On the other hand, 
many Carabidce, Cicindelidce, Scarabwidce, the larger Elateridce and Bu- 
prestidce, Cantharidce and many Curculionidce have a period of at 
least of one year ; while some CerambycidcB, the large forms of Lucanido' 
and Scarabceidcp. probably require more than one year. In Lepidoptera 
we have some which require but a month, and complete six to eight 
broods yearly, and those which require a year and emerge once only ; 
but the majority have at least two and many, more than two broods. 
Our ignorance of Diptera is profound, but the order certainly includes 
some of the shortest lived and probably few really long-lived ones . Per- 
haps Diptera are summed up best by saying that the majority have short 



SIALID.T,. 143 

lives if food is i)lt'ntit'ui l)ut Umg ones il it is not, and sonic species noinuil- 
ly have long lives (special parasites, such as Bomhi/liids, Conopids). 

Few Heniii)tera liave been reared, and we must fall hack on what is 
known of tlie periods at which tiie imagines a])peai-. A few Pnitdlomi- 
d(e a))pear to breed often in a year, whilst some are jirohalily two-brood- 
ed, a rains and a dry weather brood ; some are probably only one- 
brooded. The same is probably true of Coreidce. Lijifwidw and Pyr- 
/(Oco/iWrt'appearto include more species wliich breed several times, as do 
the Tintiidxe. Rcdirviidae are probably few brooded, as well as Cnjisi- 
d(B, but the latter in some known cases breed quickly. 

Ciradidw possibly all require at least one year, wiiile some are very 
long-lived, and it is (piite jiossible tliat our Indian species follow the 
examples of tlie known long-lived ones. Tlu> smaller Honioptera (Fuhjori- 
dce, Memhracido'. Cerropidcp) are probably two or more brooded, but 
it is doubtful if any have more than four broods yearly owing to the lack 
of food. Aphida' are comparatively sliort lived with plenty of food, but 
aisthey are viviparous, an aphis may often live to be surrounded by sever- 
al generations of children, grandchildren, and so on. Given good cir- 
cumstances the number of broods in a year may be very large, without 
the life of the insect itself being naturally very short. AJeurodidff and 
Coccidceare, for so small insects, apparently long-lived, but they appear on 
the whole to have several broods a year, while some are only one-brooded. 

The student will recognise tliat so brief a summary is of little value 
save as a suggestion and as an indication of the scope of the relative life. 
Further details are given under each family. 

There are two methods of finding the length of life of insects, one 
the actual rearing or observation of the living insect in all stages, the 
other the knowledge of the seasons at which the imago appears and the 
length of its life : an insect that appears but once yearly may have a 
yearly period or one in multiples of years, but cannot have a less period 
than a year. The duration of life in the long-lived American Cicadas 
was deduced from the years in which the imagines appeared abundantly, 
a matter of such importance that records extending back many years 
gave the necessary information. 



SlALID.^. 



Wings of nearhi equal size, hind icings not folded {cf. Perlidce). at an 
angle over the abdomen vheti in repose. Antennw long. The uings 
are not closely reticulate (cf. Hemerohiidce). Tarsi five-jointed. 
Larva aquatic, with a quiescent pupa. 
A small group of moderate-sized insects, distinguished by the wings 

and five-jointed tarsi from the Perlidce which most resemble them. 



144 



NEUROPTERA. 



Tliere are two sub-families. Sialincr witli quadrangular prothorax and 
Raphidlince with elongate prothorax. 




Fig. 62. — COKYDALIS ASIATICS. 
[From Wooil-Mason.) 



Of the former the larvae of the known species are aquatic, hatching 
from eggs laid near the water ; the larva has biting mouthparts, a con- 
spicuous head, long legs and the abdomen has a jointed gill-process on the 
side of each segment. They are probably predaceous and live for choice 
in mud. Only a small number of species are known. Cori/dalis. the 
very large Sialid, common in America, is recorded by Wood-Mason in 
India, Corydalis asiatica, W. M. (fig. 02), being found in the Naga Hills. 
(Proc. Zool. Soc, 1884, p. 110.) Chauliodes subfasciatiis Westw. is 
figured in Cabinet of Oriental Entomology ; C. macuKpenwis Gr. (Griffiths' 
Animal Kingdom, pi. 72, fig. 1) is also 
known from India. Three other species of 
Chauliodes are described by MacLachlan, 
Weele and Walker, and 8 species of 
Neuromushy MacLachlan, Weele, Walker 
and Rambnr, all from the Himalayas or 
Assam. 
Fig. 63.— Chauuours Of the Envhidiinrp. none are known in 

MACULIPENNIS. 

(After Ciirur.) India, 




PANORPID.T,. 



145 



Panorpid^. — Smrpion Flies. 

Head prolonged into a distinct beak with hiting moitthparts. Tiro pairs 
of »'ings of equal size held at an angle {or iringless.) The male 
with the apex of the abdomen turned up, the apical joint swollen, as 
in a scorpion. Tarsi five-jointed. 



\ 



These singular insects are at once 
recognizable from the peculiar head. 
They are of moderate size, found flying 
in wooded places, and easily distinguish- 
able. The antennte are long ; the 
wings moderately large and held out 
from the body. The abdomen is 
long, in the male turned up as in a 
scorpion's tail, in the female straight 
and tapering. 

The common Tndian species are apparently similar to the European 
form, whose life history is known ; the eggs are laid in a mass in the 
ground ; from them hatch larviP in the form of caterpillars, which feed 
upon decaying vegetable matter usually underground ; the larvae have 




Fig. 64-.PANOKPA Fl'RCAT*. 
{A/tn- Harilinhke.) 





Fig. 65.— Panorpa furcata. 
I^Afler Hardwicke.) 



Fig. 66.— Panobpa fiiku.\ta: hkad. 
{After Burdwicke.) 



imperfect suckerfeet as well as jointed legs and there are velvety spots 
or spines on the segments. Pupation takes place in the soil. The ima- 
gines of both the observed Indian species are predaceous and very active ; 
IIL 10 



14fi MEUROPTERA. 

tliey haunt shady places among bushes and under trees and attack com- 
paratively large insects. These insects are uncommon and Httle is rec- 
orded about them. A pretty species marked with blue is common on 
the Western Ghauts in the rains, and a brown species is found in the 
Khasi Hills. Hardwicke describes a species from Nepal, figures of which 
are reproduced here. (Trans. Linn. Soc.XLV, p. 132.) It is common in 
theE. Himalayas, and has aresemblance to a large Ichneumonid. Bitlacus 
Intifennis Gerst. is described from Darjeeling (M. T. Vorpomn. XVI. p. 
20, 1885). Probably others will be found when the family comes to be 
observed, and it will be possible to see how far their life history agrees with 
that outlined above. 

Hemerobiid.^. 
Wiwis nearly equal in size, many-veined and held at an am/le over the 
abdomen. The hind vim/ not folded. Antemice well developed. 
Tarsi five -jointed. Larva n'ith suctorial mandibles, 
pupa in a cocoon of silk. 
This is a miscellaneous assemblage of easily recognised insects, united 
by the life history and larval trophi. The adults differ greatly in appear- 
ance, but form a distinct family. It is possible that the family will be 
confused with the Sialidcp, unless the studentis familiar with the latter. 
The essential differentiating character is that in Sialidoe the wings are 
not densely reticulate, whereas they are so in Bemerobiidce (except 
Coniopteryx). 

As a rule, the different forms of Hemerobiidoe are so distinct that they 
can be recognised at sight, but the above is apparentlv the only true struc- 
tural distinctive character in the imago. 

As the habits of the seven sub-families are distinct, we propose to 
discuss each in turn. 

Myrmeleonince. Short knobbed antennae. 
AscalaphincB. Long ,, ,, 
Neniopterinc^. Hind wings almost linear. 
Mantispincp. Forelegs raptorial. 
Hemerobiince. Antenna- moniliform. 
Chrysopince. ,, setaceous. 

Voniopteryijince. Miiuite. Wings p(iv\dery. 



HKMKROBIin K 



117 



Mi/nn('U'0)iin(F. Ant-lions. K('(Oguisal)lc liy tlic sliort cliibhed 
antennap : the wings aro usually large and of i'c|u;il size, often very mucli 
marked with hrown and lilack. 






Fijt. 67.— MYRMELEOXID ; larva, x Vi ; empty PCPA OASE PRO.JEf'TINO FROM 
(dcOON AFTER E.MEHHENCE, >. 12. PlT OF THE LARVA, X 1. 

These large and somewhat ungainly insects have a wing span of 
three inches in the larger forms, the smaller of half that length. The 
colouring is sombre, brown predominating. The head is large and dis- 
tinct with large compound eyes. The mouthparts are biting with long 
palps. The thorax is robust, often very hairy. The wings are long, of 



148 NEUROPTERA. 

nearly equal size, with a great number of veins. The larger species have 
large red-brown or black blotches on the wings, the smaller have hyaline 
immaculate wings. The abdomen is long and slender, stretching be- 
tween the long wings which are held in a sloping manner over the abdo- 
men. The legs are comparatively short, robust and spiny, enabling 
the insect to cling tightly to plaiits. Males and females are similar in 
appearance, as a rule, the male sometimes distinct by the possession of 
two cerci. 

The life history of the known sjiecies is uniform throughout the 
group. The eggs are laid in sand or earth ; the larva that issues is 
flattened, the head large and flat, the thorax and abdomen stout. The 
head is elastically attached to the prothorax and has a large degree of 
motion. Projecting in front of the head are immense jaws, long and 
curved, which are made up of the true mandibles and maxillfp combined. 
The slender maxilla lies in a groove of the lower side of the mandible, and 
the two together form an imperfect tube, liquid ascending between the 
two structures into the mouth. This is an adaptation which enables the 
insect to suck the blood of its victims and food is taken in no other way. 
The larvae live a free wandering life or live in pits in sand. The free- 
living ones lurk among vegetation and capture small running insects. 
They are a portion of the surface living insects which are so abundant 
in dense vegetation. Some species are common in damp localities, the 
imago found in long grass, the larvae living a free life in the grass and 




.v:*^ 



.^ 



Fiff. 68.— MyRMELEO SINUtlL.\RE. 



capturing insects. The most familiar species live in pits in sand ; the 
larva prepares these pits in a very ingenious manner. It commences 
by going round in a circle, moving backwards, its body making a furrow 



IIKMKUoBllD.i;. 14!) 

ill tile soil ; witli its broad hi'inl it tlirows nut saiul, and by working 
steadily round in a spiral it gradually excavates a round ])it, with sloping 
sides, and buries itself at the bottom. It tiu'u lies there motionless, its 
head at the bottom of the pit ; siiould an unwary insect walk over the 
edge of the pit, the sloping sides impede its exit and the ant-lion throws 
sand at it by jerking its broad head. Sooner or later the insect comes 
within reach of the jaws and is seized, sucked out and the dried shell 
thrown out. Ants form a large part of its diet, as they are incessantly 
running over the soil, and the pits are apparently adapted to catch them; 
larger insects escape readily. This life is an interesting one and food 
appears to come only at long intervals. One might hold up this insect as 
a type of patience ; they are able to endure long fasts and an occasional 
ant every week or so is apparently sufficient to keep captive specimens 
alive. They live only in dry sand and make new pits if occasion arises. 
Near houses these pits are common, and when rain comes, or when the 
rainy season sets in, the new pits are nuide under the lee of the house 
where rain will not wet the sand. 

When the Pusa Laboratory was in course of erection, there were 
numerous pits in the dry sand spread over the newly floored verandahs ; 
the reason they were there was apparently that the sand was dry, all the 
outside earth being soaked with the rains, but what food these insects got 
was not apparent as no insects were found there. 

Pupation takes place in a cocoon in the sand or soil near the pit ; 
the pupa has mandibles with which it can cut through the cocoon which 
consists of .silk and particles of sand. It is noticeable that this silk is 
produced from the apex of the abdomen. The length of the life history 
is not known ; images are found at all times fi'om March to November. 
The imago flies clumsily but swiftly, and though nocturnal, is frequently 
seen flying in the day in long grass. An unpleasant odour is diffused 
from their bodies when they are handled, not an aromatic odour as in 
the Hemiptem but an unpleasant one, suggesting carrion. Light is an 
attraction and many can be caught in houses and at light. A number 
of species occur in Lidia, but the usual darkness seems to shroud their 
nomenclature and classification. Two species of Palpares, seven of 
Mijrmeleo and one of Fornticaleo have been described from India by 
Rambur (1842) and Gerstacker (1893 and 1884). Myriiieleon singulare, 



150 neUropteka. 

Westw. is one of the coniinoiier .species, a very noticeable insect, 
figured and described in 1847 (Cab. Or. Ent., pi. XXIV, fig. 4). M. par- 
daUs F. and M. Punciattis F. from the East Indies are figured in 
Donovan's Insects of India. 

Jsca?a^/(mrt;— Differ from Myrmeleonina' in having long antennae, 
also clubbed. 




Fig. 69.— Helicojiitus ihcax. 

This small family is at once recognisable in tlie winged stage. The 
insects are of the same general structure as the Mijnneleonince, but with 
long antennae held straight out from the head, clubbed at the tip. The 
wings are less elongated and only with few markings. The eyes arc 
usually divided across by a distinct line as if the upper and lower 
halves functioned separately. 

The life history differs in detail only from that of the M yrmeleonince 
so far as is known. The eggs were found laid on a lucerne stem, a num- 
ber of little eggs in a row ; each egg is cylindrical and truncate at the 
ends. vSmall active larvae emerged, whose appearance is best learnt from 
the figure. They were fed on aphides, the aphides being seized in the 
sharp mandibles and sucked out. These larvae died as the right food or 
conditions had not been found. (Others are being reared on a greater 
variety of insects). Other similar larvae are found leading a free life in the 
fields ; the thorax is broadly joined to the abdomen, the head not mov- 
ably jointed to the thorax as in the ant-lions. A larva was found on the 
bark of a tree ; it remained motiojiless on the bark without food for two 



lIKMKIJdIUln.K. 



151 



luontlis aiul all I'lulfavouis t.i feed it or rear it failed. An invest igation 
into the iiabits of tliese larva' in tlic field would yield interesting results, 
and it is possible that they play an important part in rlieeking somo 
insects. The imagines are found Hying under trees or in grass and are 
apparently principally crepuscular in habit. 

Westwood describes the following species of A,scalai)hus (fat. Or. 
Kntom., 1S47). and figures the first three : — 

A. lesselldtHiiiiA. XXXIV, tig. 1), .1. Ar</»iCH<a<or(pl. XXXIV, fig.:i), 
A. canifrons (pi. XXXIV, fig. :i).A. dentifer, A. amjulatus, A. obscurus. 

Xo species had been previously described from India and ten have 
been since added. (Weele in 8elys Collection, 11108). 




FijT. 70.— AsrALAi'HH) i.AKVA. X IS. Fisr. 71.— E(-;cs OF ascalaphid, X 2 



Nemopterince. — The hind wings are long and very narrow, project- 
ing backwards beyond the body. 



152 



NEUROPTERA. 



A single species of this remarkable group is found abundantly in 
houses in India, flying about rooms in the dusk (fig. 72). We have 




Fip;. 72.— Nemoptekiu, x 



observed it three years in succession in April and at no other time. The 
insect is a very graceful one, flying with a weak fluttering motion and 
hovering socially much as the mosquitoes do. A single larva of the type 
described as Nemopterous was found in a house in India; the charac- 
teristic is the immensely long thin neck 
carrying the round head and formidable 
jaws (fig. 73). 



There is little reason to doubt that 
the larva of this Nemopterid lives in 
our houses and is probably predaceous on 
small forms of life ; careful search in 
odd corners and dusty places will pro- 
bably reveal the larva and clear up 
the life history of this insect. Ne?noptern 
filipennis, Westw. is described and 
figured (Cab. Or. Entom., pi. XXXI V, 
fig. ()) from Central India. 




73.— Ne.mopterid larva. 
(A/ter Ruiix.) 



Mantispincp. — Forelegs predaceous after the manner of a Mantis. 
These obscure insects appear to be found but seldom in India, one spe- 
cies being known to occur in the plains. The imago has two pairs 



HEMEROHIIn.E. 



lo.J 




J. — MANTISb'A 



of livaliiu' \viu<;s. ii ratlior sleiuler body and the posterior legs fitted for 
walking. The forelegs have the tibia bent back ii])()ii the femur as in the 

Mantldir. 

Nothing is known of the life his- 
tory of our species ; Brauer records 
that one European species lays stal- 
ked eggs, as do the Ilemerobiidce, and 
tliat the larva finds its way to the 
egg-mass of a spider and there feeds 
on the eggs and young spiders ; it 
pupates in the web that contained 

the spider's eggs, and the pupa, when ready to transform, pierces its 

cocoon and the spider's web, the imago then emerging. Glenurus pupil- 

latus'^a.va.ii., Mantispa ruyicoUisl^la.vas., andM. Hamiltonella. Westw. 

have been described from India, as also has M. nodosa, Westw. which 

occurs in Assam and is figured by Westwood (Cab. Or. Entoni., pi. XX fV, 

fig. 7). 

Heinerobiina'. — Tlie antenn;r moniliform. 

This .sub-family includes two types of insects, of which some of each 

are known in India. The Sisi/rini live as larva> in freshwater sponges, 

and Annandale has recorded one as having 

been found in this situation in Calcutta. The 

student should consult Sharp's volume, where 

there is a good figure of the larva. Osmi/Iiis 

perspicillaris. Gerst., 0. lam/ii Macl., (). 

lineat icoll is Ma,c\., and Dilar Hornei Macl., are 

Indian species. The Hemerobiini are represen- 
ted by one delicate brownish insect whose larva 

feeds on the cotton aphis. The life history 

differs only in detail from that of Chrijsopa in 

the next sub -family ; the eggs are laid on stalks ; 

the larva is naked and feeds voraciously on 

aphides, sucking them out with its long 

mandibles. In this species pupation takes 

place under a very delicate web on a leaf. 

Ihis insect is less common than its ally, the larva 




154 



NEUROPTERA. 



green Chrysopa, but may be found in cotton fields generally in the 
plains. 

Chn/soplnn\ — The antenna' filiform. One species of this grou)! 
is common throughout the plains, a delicate greeji insect with shining 




Fig. 76. — Chrysopa larva, with its coverih(; of skin.s. 
(F. M. H.). 



eyes which diffuses an un})leasant odour on being handled. Here and 
there about the fields one .sees little clusters of white eggs, each egg on a 
separate long slender .stalk. (A Himalayan species lays the eggs so 
close together that the individual stalks coalesce and one finds a little 
bunch of eggs on a compound stalk). The clusters are everywhere, 




Fig. 77.— Eggs of chrysopa. 



IlKMKROlillD.K 



155 



on weeds, on tin- cotton plant, on the jiiound. and if oiu' watcln-s care- 
fully in the dusk, one may see a lon« j^reen Hy laying tliein sonu- fifteen 
to twenty in a little cluster. In a few days (a little over a week), these 
eggs hatch, the thin shell i)ursting at the tip to allow the little 
creature to emerge : it sits on the egg shell on the to]i of the stalk 
till it has recovered from its cramped jiosition in the egg and then runs 
off looking for aphis, it is a very active creature, with long legs, a 
.slender body .set witli spines and a pair of long curved mandibles on the 




Fig. 78.— Ego and l.\k\a ok chuysopa. 



head. It is most voracious, catching the apliides in its hollow mandibles 
and sucking out the juice of their body. Having emptied the skin, it 
puts it on its back, where the long .spines hold it, and eats the next 
aphis. This process continues indefinitely throughout the larval life 
of the little creature ; it moves about with a large heap of the skins of 
its victims on its back, and it is no easy 
matter to make out what one has got hold 
of when one sees this extraordinary mass 
running over the cotton plant. At the 
periodical moult it gets rid of the accu- 
mulation of skins, which by no means in- 
cludes those of all its victims and starts a 
fresh covering. Their voraciousness is 
very great and in captivity the single 
larva required on an average some KiO 




Fit;. 79. — Cocoon hk rHKVsm'A. 



aphides for one day's food. This is 



15(J 



NEUROPTERA. 



probably not more than they eat when living freely on the 
plant ; they feed very rapidly and voraciously and we can quite believe 
the number of victims in a day to be much larger. Finally, after eight 
days' feeding, its voraciousness is satisfied and it settles down in a quiet 
place to spin its cocoon and turn into the chrysalis. This is done on 
the plant and the chrysalis remains in it for about one month. The 
cocoon is a tough, white oval structuie, built of silk, and when the fly 
is ready to come out. the 
top comes off as a neat 
little lid; there is probably 
a line of weakness in the co- 
coon when originally made, 
so that the top will come 
off neatly and allow the fly 
to emerge. The fly is a 
familiar insect with green 
head and body, bright 
golden eyes and long un- 
gainly wings, which look much too big for it. One sees them Hying 
about in the dusk or in the day time if disturbed, and like many other 
insects, the attraction of a lamp is usually too much for them. No 
Indian species appear to have been recorded. 

Coniopteri/<jin:i.— 8mall delicate insects, in which the wings are 
covered with a white powdery secretion. 




-tHKV.Sl)F.\. 




81.— til'ILOCORIS GUTTATA. 
{From Emlerleiii.) 



These delicate insects arc just kjiown to occur in India, a few indivi- 
duals having been captured flying and on a bair tree in Surat and among 



TRICHOPTERA. 



157 



pine and deodar in Simla. An accdunt of wliat is l^nowuof tlu" life history 
will be found in Sharp's insects. Tliev will l)e confused with Aleur- 
odidce if not carefully examined : the iii()uthi)arts are well developed 
with prominent palpi : the wing venation is comparatively complex and 
tlie tarsi five-jointed. The wings are white, the body red in one species 

Enderlein has listed the family (Genera Insectorum, 1908); no 
Indian species are recorded. He states that the larva\ after feeding 
on Coccids. spin a web by means of anal spinnerets and rest under 
it till spring, when they pupate and emerge. 

Collecting. — Special methods of collecting are not re(juired in this 
family, but great care must be taken to preserve the specimens from 
damp as in all groups of Neuroptera. Myrmeleonides and Ascalaphides 
are on the wing once a year and come to lights. Nemopterids come out 
in houses at dusk and dance ; the remainder must be sought for in their 
haunts. Any killing bottle is good, so long as it is quite dry. Good series 
of all species are reijuired, and in this group there is very much biological 
work to be done before we can fully estimate the value of this family. 

TRif'HOPTER.\. — Caddis flies. 

W'iixjs finiri/, the hind uinij Jdri/er, irith a folded anal area. Coxce lomj 

and conlifiKoii.'i. Antennce loruj, tarsi fire-jointed. 

The family can be distinguished by the above characters with some 

doubt, since the liairiness of the wings is not alwavs noticeable. Thev 




8'2.— MaCRONEMA FASTUOSl'M WLK. 

[Frmn Vlmer.) 



158 



NEUROPTERA. 



are rather delicate insects, moth-like in appearance, but with the wings 
sloped over the abdomen when at rest. The antennae are long. We 
are aware of no observations on these insects in India, other than the 
descriptions of species. Their biology appears to be untouched. In 
general, the larv» live in fresh water in cases, made of a great variety of 
materials, including silk, stones, vegetable matter, shells of molluscs, etc. ; 
each species makes its special form of case, in which the larva lives. 
The larva is somewhat caterpillar-like, with a terminal pair of processes 
or hooks to fasten it to the case, with blood-gills of a variety of kinds to 
secure respiration. They are believed to be vegetarian, and while 
one at least is injurious to the "water-cress" grown in Europe, 
none are known to be iniurious to India. 



The student of this group should read the chapter in Sharp's Insects 
and the account in MialTs Aquatic Insects ; it is to be hoped that the 
family will be investigated in India ; the 
number of plain's species appears to be 
small, but very little is known and the 
group has not been studied. Wood- 
Mason recorded a species which produced 
460 living young ones when artificially 
stimulated. Apparently this is the normal 
habit of this Caddisfly, which is provi- 
sionally named by him NotanatoUca 
vivipara (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1890, 6 
ser.,Vol. VI, p. 189). Morton describes a 
HijdroptiUd iiom. the Khafiis as Ithytnchia 
violacea, remarking that it is the largest 
of the sub-family with an expanse of 
12-U m.m. (E. M. M. 1902, p. 283). He 
also describes Khasi Rhyacophilids in 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1900, p. 1. In 
all, some 61 species are recorded from 
India, Burma and Ceylon, the majority 
from the last locality, most of the remain- 
der from the hills. 




Fife. 83.— Caddis larva, in case. 

X 25. FKCM balsam i-LIDE. 



TRICHOPTERA. 



15it 



The following are recorded from India hy Timer (Zcitschr. Wiss. 
Tnsectenbiol. 190."), pp. 10, (18, 119, and Genera Insectorum, Trichop- 
tera, 1907). 



1. Phrvganeidjp 

2. (Limnophilida?). 

3. Sericostomatid-i> 



4. Leptocerida^ 



5. Hydropsychiil i 

fi. Polycentropida 

7. Philopotamida' 

8. Rhyacophilida 



9. Hydroptilid;!' 



1. Neuronlii »nicJ(ichJa)ii. Wh (India). 

2. Dinarthrodes (umatn, Ulm. (Assam). 

15. Ditmrthrunoii ferox, Mad. (North 

India). 
4. DinnrtbreUa drstriietrir. Ulm. (Darjee- 

ling). 
"). Xotanatolica >iiaijna, Vi'\k. (India, etc.). 
(). Notanatolica vivipara, W. M. (Calcutta). 

7. Leptocenis indicus, Wlk. (Bengal, its 

systematic position doubtfid). 

8. Setodes argentifera. Macl. (North-Wes- 

tern India). 

9. Pohjinorfhanismus ni<iriconns. Wlk. 

(North India). 

10. Aethaloptera scxpundala. Koi. (India). 

1 1 . H iidrnpsijche asiatica, Ulm. (Sikkim). 

12. Hi/dropsyche liictuosus, Ulm. (Sikkim). 
]'■]. Plrctronemia aurea. Ulm. (Sikkim). 

1 1. Plrctronemia navasi, Ulm. (Sikkim). 

15. Dipseudopsis indica, Macl. (India). 

16. Stenopsyche qriseipennis, Macl. (India, 

etc.). 

17. Rhi/aropJiihi anatina, Nort. (Khasis). 

IS. Rhi/acophila curvata, Mort. (Khasis). 

19. Rhi/acophila inconspicua, Mort. (Khasis). 

20. Rhi/acophila lanceolafa, Mort. (Khasis). 

21. Rhi/acophila scissa, Mort. (Khasis). 

22. Rhijacophila tecta, Mort. (Khasis). 

23. Rhijacophila naviculata, Mort. (Trichi- 

nopoly). 

24. Ithijtrichia violacea, Mort. (Khasis). 

25. MeJanotrichia sinr/ularis, Ulni. (India). 



160 NEUROPTERA. 

The Tricliopiera are characteristic of moist temperate areas rather 
than of the moist or dry tropical areas and the student will scarcely find 
any species without search. None the less, it is probable that in the 
moister parts of India many remain to be found and this is true also 
of the hills. More species are recorded from Ceylon than from all India 
including the hills, and this is due partly to better collecting and to more 
attention having been paid to these insects there. 



Note. — Since the above was in type, the Ascolaphid larva? figured 
have been successfully kept alive and have passed through several instars ; 
they are fed on small sluggish insects such as caterpillars, aphides and 
inmiature membracids ; they are inactive by day resting pressed tightly 
on stones or earth, usually covered with particles of soil held by their 
spines. 

The common hemopterid, which was obtained as usual in April, 
laid eggs in captivity, small oval bluish eggs, laid singly and concealed 
by adhering dust. They hatched to small white larva? of the form 
shown in figure 73, but without the long neck which apparently develops 
in later instars. They cover themselves with du.st and. in the ab.sence 
of other food, prey upon each other. There can be no doubt that the 
larvse occur in houses and other buildings and there is additional evi- 
dence that they are predaceous, probably upon P.socids (a(ropos) and 
other small forms of insect life, their long necks probably a.s.sisting 
them to obtain their prey in cracks and chinks. 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Two pairs of wings of almost equal size, hyaline and with few veins. The 
antennae simple, straight or elbowed. The mouthparts mandibulate, 
the labium and maxillae formed in some cases into a lapping tongue. 
The thorax complex, the parts accurately co-adapted to form a rigid 
whole. An extrusible ovipositor is present. Metamorphosis complex, 
the larva freeliving or, more usually, dependent for food on a host or 
on the parent and in this case a white apodous grub. In both the latt er 
the imaginal life is the active period, usually of long duration The 
order includes herbivorous insects, feeding in or on plants, parasites 
in insects, stinging predators feeding tlieir young on paralysed insects 
and spiders, and social or solitary insects deriving their food from 
flowers, from waste matter (scavengers) or from living insects. 



Tlie sawflies, gallflies, iclincumoiis, cuckoo-wasps, bees, ants and 
wasps which make up this order are readily recognised in the field : the 
order is a very large one, with a great number of known species, and 
perhaps a greater number of undescribed species than any order except 
Diptera. It includes insects of the very highest importance to agricul- 
ture, and some of great economic value but few that are destructive to 
crops or merchandise. 

The classification of this large order is simple, and though authors do 
not agree as to the details, the broad lines are generally accepted. Ash- 
mead has revised the whole classification and introduced a new nomen- 
clature, but, while this is accepted in America, it is not that accepted in 
Europe and differs from that still adhered to in England. We must here 
follow the Fauna of India. The order is divided into Sessiliventres, with 
the abdomen broadly attached to the thorax, and Petiolata with the 
abdomen connected to the thorax by a petiole. The Sessiliventres in- 
clude only three families of phytophagous insects, which are borers in 
plants or feed on leaves. The Petiolati includes the remaining 24 
families, which fall into three series : — The Parasitica, with divided 
troclianter and extruded ovipositor, the Tuhnlifera and Aculeata with 

iiL U 



i(;2 



HYMENOPTERA. 



retriisible ovipositor and single tiochantei-, the former with three to 
five visible ventral segments and an ovipositor, the latter with the 
abdomen of more than five visible ventral segments and a sting. 

The Aculeata again fall into four series, the Anthofhila with plumose 
hairs and dilated hind tarsi, the Diploptera with forewing longitudinally 
folded in repose, the Heterogyna with the basal one or two segments 
formed into nodes, and the Fossorps without any of these characters. 
The classification of the order falls as in the following table : — 



Sessiliventres. 
(Phytophaga). 

Petiolata. Parasitica. 



TUBULIFERA. 
A.CULEATA FOSSORES. 



DiPLOPTERA. 



Anthophila. 



Heterogyna. 



(Cephidae). 

Siricidgp. 

Tenthredinidn'. 

Cynipidsp. 

Proctotrypida?. 

ChalcidR". 

Dryinida\ 

Ichneumonida'. 

Braconida'. 

Stephanida'. 

(Megalyrida'l. 

Evaniida'. 

(Pelecinida'). 

Trigonalidse. 

Chrysida'. 

Mutillida^. 

Thynnidff. 

Scoliidfp. 

(Sapygida^). 

Pompilida'. 

Sphegidffp. 

Eumenida'. 

^'espida>. 

(Masarida'). 

Colletida\ 

Apida?. 

Formicid-p. 



VKSl'A MACJNIFICA. 




t^td Sf? 




B 




-A. Vk.si'a M.\i:n'ifiia, to show mkiuan seomknt a.vd singlb trochanter 

(TR). B. URAiONIO to show .irxcTIoX op THORAX ANM) ABUOMKX. PeT.- 
PETIOLE, MEIi. SEu-MePIAN SEOMENT Tr. 1, Tr. '-', THE DOUBLE TROCHAX- 
TER. C. Thorax of SPHEGID to show rOLLARLIKE PROTHORAX. D. DITTO. 
OF POMPILID TO SHOW PROTHOKAX BF.Af'HINi; THE TEUULaC. 



There is a very extensive literature on this group. The Sessili- 
ventres and Parasitica have been largely listed in Oenera Insectornm and 
the IchneumonidcB and Braconidce are being monographed in the Fauna 
of India shortly. The Tubulifera and Aculeata are already monographed 
in the Famia of India but the student will find a large number of species 
since described by Cameron, Nurse and others. 

It is at present useless to attempt to grapple with the Parasitica, 
and our account below must, in the absence of the Fauna volume, be 
meagre in the extreme. Collections in this group are badly wanted and 
there is here a very large field for collecting and research, specially in 
tropical India. In the Jr?<?m<a, the pioneer work of listing and descrjb- 



I<i4 HYMENOPTERA. 

ing species is largely doue, though new species still appear, and the next 
step is to study the habits and life-histories. The student will note 
that we follow the order and nomenclature of Bingham's Fauna of 
India, rather than that of continental authors as is done by Nurse and 
Cameron, and as may be most easily seen in Genera Insectorum. 

HYMENOPTERA SESSILIVENTRES 

SiRicin.E. — (including Ori/ssida-). 
A small family distinct from other families by the characters of 
the thorax and venation, as well as by the larval habits. The larva> 
are borers in wood, and have three pairs of stumpy legs on the 
thorax, a process at the end of the abdomen. The imagines are con- 
.spicuous insects, large and brightly coloured, the female with sharp 
ovipositor. They are wholly forest insects and confined in India to 
hilly forest tracts. The recorded Indian species include Xiphi/dria 
(3 spp.), Sirex (I sp.), Paururus (1 sp.), and I'remex (3 spp.). None arc 
likely to be found in tropical India. 

Tenthredinid.^. — Sawfiies. 

The pronotum small ; two spurs to the tibia. The female with a saw, 

usuallij concealed. The larva leaf-eatim/, caterpillar-like, 

with more than five pairs of sucker feet. 

The sawflies are easily recognizable from other Hi/menoptera. the 
abdomen being broadly united with the thorax, the pronotum small and 
visible principally at the sides, the female without an exserted ovipositor 
and the anterior tarsi with two spurs. They are moderate-sized insects, 
of bright colours, the common plains species less than one-third of an 
inch long. The head is distinct, with short antennse, simple and com- 
pound eyes and the usual biting mouthparts. The thorax and abdomen 
are robust, the wings short and often smoky or coloured. The most 
striking structure is the female ovipositor or ' ' saw," with which she cuts 
leaves in which to lay her eggs. This is concealed except when in use 
and requires to be dissected out. 

The life-history is, in general features, similar to that of the Lepi- 
doptera. The larva is a caterpillar-like creature with three pairs of 
thoracic legs and from six to eight pairs of prolegs without hooks on the 



PLATE IX.— Athalia Proxima, 
The Mustard Sawfly. 

Fig. 1. Young laiva. 

2. Half-grown larva. 

•5. Full-grown larva. 

i. Larva feeding on mustard leaf. 

•5. Pupa, dorsal aspect. ^ 

<>. Pupa, venti'al aspect. 

7. Imago. 

8. Cluster of Cocoons. 

9. Single Cocoon. 
10. Parasite. 

(Repiiuted from Memoirs, Agricultural Department fur India, 
Entomology, Vol. I, No. 6.) 



I 1 



I #, 




" 10 ' 



MUSTARD SAWFLY. 



TKNTHRKDIMH.*. 165 

abdominal seirnu-nts. This character at once distinguishes it as no Lepi- 
iloptvruua larva has more than five pairs of prologs. The larva lives 
openly, feeding on leaves: in some the hind end of tlie abdomen is more 
tlexible and tapering, and is twisted round in a characteristic maiuier to 
give support to the insect. The larva of Al/ialia proxiwa, Klug., the 
commonest plains species, feeds on mustard and Crucifera' generally ; 
its life-history is described elsewlieie (Mnn. Agric. Dept., India, 
Entom, 1, No. (i). It is \indoubtetlly an immigrant from the hills 
wliich has adapted itself to life in trojdcal hnlia liy a prolonged period 
of rest during the hot months. The pupa is concealed in a cocoon 
between leaves or in the ground. It is recorded that partlientxjem'sis 
occurs in this family: this does not appear to be the case with A. 
proxiina, where both sexes occur and coupling takes place normally. 

The family is a large ojie with over 2,-100 species described of which 
!tO are known from India, being mainly species collected in Assam. ]5ur- 
nia and Simla. The hill fauna is very much larger than that of the 
plains but the large number described is partly due to the fact that this 
group has been collected there and has not been worked at in the plains. 
Cameron has described the majority of the species within the last 
ten years. Only two species are known from the plains of which Athn- 
lid pivxi 111(1. Klug.. alone has been reared. (Plate IX.) The most 
recent catalogue is thit of Konow in Gcncni luKi'dorutn. 

HYMENOPTBRA PARASITICA. 

From practically every herbivorous insect, as from many others, 
we rear parasites belojiging to this group. From a suigle species we may 
get one or more egg parasites, and one or more larval parasites ; we fuid 
also that these parasites have their parasites (called /ii/perparasites as 
they are parasites on parasites). Thus from one species we may rear 
several species of parasitic hymenoptera. It will be seen that this group 
is one of vast extent and number ; it is also one whose study has not at- 
tracted sufficient attention ; Indian forms have been described (in a great 
variety of somewhat inaccessible publications) by Cameron and others 
from specimens collected in the hills : we have reared abundant species 
which will require much time for identification and we are thus in a posi- 
tion of having a great mass of material which has not been worked at 
and we cannot attempt to give any satisfactory account of tliis great 



lOfi HYMENOPTEtlA. 

group. Iji no branch of entomology is study so mucli required and no 
branch is likely to give results of greater economic value. Parasitic 
Hymenoptera are the greatest checks on insect increase and their work 
is of the utmost importance ; this has been recognised elsewhere and the 
study of Parasitic Hymenoptera should advance when more encourage- 
ment is given to Entomology generally. As it is we are unable to do 
anything to assist these insects save in very special cases ; when it was 
learnt that the parasites of the Indian bollworm had been destroyed by 
cold, and these were reintroduced from places not affected by the cold, 
the first step to the utilisation of parasitic insects was taken in India : 
but this was a special case and until we know our parasites, we cannot 
expect to be able to make progress in this branch of entomolog}^ 

Cynipid/E. — GaU-wasfs. 
SmaU to inimde insects, tlw forewimj with no stiijina and not more than 

five closed cells, the hindwing with tivo or three nervures ; the antennce 

are straight ivith less than Ifi joints. The pronotum reaches the 

insert i 071 oj the foreivings. 

Whilst the habits of the family are of great interest, almost none 
are described from our region and the habits of tliese are unknown. One 
species {Onychia striolata. Cam.) from Bengal will, if it shares the habits 
of the rest of the genus, be a parasite on a Dipterous insect. Otheis are 
known to inhabit galls. Cameron has desciibed Callirhi/tis semicarpi- 
joliw as being reared from an acorn [Quercus semicarpifolin) collected 
in the North-West Himalayas. (Entomologist, 1902, 38.) 

In general, the Ci/nipidce are either (1) inhabitants of galls oi- other 
portions of plant tissues, (2) guests of the above gall- inhabiting species 
or (3) parasites on otlier insects. Taking first the gall-insect, it may be 
remembered that many other insects make galls and that not every gall 
is due to the work of the Vijnipid : also that a gall may contain the Ci/ni- 
pid that caused it or either guests or parasites. A number of very simi- 
lar insects may therefore be reared from the same galls and it is no easy 
matter to sort them out. It is very much to be desired that the study of 
galls may be taken up in India, and with it, the study of the relations 
of the insects inhabiting such galls. Galls abound even in the plains and 
those on the mango tree alone will give ample scope for investigation. 
Haviuu clea.rcd them up. th^ study of galls on other trees in the, plains 



(jalls. 1()7 

and then in the forests and hills may be expected to produce much tliat 
is new and second in interest to no other brancli of insect bionomics. 

All excellent account of some of the features of this group is contain- 
ed in .Sharp's Insects. The student is referred to this, and it is needless 
to here reproduce a similar i;encral account of a {?roup of which almost 
nothing is known in India. 



GALLS. 



There are a numijcv ol insects, which live in the tissues of plants 
and whose activities produce an alteration of the structure of 
the plant, an unusual growth of tissue taking place, leading to the 
formation of a "gall.'" Such galls are easily recognisable as quite 
distinct bodies, associated always with a particular insect and for eacli 
species of inliabitant assuming a peculiar form. 

Obviously this is a clearly distinct form of injury to the plant from 
that caused by an ordinary boring or leaf-eating insect, in which there is 
jio growth of tissue except in so far as to heal the wound caused, and 
where the damage dojie is limited to the effect produced solely by the 
destruction of so much tissue. 

As a rule, the cojuiected insect is in the gall, not necessarily in the 
fully developed gall but in it at some stage of its growth ; put very broad- 
ly, the parent or the actual insect stimulates the tissues to an abnormal 
growth in which the gall insect lives ; the jjrecise nature of this stimulus 
is notknowii for any of our galls but may be either poison or some agent 
introduced by the parent when laying eggs, or it may be a chemical or 
mechanical stimulus produced by the larval gall-insect inside the tissues. 
The growth of a gall does not always terminate with the emergence of 
the inhabiting insect and in some instances very large woody structures 
are produced on trees after the original gall-insect has emerged. 

Elsewhere, the C}Tiipidae are the especial gall-insects either inhabit- 
ing the gall b}' right or as inquilines (guests). The larvae of Nematus are 
said to form galls and insects of this family {Tent/iredinidw), will possibly 
be found as gall inhabitants in India also. The Fig Insects of the family 
Cluikidw are probably gall producers, living in special gall flowers in the 
tig. An abnormal Bupreslid (Ethon) is known to live in a gall 
and some of the Curculionidre also produce galls. Among Lepidoptera, 
a few Tineidm are known, and the transition from a boring larva to one 
that causes gall-formations is not a very wide one. Cccidomyiids are 
well known among the Diplera and are found in India behaving in 
this manner. Thrips {T/ii/i<'innptcra) causes galls, as also do the three 
gYuui)s t>i Hoinoptera, thu Psi/llidd', Ap^ndxe and Coccidw : Psyllidti are 
known to live in galls in India but do not appear to have been studied. 
Several have liiien reared from tialls mi leaves in India and it would 



168 HYMENOPTERA. 

appeai'that they are the commonest gall-insects. In Australia, a special 
division of Coccidw (Brachyscelids) are inhabitants of galls. In India 
Dactylopius nipai Mask, produces what is practically a gall, a swelling 
and distortion of the tissues of the plant, due to the presence of the 
insect ; these are found on some varieties of cotton, on Hibiscus and 
on mulberry. We have indicated these families as being those in which 
gall-insects are known and in which they may be expected also in this 
country. Galls are not easy to rear in "captivity," since the removal 
of the gall from the growing plant interferes with nutrition, and moulds 
are a great trouble ; gall-insects are also not ([uick in development and 
it is probable that success will be obtained only by breeding on the plant 
or by patient observation. We figure some galls as well as the insects 
causing them (see under Cecidoniyiida and Psi/llidce below). The 
student sliould see Kieffer's paper on Gall-insects of Bengal (Ann. Soc. 
Bruxelles XXIX, p. 1:33, 1905). 

Proctotrypid^e. 

Small inss^'ts, the prothorax reaching hack to the teyuhc, irith jeic 

7iervures in the wings, the antennw straight. 

The classification of the parasitic Hijmenoptera is as yet insufficient- 
ly understood and with such vast families to deal with, it is, without 
going far more deeply into the subject than we here can, impossible 
to give characters by which to recognise any Proctotri/pid. They 
are essentially small parasitic Hijmenoptera, with the above general 
characters ; they differ from the Chalcidw in fairly characteristic 
details, but include some insects very difficult to place if one has not a 
very thorough grasp of these families. These little insects exhibit 
great variety in structure. The ovipositor is a continuation of the 
end of the body. Many are of beautiful metalHc colours, the body 
hard, like that of Chrysidce. 

The life is so far as known, wholly parasitic, though the habits of 
not many species are known. The Indian species reared are from insect 
eggs, one from a dipterous larva and one from a beetle larva. It is 
certain that a great number will be reared when more attention is 
paid to this group. The family is a very large one with numerous sub- 
divisions. Judging from the number of undescribed species found or 
reared, the plains' species of India are little known. Dalla Torre's 
catalogue gives some five Indian species, besides a number more 
from Ceylon, but this number is an extremely small ])art oi what 
would be known were the group to be collected : a great numbei' of 



TlIK SIZE OK INSECTS. I''' 

these as of other parasitic Hyiiienoptera are being found or learcd 
and the family is probably an extremely important one. 

Scelio acte, Wlk., and Epijris orientalis, ("am., are recorded as well as 
Platifjaster onjzw, Cam., bred from the maggots of Ciridomyia onjzw, 
W. M. A species of Scelio attacks the eggs of the Bombay Locust, 
Acridium succinctum, Linn. ; Hadronotus sp. and Telenomns sp. were 
reared from insect eggs and Tehnoimis sp. from the eggs of Scirpo- 
phatja auriflua, Zell., a Pijralid moth. Scelio (Homalotylus) terminalis. 
Say., is a parasite upon the larva; of Chilomenes sexmaculata, Fabr. 



THE SIZE OP INSECTS. 

We are told that oji other iihuiets. man might be very much larger 
than he is on earth on account of the less force of gravity due to the 
smaller bulk of the planet. That is, the Mammoth or some prehistoric 
reptile represents the maximum size attainable on earth simply because 
the i)ones reijuisite to support a larger animal and to bear the muscular 
strains set up in moving it could not, with the material of which bones 
are constructed, exist. Gravity and the tensile strejigtli of the mate- 
rial used in making the skeletons of animals thus puts a limit at one 
extreme. On the other extreme is another limit in the size occupied 
by a sufficient aggregation of molecules to carry on the complex 
reactions of physical life, a limit which possibly admits of the existence 
of forms of life smaller than can be perceived by our present methods ; 
at any rate, there are organisms visible only under a magnification of 
thousands of diameters. 

Between these extremes lie our insects: the smallest are less than 
a millimetre in length : the largest moth has a wing span of twelve 
inches, the biggest beetle a length of over half this and the bulk of 
our insects are between three and one-tenth of an inch long and 
between five and a fifth of an inch across the expanded wings. 

Probably the essential feature in insect anatomy that has limited 
them in size is the chitinous integument ; an insect has no bones, it has 
no separate internal skeleton round which the soft tissues can be 
grouped and which can give a central support to muscles and connec- 
tive tissue ; there is only an extern<tl integument, with processes 
internally, and the tissues take their attachment from this and are 
packed away inside it. There is further the delicate tracheal system, 
probably capable only of a certain amount of compression and thus 
limiting the amount of stress that can be set up by muscular action. 
Another point is that the chitinous integument is not, except in the 
adult stage, a permanent one ; it is shed and this puts a very definite 
limit prol)ably upon the size to which it can be produced. 



170 hyimenoptera. 

Other factors probably are the very great specialization insects 
display ; we may imagine a caterpillar, if omnivorous and without 
enemies, growing to the limit of the size that its chitinous legs, and 
prolegs could bear ; it might perhaps be six feet long and a foot high: 
walking along like a vast worm and browsing happily m the pasture. 
But there are no onuiivorous caterpillars (plants protect themselves 
too well with poisons and other devices), the vast number and variety 
of species are correlated with great specialisation and whether from 
the Hmitations of chitin, or from the difficulties of metamorphosis, 
such vast creatures do not exist. 

Possibly insects are dominant because they are small, reproduction 
(^an be quick and vast, an egg can contain enough food to produce an 
active self-supporting larva : the difficulties of viviparism are avoided 
and the mother need not live over to care for her young. When the 
seasons are unfavourable, the female waits with her store of undeve- 
loped eggs till the season is favourable. Above all, where there is one 
vast animal like a cow. conspicuous and slow breeding, you may have, 
in equal bulk, a horde of scattered insects, ready to concentrate 
themselves on one point but capable, in times of stress, of difEusion 
over wide areas and in inappreciable amount. It is the case of the 
fly which eats the carcase quicker than the lion, because the concen- 
trated effort and increase of a thousand small creatures outweighs the 
efforts of the one large creature a thousand times their size. 

The insect, with the lion, endures times of starvation but of a 
thousand, perhaps, ten insects survive, whereas the one lion dying leaves 
none. So that taking lives as units, the small insect is better off and 
it may be that in the very limitations of chitin and metamorphosis has 
lain its success, since strivings after mere bulk have been vain where 
natural effort at increase, with multiplication of species and function, 
has enabled the insect to overrun and dominate the earth. 

Dryinid,^. 
Female n-ith the foreleg modified to form <i jnw-er. 

A family of nearly 200 species of small insects, usually included in 
Proctotri/pidce, and distinguished by the fact that the foic tarsus is 
modified in the female to form a pincer. 

This modification of the foreleg is connected with the habits of the 
insect ; according to Kietfer, the female seizes the nymph of the Homop. 
terous insect she attacks by means of the pincers, and lays one or two 
eggs in its abdomen ; the resulting larva develops, emerges and 
pupates outside, the Homo f terous nymph dying. Three species only 
are known from India : Dri/inus trifasciatus, Kieft'., Prodri/inus 
hU'isciiUus, Soy., and (rnnatiipiix nururnx. Kieffer 



171 



One has l)eeii reared from the Fulgorid Pi/rilla ulHrrans. Wlk.. the 
larva liviii}; in the uymph and emerging to produce a small wiiite cocoon 
on the leaf of the cane plant. (Fii;. SC.) 




l''iK. So— Anterior tarsal joints 

CONATOPUS GRACILIS. 

[From Kipfth:) 




-Dl; VIM'S I'ORJlIcJAUU'S. 
(Fc./m Kli'frr. 





Fi^'. S(i— DrYIMIi I'ARASITK dl' IVIULI.A ABKRRAKS 
I IMIMIN UN A LEAK. K 2. 



172 



HYJIENOPTERA. 



Oh A LCI D^. 

SmaU insects, the untennre elbowed, the icinys icitJi one vein, the 
protonmn not reaching the tegulw- 

This very large family is most readily distinguished by the elbowed 
antennae and single-veined wings. Many are of characteristic form and 
are readily recognisable as Chalcids in tlie field. The colours are sombre, 
though black and yellow is a frequent combination. They are nearly 
all small; though Leucospis measures nearly half an incli in length, less 
than a quarter of an inch is a more usual size and some are so small as 
to be microsco^jic and not really visible to the unaided eye. The head is 
well developed, with elbowed antenna^, large eyes and the usual mouth- 
parts. The thorax is compact giving great powers of tlightto the tiny 
insect. The wings are hyaline with a single vein in the forewing. The 
abdomen is hard and in the female bears an ovipositor. Legs are well 
developed and the little insect walks and flies actively. The hind 
femur is frequently very much swollen, the narrow tibia fitting 
closely to it. 




Fig. S8 -Chalcis i.KiiiiL.i':, much macnifiki 



0HAi.cin.>;. 173 

'Hie details of the life liistoiy of the group as a whole are very varied 
but most are parasites in eggs, larva> or pupa' of almost all groups of in- 
sects including the Hi/menoplcm: some are hyperparasites, i.e., lay their 
eggs in the bodies of parasitic larva- which are already in the bodies of 
other insects: othei-s are foimd in galls, as parasites : a few are fig insects 
living in peculiar gall-like structures in the fruit of wild figs ; the greater 
number are parasites ])urely. and though the details of their life history 
would probably be of gieat interest if we knew them, practically nothing 
is known and we are probably sufficiently accurate in estimating the 
family as an important one owing to its role of general insect parasite. 

The life history of no Indian species has really been studied and the 
utmost we know in most cases is that the imagines have been reared from 
particular insects. There are abundant points of great interest in the 
lives of these tiny insects ; how do the imagijies live when their host is 
not available: how do they hibernate, on what do they feed, when do 
they fly 'i How does the larva manage inside the body of a caterpillar 
and how does it get its air or dispose of its excreta, or moult ? What is 
going on inside a caterpillar when there are perhaps twenty larvae in it 
or as in some cases there are over (XiO '. What are the details of the 
moults of the hyperparasites ? One could continue enumerating points 
on which practically nothing is known at all, and absolutely nothing in 
India. Dalla Torre's catalogue enumeiates about thirty species from 
our region ; Cameron has added others (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. 8oc., XVII, 
578, etc.), a very large number have been and will be added to this, and 
it would be in no way surprising if Chulridce were found to be the 
family of which the greatest number of species occur in India. 

The identitication of these numerous forms, principally unclassified 
and undetermijied. is possible only when one studies this family alone. 
It is then useless to do more than mention a few common species as ex- 
amples of Clinlcidce. The following species and their hosts are known 
in India : — 

Pentarthrum (Trichogramma) sp. is a tiny species reared from the 
eggs of Chile simplex, Butl., the moth-borer of cane. A very high per- 
centage of the eggs of this moth are infested, and the parasite is a 
verv valuable check. Tetrnittichus sp. is reared from Cliilo auricilia, 
Ddgn., and is probal)lv in itself a hyperparasite upon the Braconid, 



I7i 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Apanteles cliilonis- The imagines of the foiiiuT eiueigc diieetly ficiiii 
the pupa of the caterpillar, not making an external cocoon, whilst 
the Afimteles larva-, if not parasitised, emerge as fuU-srowii larvse and 
make white cocoons outside their host. 

Syntomosphyrum (Cirrospilus) sp. is reared from pupie of Chilo- 
menes sexmarnlata, F., a Ladybird beetle, where it is possibly a hyper- 
ijarasite of Scelio (Homalotylus) terminah's, Say., which parasitises 
this beetle grub. S. esurus, Ry., has been reared from the cotton 
aphis (Aphis gossypii, Glov.) in which it is possibly a hyperparasite 
of Trioxys sp., a Braconid parasite. Omphale sp. is a small bisect 
of which 77 were reared from the grub of a Cotton Stem Borer, 
Sphenoptera (jossypii, Kerr. It is probably a hyperparasite on the 
true parasite of this beetle grub. Pteromalus oryzce, Cam., is a 
parasite of the grub of the rice weevil Calandra oryzne, L., and keeps 
this voracious pest in check. (I. M. N.) Aphelinus thece, Cam., is 
recorded as a parasite of the scale insect, Aspidiotus thew, Mask., on 
tea in the Kangra Valley. (I. M. N.) A species near to Sycori/ctes 
philippinensis, Ashm., has been 
reared from the fruits of the pipal 
{Ficiis religiosa) ui India, and 
with it Goniogaster, (Idarnes) 
stabilis, Wlk., and Sycophila 
decatonioides, Wlk., which are 
parasitic upon it. 

The following species are also 
recorded as having been reared 
from the figs of Ficus indica('! 
meant for Ficus bengalensis, the 
banyan tree) ■.—Eupristina mnsn- 
)ii, Saimd. ; Sycobia hethyloides. 
Westd. ; WalkereUa temerariu, 
Westd. ; Sycobiella Saundersi. 
Westd. : Sycoscapta inngnis. 
Saund. ; SycoscapteUa affinis. 
Westd.; Micmnisa (Idarnes) F'g- S9-Eupristina masoni. malk arovk, 

FEMALE HELOW. 

pteromahides, Wlk. (j^,,o,„ we.',imood.) 




CHAhCID.K. 



I7r) 



Walker also described Si/cnij/iila itiiydsdf/iii'iide.s andMayr described 
Sijcophaija hrevivcntrin from figs in Ijidia. The student should consult 
the original papers: — Westwood, T. E. S., 
London, 1840, V'ol. 11, p. 214; Westwood and 
Saunders, loo. cit., London, 1883, pp. 1, 
2'.i. Tit), ;?8;5; Westwood, loc. pit.. 1882, 47 : 
.Mavi'. Mittlu'ilungt'ii Zool. Stat. Neajiel. 
Ill, 1882. 

These fig insects have been the subject 
of prolonged investigation in Europe and 
South America, and an unknown species 
which attacks Ficus roxbiiniliii in Calcutta 
i.s discussed by Ciuiningham in an appendix 
to Volume 1, of the .Vnnals of the Botanic 
Uarden, Calcutta. Cunningham finds that 
there are two crops of fruits yearly, some 
trees having receptacles containing gall 
Howers and males, others containing female 
Howers ; in the gall flowers, which are 
peculiar structures, the fig insect lays its 
eggs, the larvae living in the gall and even- 
tually emerging in the winged condition. 
Fig. 90— SvcoBiELLA s.iUNDERsi On emergence they fly, couple, and the 
females endeavour to lay eggs. In search- 
ing for the gall flowers, the females enter 
the receptacles, including those containing female flowers, and 
endeavour to deposit eggs m the female flowers. As a result the 
enormous numbers of embryos in each receptacle develop, as if 
they were fertilised. The inference, naturally, is that the female 
insects carry pollen from the male flowers, but Cunningham concludes 
that this is not the case and that the female embryos develo]i 
parthenogenetically but only after the irritation produced by the 
attempts of the female fig insects to lay eggs in these flowers. The 
fig insect then plays the part of an irritant agent, producijig effects 
equivalent to fertilisation and the fig plant produces, on behalf of 
the insect, special "flowers" in which the insect lays its eggs. The 
Chalcid then in this case is simply a gall insect, as the Cipiipidai are, 




SVCOaCAPTA INSIGNI.S MALE. 
(From Westwood.) 



176 



HYMENOPTF.RA. 



Connected with these fig insects are parasites, insects very closely 
allied and which lay their eggs in the larvae of the fig insects in the 
fig »all flowers ; Cunningham does not appear to have been aware of 
this fact or to have known what fig insects he was dealing with and 
this is to be regretted as his conclusions may require to be vitally 
modified. (This applies equally to the same author's chapter in that 
popular but inaccurate work ' Pains and Pleasures of Life in Bengal.) 
Fig insects seem to be very abundant in India, and a great number 
of the wild figs produce large crops of them. The question has a special 
interest in view of the fact that the true fig is stated to produce the 
best figs only when its fig msect Blastofhmja psenes, Low., is present : 
for this purpose a wild fig has to be cultivated with the cultivated fig to 
yield Blastophaga ; so necessary is this considered that the wild fig 
(Capri fig) has been introduced to California and South Africa with the 
BInstophaf/a, in order to give the figs there grown the proper conditions 
for full development, though entomologists 
are not yet agreed as to the part played 
by the insect. 

That the fruits of our common fig trees 
(the pipal, banyan, pakur, gular, &c.) are 
constantly infested with fig insects can be 
readily ascertained by examination, various 
caterpillars, weevils, flies, &c., also occurring 
in them, but the respective parts played 
by these insects, their mode of life and 
their relations to the tree are practically 
unknown and offer a very fertile field for 
inquiry. We figure from Westwood some ^'' 
of the insects obtained from figs in India : 
the problem is one of great complexity and 

interest, attention has been drawn to it more than once in the 
Indian press from the economic aspect since large quantities of 
fruit are constantly "destroyed" by these insects, but it is doubt- 
ful if any means can be devised of checking them and were it done, 
it is uncertain what would be the effect upon the production of fruit. 

Podagrion minutum, Ashm., was reared from the egg mass of a man- 
tis, the female with a long ovipositor many times her own length for lay- 




91— Walkekfli.a trmku- 

ARIA. 

(From Wfslirnoil.) 



icnNEUMON'in.iv 



177 



laviiin; lu'i-eggs. ('hiih-i><i-ririiUr. K<ihl. (tig. SS) is ivcordcd as a panisite of 
(V(Vi</rt /r)7('nf>7/-((^(, .Mi>. a Saliiiiiiid .Miitli. (I. :\1. X. !.,])!. V) ('. riiplcew, 
Ho., is also rei-oidod as a caterpillar i)aiasitc. The iiiiiuhci and impor- 
tance of ChaUida'. like the other Hi/iHcno/ilcni I'ar<isitiiii. caiiiuil easily 
be estimated. There are ])robably an enormous number of .species in 
India, some widespread, many probably contined to this area. To the 
systematist as to the biologist they offer a wide field of research, and it 
is to be hoped that a really thorough investigation into the economy 
of at least one species inav be made, as well as an investigation into the 
identity and hosts of uur common crop pest-destroying species. 

IcH.NEU.MONID.K. 

Wiiii/s irilh lira ri'dinrnt ncrpinrs idkI tint iir three <'iih/t<il 

rt'll.s. A Htenna' not clboircd. 

This is a very large group of insects, clearly separate from ( 'linUidcv by 

the greater number of veins and cells, fr )m Braconid(e by the vejiation. 

They are. as a rule, larger insects, the antennae not elbowed, the legs 

moderately long, tlie body slender. The female has an ovipositor 

which is often long and conspicuous; males are destitute of any 

ovi]i(isitor or similar organ and are generally similar to the females. 

The colouis are maijily warning, black and yellow, reddish yellow and 

similar bright colours predominating. 

The Iclnieiimonido' are a very large family, with a great number of 
species. These sjiecies aie of limited distiibution, confined to distinct 

areas and the Indian forms aie, so 
far as known, confined to this geo- 
graphical region. The numl)er of 
desciibed Indian species is over 2(M» 
but most are from the hills and but 
few liave been reared. 

IJmnerinm sp. has been reared 
from the larva of a Plusio. Piniphi 
jiitMtator. L., is a common insect, 
yellow with black markings, bi-ed 
from several of the wild silk ]>rodu- 
cing insects (Saturniidir). P. pre- 
dator. F., was reared from Srirpopha<iii iiiin'lti(ii. Zell. (1. M. X. V., p. IT.S-) 
IIL 1^ 




Fi ;. Oi?— PlMPLA l-RF.IMTiir, KAItR. 



17« 



HYMENOPTF.RA. 



The family is divided into five sub-families; of the Ichnenmoninw, 
up to MMH, 119 species had been described from India, largely from the 
Khasia hills by Cameron and others have been added since. In the 
Cryptinw, 84 species are listed up to 190S (Schmiedeknerlit, Genera In- 
sectorum), mainly Cameron' s Khasia hill species. The same author 
lists 51) species of Pimplinoe (1907), including the remarkable forest spe- 
cies Rhi/ssa and Efhiahes, allied to Thnlessa. In the Tri/phoninw, Dal la 
Torre (1900) lists five Indian species, and in the Ophionince Szepligetti 
(1905) lists twenty-one. 

Nothing is on record as to the hosts of these species and the forms 
occurring in India generally are practically unknown. 

Braconid.e. 

Thr fnrcirijKis irith one recurrent nervure and three or jour tuhildl 

r('//.v fis II rule. Antennce not elbowed, nbdowen not 

imerted on apex of median seiiment. 

These are closely allied to the Ichneiinionidw but in general distin- 
guished by the venation of the forewing. There is an extra cubital cell 
and but one recurrent nervure. The 
colours are blight, probably generally 
warning, and aided by the bright 
colour of the forewings in some cases. 
In size they vary from small to 
moderate- sized insects with a wing 
span of over one inch. The head is 
large, distinct, with moderately long 
antenngp, which are probably very 
delicate sense organs. The thoiax is 
compact, bearing the moderatelv 
large wings : the abdomen is long 
and slender. The general form varies 
very greatly, probably in relation to 
the stinging habits of the female, and 
some are greatly elongate or otherwise 
bizarre in appearance. The female 
has an ovipositoi' which mav extend 
to a considerable length; the males female, x 2. 




llHAi'ON'ID.I'.. 



17'.) 




Fi;;. 9t— Pita casks ok ,\ im;al'iiniii. 
si'si'KXiii;ii I'l.oM \ i.i:.\K. 



arc cldsrly siiuilar ti> I lie I'emalcs in i,'ciicral ii.])|ii'aiauct', hiit witlioiit 
ovi|)iisitiii-. 

'I'lu- lilV Iiistiiiy is. sd lar as known. |iaiasitic. tiic lai\-a> liviii>; at tlio 
fX])enst' ol' (itiicr insects, nsiially l.i ji/ddjilcru. In s|iitciil' the ninlti])li- 

cil y iif s]iccics and t heir i,n-eat iin- 
pditaiice, little i.s known of tlie life 
/^ -| histoiy of tliese insects beyond the 
fact of tlicii' ])arasitisni. .\s in otlief 
parasitic insects, there are jxiints 
about the details of the larval life 
which are slirou(h'd in darkness and 
ib'seive Fuithei' study. The re- 
marks niad>' above as to the jieneral 
life oi these parasitic liynieliojiteva 
apph' to this family. 
'I'his larifc familv has re])rescntati ves in evciy jiart of the ubibe, 
and tlioufili the Indian s[)eeies are ))idbably little K'nowii, ■'u sp<'cie^ are 
listed as Indian bv Sze])lif;etti. 

liidion is a larije iienus with neaily thiity Indian sjx'cies largely 
Himalayaji. of these, li. nirevilli'i. Bingli., is parasitic on the larva 
of Srirpii/)/i,i(j(i<nnifli(a. Zell. and ot'ier insects. This species is so named 
in honour of Mr. b. ih- Xiccville who first reared it in Hehar. (Indian Mu- 
seum Notes. Vol. \', X(}. •■), p. 177.) 
It is a lar<;e insect, the wings crange 
and black (tig. '•'•'5), very consjiicii- 
ous. and a valuable check ujion 
this pest. Tlie female has a long 
ovipositor with which to penetrate 
the cane and reacli the larva. Little 
is known of otlier species, which 
]ia\'e been )iiinci])ally c(dlectfd in 
tile liills. \ numliei- of plains 
species have l)een reared and the 
more impoitant of these are the 

Fi'.'. SI.") — MliROIil's FCMII'ENNIS. 

lollowing :--.//////r///(.v (ircnre. Hal.. |i. i\t. N.| 

\s parasitic u]ion the wlicat a]iliis 




180 



HYMENOPTERA. 



{MncrosipJium iiranari'ltn, Kby), Trioxi/x sp. has been reared from the 
cotton aphis (Aphis gossj/pii. Glov.). Microdus jumipennis. Cam. 
fig. !>5) and M. tuberculatus, Cam., are recorded as parasites of the 
castor caterpillar {Trabnia vishnu). (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. V. p. 107.) 
Apanleles ijIomeratus,h., is from a caterpillar attacking white gourd. 
(? Sphenarches caffer, Zell.) A. rhilonis is parasitic upon the larva of 
Chih auricilia, Ddgn., which attacks cane. A. (Urogaster) indkus is 
parasitic upon the cotton bud cateipillar (Phijcita infusella. Meyr.) and 
A. depressariw, on Gelechia iiossjipieUa, the pink bollworm. Apanteles 
commonly pupate in very noticeable white cocoons, openly on the plant 
near their victim or on it. (Plate XXXVI.) Rhogas Lefroi/i is a 
parasite of the spotted bollworms, Earias insuJana, Boisd., and Earias 
fnbia, Stoll, a very impoitant check upon this common pest. Micro- 
braron leucanicB is parasitic u])on NninK/rid uniforniis. Ddgn., the 
Wheat Stem Borer. 

Stephaniid,?;. 
A ntemue mang- jointed. 
A small family of less than one hundred sjiecies. of which one is 
known from India. Wroiu/htonia romntn. Cam., was found in Bombay 
by R. C. Wroughton. 

EvANiin^E. 
The (ibdomen is petinlati'. the prtiolc inserted on the dorsal portion 
oj the median segment. Antennce fiJiforin. of 
thirteen joints, straight. 
A small family of almost certain distinction from the position of the 
abdomen, only a very few insects outside the family sharing this charac- 
ter. Less than three hundred 
species are known in all, of 
which six occur in India. 

Evnnin is a genus of me- 
dium-sized insects, sombre in 
colour, with a very short ab- 
domen, which is very slender 
at the base (peduncle) and 
liroadly truncated at thea)>ex. 
The sting is short, the wing com]iarativoly small, the thorax r<ib>i-^t. 




1'kr;un.\i-ii>.k. 



1.^1 



T(i ;uiy iijir who has si'oii these active insects ll\'iug abmit. the gejius 
will for ever be at once distinct. The imago enters houses and other 
Imildings in search of cockroaches (/ihUtidie) in whose egg capsuk^s 
tile female deposits liei- eggs and is one of the few Hying insects one 
perceives on boaid siiip. The larva' destroy the eggs and one species 
has been very widely distributed over the globe where th ■ household 
cockroa'.-hes are to lie toiiiul. Ecania appcndiijiislcr, L., is the Europ- 
ean species foiuul now in all but the coldest ])arts of all continents. 
/;'. (inlcniKili.'!. Westw., is described from Bombav ajul /;'. (ilhilarsis, 
('am., as well as A". cKrvicarinala, Cam., are Indian. 

(Hislcniplioii is a genus containing a large part of the species of the 
family ajid includes (J. orientale, Cam., described from Beaigal, and G. 
iHiuidibuhirc. Cam., of whose habits apparently nothing is on record, it 
is likely to share the habits of the known species, and prove to be a 
parasite on Aculcdte Hijmenoptera. 

Aiilaciis bit\ihervuUttus appears to be the sole other recorded species. 
Other species are known in Ceylon and it is probable that these with 
others will be found also in India. 

Trkjon.alid.k. 

Ahdnwcn ovate, fivc-juinh-d, not petiolatc. Trochanters not jullij 

divided. Both wimjs with a complex vemition. 

A small family of insects 
of which little is known. 
Scliulz has recently listed 
the species (Genera Insec- 
torum, 1WJ7). one out of 
forty-two being doubtfully 
hulian. The known sjie- 
cies are parasites on Ves- 
pidi^ and hyper parasites 
on Diptera : no pujial 
cocoon is made. Pseu- 
doyonalos Harmandi. Sch. 
(fig. 97) occurs in Dar- 
„. „. „ jeeling. PocciloiiondJos 

Fl<r. !+/— PSEUDOUONALOS HAK.MAMiI. 

tFromfirhuh.) inilcheUa, Westd., in 




1R2 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Coyloii and Burma, IschnuijoHdlo^i dnbia. Maifi.. iji 15uiina and L;/<'0- 
ijdslcr nifiventrin, Magr., in Burma. 

TUBULIPBRA. 

f'HRYSlD.I!. — Vlickod ir«.S/^s\ 
Trorhnnlcra (inr-joinlrd. ]'/,s-//(/r' iilxhniiiiiiil sr(jiiK'))ls iisiKtllij (hrre. 

Tliis family is most easily recogiused by tlie extremely hard, densely 
punctured integument and the bright metallic green or blue-green 




Fie-. OS— SlimiM CVAM'uUM. 

1 1-. M.H.I 



rolouriiig. They are small insects, with I'ather small dusky wings. 
The head is of moderate size with laige eyes and ocelli: the antenna? 
are short, consisting of a lougi'v basal segment (Scape) and a number 
of short- joints iflayelluiii). The 
thorax is large and well devel()])ed. 
the abdomen distinct, with usually 
three visible segments, the re- 
mainder cojicealed. The female 
has a long retractile ovi])osit<M-. 
The bodiiy structure is hard, 
designed to enable tlie insect to 
curl into a bail (fig. !)!)). So far as 
is known, all are parasitic upon 
.\culeate Hymenoptera and a 
number have been reared fidnidiHeicut species 




SIM-STILUC.M IYANCI;U.\I ; rlKI.KI 
I.NTd .\ Ti.M.I,. [F. M. H. 



In the greater number 



rriiULU'EKA. 



183 



the liKst is iiol kiuiwn Mt 
luis \n'vn cairfully studidl 

licmhf.r sji. 1 

Odi/lfllia hiftiislillilllis 

Mtydc/iilc jrittvnui. j 

,, inonticold \ 

lintm'Hvs petiolata i 

,, ronica ) 

li'imciiai cunica 

pdiohiUt 
jlavopiitd 

Odi/Hcnis III iiltiiiicliis 

Srcliiihwii iiitnidcns 

Euiiirnrs dimididtiiH-iiiiis 



X \vr arc )ii>t awaio tiiat any Indian siiccies 
. Till' known liusts aro taliuiatcd lu'ie : — 

arasitiscd 1)\- Ilvdijriinnii liiiiidiiiii. Dolii. 

ffcdi/c/iridii /Idiiiiitulatiiiii, Sm. 



StilhuiH cijaimruiii, Foisl. 



I 



Cliri/sin lu.scijxnuiiii, Hr. (see 
Jo. Ho. Nat. Hist. Hoc. XII, 
p. 585). 

Chrysis amjustata, Mocs. 

Chrysis dtirija, Binj;h. 

Stilbidii cyuHuruiii, F()i.st, 
( vide <S'. .s/>/('/«/ /(/(/«(, Cii'tiii, in 
.)(). Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc. XIV. 
p. 82:5). 

Slilhinii (//(iiiiiniiii. Forst. 

Cl/ri/.fis oricnifilltf. (Juer (Pu.sa). 

' Cliri/sis liisripeimis, Br. (Pu.sa). 
j Hrdi/chridiuiH rugosuiii. 8m. 
f (Smitli). 

Chrifsis {':) /tiibe)<!cens. 8m. 
(8m'it]i A. M. N. H. (2) IX. 
p. 45). 

Bingham describes four suh-faniilics : 

Cleptiiifc. Not knowji to he iiidiaji. 

EJhtiii piiui' includes Klldiiijiiis, II<il(ijii/i/a. Ili'di/chridiiuii, 

Hedi/chruiii. 
Chrysldina' includes Cliri/xot/(iii<i, Stilbinii. Chri/nis, Euvlimeus. 
Parnopina' includes Parnopes. 

The identification of these genera and species can be found in the 
Fauna volume. Hedi/chnoii flanninihitdin, 8m., is the only widespread 
species of its genus. Slilhinii iijununnii. Forst.. is said to be practically 
worldwide and is. in tin- ]i]ains, univfisal. The species of Chrysis are 



Prlojiii'iis, sp. ., 

Etniiciu's nmicd „ 

Sndijihroii loroiiidiidcliruiii .. 
iHiidrdspdldnmii. V. ,. 

hiliiicdtinii. 8m. 



181 



HYMENOl'TEKA. 



SO far as known, mainly local but their superficial resemblance pro- 
l)ably lias led to the belief that they are all common and not wovtli 
observing or collecting. C. fuscvpennis, Br., C. Imca, Fabi., ('. orien- 
tahs, Uuer., and C. oculala, Fabr., are widespread and commoji, likely 
to be found anywhere. 

CuUnimtj. Cuckoo-wasps are common in houses and in the open ; 
they require to be caught with a net and may be killed with Cyanide 
or a B. C. bottle. Far more wajited tlian collecting is observation 
of their hosts and habits and rearing from nests of Aculeates. The 
part they play in the complicated relations of our insect fauna is 
not at present measurable and a far closer knowledge of them is 
required. They are common at nearly ail times and as many ijifest 
the Aculeates that build in and around houses, are easy of observation. 
A really close study of one sjiecies would well rejjay the labour ajul 
time. 



ACULBATA. 

Our knowledge of this group is due largely to \\'roughti)n. who 
worked in the Konkan, Rothney who worked for 1-i years in Baiiack- 
pore and Bingham who worked for many years in Burma. The last 
has listed the species known up to lS9tt in the Fauna of India, and there 
have been abundant papers since then adding new species. With Ihe 
latter we are not concerned ; Cameron lias described hundreds of new 
species in a variety of publications. G. C. Nurse has added others and 
it will be long before all are described. Rothney's paper (Trans. Ent. 
8oc., London, 1903, p. 93) adds to our information and Home's paper 
in Trans. Zool. Soc. VII, p. 1(38 (1870), must be consulted. 

The most striking point about the Aculeates is the fact that the 
whole business of life is conducted by the imago ; the larva is practically 
helpless and if not actually fed by the imago is at least provided with 
an ample supply of carefully gathered food which simply has to be 
devoured. Without careful search we never see the larva of an Aculeate 
and the imago alone is active. This specialisation in life history is 
associated with extraordinary specialisation in habits and consequently 
in structure; the activities of these insects excite the admiration of all 
who observe them and their extremely varied ingenuity is unparalleled 
in any otlier insect group ; for this reason, they are placed at the head 
of insects in mental activity and intelligence and they are unquestion- 
ably very far removed from any of the primitive types of insect life. 



Ml'TII-l.lli.lC. 



isr, 



At tlio .same tiiiio it luu.st luit lie tliouj^lit llial I licii' ;u;ti\ itio.s sluiw 
aiiv iiu'jitalitv compaiahlo t() that of man : ovcji ants ari' unreas(mi)\j; 
anil tlu'so insects are endowed with extremely complex and beautiful 
instincts, of so remarkable a kind that many naturalists see in tliese 
insects a jmwerful arfjument against the doctrine that sudi instincts, 
as all insect activities, are the result sim]ily of natural selection and 
adaptation. 

From man's point of view these instincts are in a sense admirable 
and are yet inferior since they are mere blind instincts whicli cannot 
vary and which involve jio reasoning faculty. A dog lias more rcasoji- 
ing j)ower ajid a higher order of mentality tlian the highest insect: the 
absolute stupidity of tlie ant but the wondeiful nature of its ins- 
tincts is a curious contiast. 

.MriiLUiu.K. — r(7)'(7 J/(/.s-. 

Male. Pronoinm ivacliing the tajulw. A conntriilion Ixiirccn (In: first mr/ 
nccvtid ahdomimil ncfjiiiciitti. Middle roxiv <onli(ji(oiif<. 
Female. Wingletju. ant-like irithvut iil>d<in(i)ial nodes. 

'l"he wingless females aie very readily recognised by theii- ant- 
like appearance and bright colours, there being no nodes on the 



,^o 




Fi"-. Kill. — MlTn,I.\ SKXMAC ILATA. MAI.i;. 



abdomen as in Fonideida'. The males are usually recognisable as 
they have a characteristic appearance and colouring, but the above 
characters must be verified in case of doubt. The wingless females are 
small insects from an eighth to a ^uaiter of an inch in length ; the 



186 



HY.MENUPIEHA. 



colours are always warning, striking and vivid, red and black predo- 
minating with white and golden spots or bands on the abdomen. The 
males are larger, up to half an inch in length, coloured in Ijlack and 
red, the wings usually smoky, the abdomen commonly red. The 
colouring is less conspicuous than that of the females and is perhaps :i 
milder form of warning colouration. 

The family practically consists of one genus. Miitilhi. There is. 
however, the peculiar insect Apterogyna mittilloidrs. Sm., a species likely 
to puzzle any but a close student of this 
group. This insect has, in both sexes, a 
constriction between both the first and 
second, and the second and third seg- 
ments ; the winged male has a peculiar 
upturned spine at the apex of the ab- 
domen and the venation of the wings is 
much reduced not extending to the 
outer margin. The insect is not com- 
mon but is striking and deserves men- 
tion. It is one of the few insects found 
in the sandy wastes of some parts of 
North India and is also known from 

Barrackpore. Of Mutilla, some 120 species are described in the Fauna 
of India ; as, however, the males of some species only are known, and 
the females of some, and as these could probably be paired off if we 
knew more, the number of species may be exaggerated. The discri- 
mination of these species is by the colour markings, which are 
extremely constant, and the .student sJiould consult the key in the 
Fauna of India volume. 

Mutilla. — Is one of the insects far more common and well lepre- 
sented in the hot plains than in the hills. The active females are to be 
found everywhere in moist as in very dry surroundings; the limited 
distribution assigned to so many species is due simply to the fact that 
in so few places have they been collected, though where they have been 
collected many species have been found. Anyone who observes closely 
the insect fauna of our fields is sure, sooner or later, to witness the mat- 
ing of Mutillids. It varies in detail with the species; those seen by the 




101.— MCTILLA i; 
i-|;.M.\LB. 



Ml' III. 1, 111 K. |N| 

autliDi- \ui\\' Ih'cil liilcraliK' similar. The nialc is a ikiwciI'iiI iiisci-l with 
loujr K'gs and stidiit; wiiiL's ; hv limls tlic Irinali-. si'i/.cs Iiri' liy tiir pKi- 
thorax and HicsolT; on sdiiic ciiuvrniciit spot, iu' inali's with Iicr. chisii- 
iiij; her finiilv to him liy liis I'imcIcjis and standing eu'ct on his others; 
she is perfectly Iicipiess and is apparently fivnily lield throughout. Tlie 
first time I was jirivileged to see tiiis, I was mueli stnick as in the fre- 
»iuent intervals the male sliook the female with a twistijig motion as 
we should shake a bottle whose eontents we desiied to mi.x well : this 
extiaordinaiy performance is wortli seeing, liut occuis. so far as 1 
know, not in all species, as in tlie majority I have seen the jiroceduic 
was straightforward and not accompanied hy this ])e(uliar rite; un- 
fortunately I was so interested that when I .souglit to rapture tlieiii 
and determine the species they escaped. 

It is impossible to discuss individual Mutillids in this place ajid the 
student will find full descriptions in the Fauna of India. The four 
commonest species are perhaps J/, dlniidiald, Lep. .1/. intcrnipla, Oliv. 
.1/. (uuilis, Lep. and .17. aextnaoihila. Swed. but very little is known as to 
tlie geographical distribution in India of the niajoiity of the species. 
All are parasitic upon Aculeate Hymenoptera, but few have beeji 
actually bred from their hosts. 

.17. rc'ijia. Sm. (fig. 101) was found in the nest of Eiintcnen coiiicd 
and was also reared from the pupa of this wasp. G. C. Nurse also 
reared this species from the nests of Eumenes esurienn (Jo. Bom. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. XIV, p. -111). Midilla discreta, t'ani. has been reared from 
Crahro on'entalis, Cam. in Pusa and .17. jMonacmis. Cam. from the nest 
of an Eumenes in the same place. (Plate XIII. figs. 1.2.) 

('nUectiwj. — Mutillids aie easv to collect, the females on tlie ground. 
the males in a net. The females should not lie handled with the liare 
fingers as the sting is distinctly painful. Every luutillid seen ""in 
cop" should be collected since this is the easiest way in which to match 
the .sexes, A great deal of observation and rearing is required before 
we can estimate the importance of the group since their hosts are un- 
known and every opportunity of determining what their hosts are, 
sliould be taken. 



188 IIYMKNOI'TEUA. 

SEX. 

'I'lie Mutilliild' ott'iT a striking uxainplu of tiiat dift'creiici' in 
striu'tuie connected with sex which is found in some form or anotlier 
tiuoughout the insect world. It is at first sight a striking thing to find 
that throughout a whole family, the female is wingless, but there are so 
majiy other striking differences that we may liere draw the attention of 
the student to some salient points in this matter. 

We may omit here all reference to structures such as ovaries, clas- 
jieis, ovipositors, etc., connected with the primary needs of mating and 
egg-laying ; these must obviously be present in every mature sexual 
form and on their examination must ultimately depend the determi- 
nation of sex. Apart from these structures, which are not always rea- 
dily discernible without dissection, there are a number of other differ- 
ences less immediately connected with the actual sexual functions and 
which are often more readily discernible. We may at once notice the 
wingless females, so marked a feature in Miitillidcp. We are probably 
correct in saying that in this family the female has lost her wings since 
she does not require them in her search for the nests of lier hosts but that 
the male retains them simply to aid him in his search for the female. 
The same is true of other forms, where the loss of wings appears to be 
an advantage but one wliich cannot be shared by the male as on him 
falls the work of seeking out his mate. Among Lepidoptera. the P.sv/- 
rliidw are an excellent example and a iew Li/inaxiriida' exhibit the same 
phenomenon. All male Coccidce are winged, all females wingless ; many 
Phasmidce have wingless females, while some of the species of the Re- 
duviid genus PhysorJiynchus are winged only in the male, though some 
other species of the genus are wingless in both sexes, the wings however 
more completely absent in the female than in the male, as if the former 
liad lost them first. In the Lampyride division of Malacodermidct, 
wingless females are not uncommon and in some genera the females are 
practically unknown, only the males being found as winged beetles. 

Uzel mentions the exact reverse of this in Thysanoptera, where 
we find a wingless species in which some females become winged to dis- 
seminate the species. This reminds one of the Aphidrv, where after a 
colony of wingless females is formed, winged females are found which 
fly away and start new colonies, though this last case is not connected 
with sex. 

The next notable point in sex is size ; here we have two groups, one 
in which the male is larger and the difference in .size is connected with 
his functions ; the other in which the female is larger apparently because 
on her falls the more arduous task of providing for the offspring or 
because the mere bulk of eggs to be produced and carried necessitates 
a larger body. Large males at once suggest the Lucanidw (Stag beetles) 
and the Dynastidce, the great size being connected with the hypertro- 
phied mandibles or horns on the prothorax and head. Why these beetles 



SEX. 1 «0 

should bear tliose large horns and have so massive a development is 
a question no one appears to have satisfactorily answered and we should 
like to see a eareful incjuir)' made into the relative numbers of the 
sexes of these beetles either in one locality or in the offspring of definite 
parents. In these forms there is usually great variation in the actual 
amount of develo])ment of the horns or mandibles and in some species 
there are distinct types, known as tch'odont (long inandibled) prindont 
(short mandibled) and )tii'sodo)il (intermediate) in the one s{)ecies. Tlie 
large males of the MiitiUidcr are accounted for (wrongly ])erhaps) when 
we considei' that not only must they Hy and be active, but that they 
usually seize and carry off' the females and that further the eggs in this 
group are not bulky or abundant. Small males offer no apparent diffi- 
culty since it seems natural as we have said above. Marked difference 
occurs notably in Pliasmidre. in the social insects such as bees and ter- 
mites, in many moths, some beetles, and in some Acridiida' : it is 
j)robably correct to say that some preponderance in the female is 
the general rule in in.sects. but it is more marked for instance in 
Atractomnrphd and some allied Pi/n/oinnrphidcs than in most Acridiidrp, 
and the groups we mention will furnish conspicuous examples to the 
student. It is curious that this is less marked in Rhynchota and one is 
inclined to associate such sex diffeientiations with the more specialised 
and highly developed groups. 

An interestiirg sex modification is that in which the female has more 
developed mouthparts than the male, as in the Culicidrp and blood- 
sucking Chirnnonnd<v. In these forms the female alone can suck blood. 
It is possible that this really occurs more frequently than is lecorded ; 
there is. for instance, a marked difference in the size of the mouthparts 
of some Pyralids (Laworia. etc.). Anotlier and a fundamental differ- 
ence that scarcely needs mention is the naturally longer life that 
the females enjoy ; in a very great number of cases, the completion of 
the male's functions determines his death and this must precede the 
death of the female which has often to wait for a considerable time 
before slie can successfully deposit her eggs. This is very marked for 
instance, in some species in which the female waits long periods as in 
the mango weevil iCri/ptorhi/nchus (iravi.s F.). wheie the males die in 
August, the females living until next March to lay eggs. We believe 
this occurs in a very laige number of forms and it is a factor that must 
be taken into account in estimating the relative projjortions of each sex 
found. It would be interesting to know, for instance, how far this 
occurs in long-lived imagines such as butterflies : do the males die earlv 
or do they wait until the females can lay eggs before mating ? 

We come then to a vast number of small modifications in one sex 
which are less directly connected with sex in the sense that they are con- 
nected only with courtship and the preliminaries to mating. The lumi- 
nosity of some insects mav be cited, the European glow-woiin being aji 
example of a female wingless beetle which is luminous possiblv as a guide 



I'"' HV.MENOPTERA. 

to tlie winged male. Our luminous beetles are so in both sexes and in 
the larva?, so that this luminescence may not be connected with sex. A 
better example are the singing insects, in which the males sing, the 
females are silent. AVe have biiefly discussed this elsewhere (under 
Cicadidw) and it is not certain that song is really connected with sex, 
though it is likely to be so. In a great number of male moths and butter- 
flies, scent production from special hair tufts is a feature of the males 
alone and the frequency witli which this occurs points to its being an 
important factor in successful mating. The variety of situations in 
which these tufts occurs, their diverse foiniand size are marked features, 
for instance, in our Noctuid t and Pyralida\ while the male ])oucli and 
sexmarks of butterflies are simply scent producing organs. 

Haase discusses this point (Zool, Anzeiger, XI, 1888, No. 287). 
Plateau remarks that in Lepidoptera, scent organs exist foi- tliicc ])ur- 
poses ; in Danais and EupUea, they are defensive, the scent being unplea- 
sant and derived from a caustic fluid ; in some Lepidojitera, notably 
Bombycida^ and Saturniids". the scent is diffused by the female to 
attract the male, the latter having very sensitive oigans of smell ; in 
many butterflies the males emit a " seductive "' scent, that has in some 
cases been comjjared to vanilla, and which is employed only in court- 
ship. It is the last which Haase discusses ; he states that scent organs 
occur in one of the following positions : 

Winqs. — On the whole upper surface of both wings. (Pierida). 
In tufts on the upper surface of both wings (some Sati/rides). In a 
costal fold of the forewing (some Hesperiidce). On the upper surface 
of the disc of the forewing {Cj/nthia, Atella. Anji/nnit!, etc., and some 
Ifi'sprriidw). On the lower surface of the disc of the forewing [Kii- 
rciiin. etc.). On the folded costal edge of the hindwing {Patuhi). 
On the upper surface of the hindwing {Pien'ds. Dmiais. Mdr/ihidcs, 
Safi/rides, etc.). 

On the anal area of the hindwing alio\-c [Pdjilliduidvs. Omithtip- 
li ra. Pompeus, etc.), or below {Morphides). 

On the lower surface of the hindwing (Plccnptcra in Noctuida')- 
( )ii the part of the two wings which rub together when in motion (Catop- 
silla, Euplnea, Ergolis, Morphides. Mi/ralcsis. Li/ca'tu'drs. some Ilct^pc- 
riides and some Heterocera). 

Thorax and abdomen. — Many Sphingids, Agaristids and some Noc- 
tuids have scent organs on the first aldominal segment. In some 
Pierids, in all Danaids. in C'allidulids and some Noctuids, a tuft of odo- 
I'ous scales can be protruded from each side of the genital apeiture. 

Palpi and Legs. — In a Deltoid {Beriula) a tuft occurs on the pal])i. 
in a few foims tufts occur on the tibise of all the legs, on the forelegs 
only (Upodoptera). on the middle tibia' (many Noctiiidw), on the hind 
tibia' (sonre IJesperiida'. llepial idir. Hi/hln'a and many Geometridce). 



'l"lu' student of I'jiyitUda will ti]ul tliat lu' must study the male 
secondary sexual characters very carefully in distijiguisliing species 
and that they occur with great fie(iuency in a very marked form. One 
of the coniiuonest mak' cliaracters.is agreatci- a])paient (h'vel(i])ni"nt in 
tlie aiitenn i' and tliis is shown in most moths, the female liaving often 
simple antenni' while the male has them ciliate. pectinate, fasciculate 
or modified in some way. Were more known of tile actual luiliits of 
motlis. we might he able to say whether tliese modifications gave the 
male a greater cliance of finding the female, for instance, by giving the 
antenna a more delicate or special sense. At ])resent nothing is known 
and tliere is no real information as to how insects find each otiiei-. This 
development of the antenna' is a feature also of (UiUcidce, with a moie 
astonishing differejice in the relative development of the ])alps, those 
of the males being very much larger. There is also a surj)rising devel- 
opment of the antenna' in the male f.iiiiipi/n'd'r in species in which the 
luminescence is little develo])ed. 

We cannot leave this subject without lirietiy touching the ])roblem 
that every student finds of determining the sex of an insect. It is ex- 
ti'eniely irritating to find, for instance, characters given for the males 
(nily, while one has not enough of a species to have both sexes and one 
does not know, witliout dissection, what is the sex of the specimen one 
has. To deal adequately witli this subject would require very many 
pages and a separate treatise. In some families sex-distinction is easy, 
as in LocusfidfF. Ori/Uidrr. Acn'diidce, many Parasitic H/piienopteni. and 
those groups which have a distinct ovipositor. In others there is no 
such obvious distinction, and in some families dissection is actually ne- 
cessary. This is the case, for instance, in the bulk of the Rlnpuliotd. 
Heteroptera : Distant is discreetly silent in the Fauna of India oji this 
point except where such obvious differences occur as in P/iysorhi/nrlnis. 
In some species, the possession of claspers points to tlie males (Leplo- 
corisa), the larger bodies and distended abdomen of the female some- 
times marks the female {Di/sdercus, etc.). Coupling unfortunately 
affords no evidence as these forms couple in opposition. (Coupling is 
by opposition in Lepidoptern and Hcmi/itcra. by superposition in Cnlenp- 
Icra. Ortlioptera. Diptera and Hjimvnnptera). Coleoptera is another 
order in which there is no one characteristic of the male. There are 
abundant small characters in different families, but they must be 
learnt for each. In Orthoptern, the matter is simpler ; in Forficulidfr 
the male has nine, the female seven abdominal segments ; the genital 
styles mark the male Blattids ; the male Mantids have two moi-e visible 
ventral segments (eight, leally nine), than the female (appaiently six. 
)-eally seven). The female Pha.sntid has the egglaying gutter or process ; 
while the Acn'diid female has two pairs of digging processes ; LociiMid 
and GrifUid females have usually an ovipositor. In RJinpalocera. the 
male sex marks are usually distinguishable in the form of glandular 
hair patches : in moths. Hamp.son has pointed out that the frenulum 
is simple in the male, compounil in the female. In Dip/rra tlie 



192 HYMENOPTERA. 

antennae of the male are plumose in some families, the eyes are larger 
and more closely approximated on the frons in others, and there are in 
some cases ver}' distinct claspers. In Neuroptern, it is necessary to 
look foi' male claspers which, however, are not always jiresent. 

Thynnii)^. 

Pronotum reaching the base of the wimjs, basal nbdominnl 

sef/ment not constricted. Posterior ler/s short, 

female apterous. 

A small family containing two Indian genera and six species, none 
common or generally to be found. The winged males have a distinct 
upturned spine at the apex of the abdomen (as does also Aptero(/i/na); 
the recorded species are Methoca hicolor, Cam. (Barrackpore) ; M. orien- 
talis, Sm. (N. India) ; M. smithii, Magr. (Bengal, Burma) ; M. riu/osa. 
Cam. (Ceylon); Iswara luteus. Westw. (Sind) ; Iswara fasciatus, Sm. 
(Kind). Any observations on the habits of these insects will be of value 
as nothing appears to be known. (Methoca is by some authois (e.i/., 
Andri') classed with Mutillidce). 

ScoLiin.'E. 

Pronotum reachinc/ the tequlw. A constriction hclirccn first 

and second abdominal .tegtiients. Middle co.rcr 

separated. Both sexes winged. 

This family includes a number of moderate sized flying insects 
classed generally among wasps ; none are very small, while soine aie 
amongst the largest of the Aculeates. 
The colours are usually warning to a 
greater or less degree, black with 
yellow or orange predominating. The 
head bears the antenna?, which are 
larger and more slender in the males ; 
there are the usual three ocelli on the 
vertex ; the mandibles are large ; the 
thorax and body is robust, heavier ^''in- in-J— 7<;i.is annmilata, pi-.-vht.r. 
in the female and usually clothed with 

rather thick hair. The legs are shoit and spinose, the wijigs well 
developed, the venation valuable for the discviminiition of oenera. 




PLATE X.— FossoREs. 

;. 1. ii'!«n«)(e« cojiicrt , nest seen from the attached side, cimtaiiiinj 
green caterpillars and a feeding larva. 

2. Nest as seen from outside. 

3. Tachytes erythropoda, 

4. Aetata agilis. 

5. Tachysphex ieslaceiceps. 

6. Larra sumatrana. 

7. Notogoiiia sublesselata . 

8. Lyroda formosa. 

9. Fison rztgosum. 

{ Trypoxylon canaliculalum. 

12. Slixiis prisniaticua. 

1 3. FhilaiUhus pulcherrimus . 




I "■< . ^ 



FOSSORES, 



SCOI.IID.K. 193 

Males are smaller, more slender and usually have spines at the apex 
of the abdomen. 

Nothing appears to be on record as to the habits of this family in 
India ; as a whole they are probably parasitic upon the larva' of Coleop- 
tera in the soil, especially ScarabwidcB ; they persistently fly over the 
soil, but none have been reared ; Froggatt (Agri. Gazette, N .S. Wales, 
1902), records Dielis formosa, Guen., as an enemy of the beetle Xylotru- 
pes aiistraliciis, Thorns., in Queensland ; the wasp burrows down to the 
grub in the soil, stings and paialyses it, lays an egg on it and goes away ; 
the larva on hatching devours the grub and pupates there. It is 
highly probable that our species have similar habits. The wasps visit 
flowers, not to obtain pollen but t" feed on nectar. 

Five genera and ST species are recorded as Indian, of which nine 
are common in the plains. 

Tipliia rufo-femoratn, Sm., is a small black insect with red posterior 
femora, ^videspread but not very common. G. R. Dutt has ascer- 
tained that Mi/zine dimidiata, Guer. (known from male only), couples 
with .1/. Madraspatann Sm. (known from female only), and presumably 
they are one species. 

Scolia includes large insects, thickly haired ; S. quadrifustulata, 
Fabr. (Fig. HW), is the very common species, black with the abdomen 
usually red on the side and sometimes 
across the upper surface. Elis falls into 
two series, according as it has two or three 
cubital cells. In the former are the com- 
mon species ; E. annidata, Fabr., is very 
common, the female black with white 
pubescence, the male with yellow bands 

across the abdomen ; the latter are corn- 
Fig. 103.— SCOLI.\ QIADKI- ^ . 

pusTULATA. monly captured asleep m the evenmg or 

early morning, on grass stems or plants, and 
it is no uncommon thing to see a number settling down for the night 
on a convenient cane leaf. Elis thoracica, Fabr., is the large black wasp 
that frequents cotton flowers, and which is, perhaps, an important 
factor in cross-fertilisation. Liacos analis, Fabr., is also common, 
black with a variable amount of red on the abdomen. 




104 



llYMIJSOrTEnA. 



PoMPILID.B (CerOPALID.IL). 

Pro)i(>l'i)n )('(ichin(i the Insertion of the vini/x 



Lnjs hill 




-PSEIIIAOENIA HONV^TA. 



The Pompilids are not a large family hut cdjitain some of tlie most 
consiiicuous of the Aculeates. There are pom))aratively large forms, as 
well as very small ones. The 
colouring is sometimes dis- 
tinctly warning, but not in all, 
the deep blue-black of Pom- 
fiJxs anaJis. for instance, not 
being of obvious utility. There 
are no striking structural 
features ; the males are 
smaller, the abdomen with 
one more visible abdominal 
segment. The females have 
somewhat flattened forelegs 
in some cases, to fit them for 
burrowing and excavating in soil. 

The habits of some Indian species are known, but there is room 
for much observation. As a whole, these insects have the typical habits 
of Fossores, catching their prey, stinging it, laying it up in a convenient 
place for their young and depositing an egg there. Bingham states 
that " Affenia, Psetidmienin. Parmjenia and. T su.spect. Maeromeris too, 
construct little earthen shells foi' nests." Others utilise available 
chinks or holes or make holes. 

Maeromeris violaeea. Lepel.. is a common insect, of whose habits 
practically nothing is known. Bingham records seeing a species carry- 
ing spiders, and (i. R. Dutt has obtained clay cells (stored with spiders) 
under the bark of old trees, made of mixed mud and vegetable matter. 
Pseudnijenin hhindn, Guer., is a smaller metallic blue in.sect common 
thioughout India. 

(t. E. Dutt has found that Pseudmjenia blanda makes small earth 
cells under the bark of trees, the cells (filled with spideis). like tho.se of 
Seeliphron tnadrospafnnuni, but smaller and always in pairs, the one cell 
snialler than another. From tlie larger cell the female emeiges, from 



roMi'ii.in.i:. 



lor 



tlie siualk-i llie (Intlicrtu uiHb'srrilicil) iiuilc. tlie latter three days ear- 
lier tliaii tile former. It is a]i])are)it either that the iiuither wa.sp lays 




Fin. 105.— Nltsr <iK mEI.H'HUh.N cuKdMAMiKLICUM mrUPIED BV 
I'SKI MAlMCMA CLVI'KATA, ' J. 

ejjgs of eacli sex alternately or tliat she can control the sex productioji, 
or that the greater amount of food stored in the one case makes a female 
imago. 

We figure a large compound 
clay nest from which were reared 
P. ch/peatti. The nest consists 
of an old nest of Sceh'pJirnn 
roroninndeliruDi. of which the 
cells were occupied by the 
Pseudaqenia : since the lattei' 
requires a smaller cell, she 
divides the cells by a partition 
and then utilises them : but she 
also builds on additional cells 
round the old ones; in Fig. lO.'j 
the large cavities in the middle 
leprcsent old Hri'Uphron cells, 
(the nest seen from below) the 
smaller holes round cells added 
by Pspiidnt/enia. That the 
cells were originally made by 
Sceliphron is proved by the 




I'i^. lIKi MacKoMKKIs VIlir,A( ra v. 
IKinirKNMS; CKLI., X \},. 



196 HYJIENOPTERA. 

occurrence of a dead one in one cell. Hymenopterous and Dipterous 
parasites attack this PseAidagenia. 

Salius includes a number of species, of which some are abundant. 
Salitis flavus, Fabr., is the common yellow insect, the wings yellow with 
deep purple-black at the apex ; it has been observed to store spiders 
in the ground. Bingham remarks that some store cockroaches or 
crickets in holes in trees. 

The following notes record the observations of T. V. R. Aiyar, 
formerly Assistant at Pusa : — 

From March to July this insect is the commonest of the bigger 
species of Pomfilidce in Pusa. It is found very generally in open 
meadows with a pretty hard soil 
and in such parts of the meadow 
where there are often found big 
holes made in the ground. Not 
uncommonly this insect is found 
under trees where the gromid 
is covered by fallen leaves and 
twigs. In these localities it is 
found very busy searching holes 
for spiders; its active progression Fig. lOT.-PoMPim.s anaiis. 

with its long limbs and occa- 
sional flight is very graceful to look at. With great patience it goes 
on visiting hole after hole. One has been watched searcliing every 
hole in half an acre in the meadow in the Botanical area for full two 
hours and a half with no success ; at last finding the search fruitless, it 
flew away and perched on a distant tree. 

When, however, th.^ Salius is fortunate and in its search comes across 
an inhabited spider hole, it comes out of it quickly and prepares itself 
for the affray. The preparation consists of a slight rest followed by the 
cleaning of the antennae with the front legs and of the abdomen with 
the hind limbs. It then carefully enters the hole and disturbs the 
tenant. Within a second out come both the wasp and the spider. 
The extreme care displayed by the wasp in dealing with its antagonist 
is worthy of remark. As soon as it comes out of the hole, it goes a little 




POMViMD-*:. 197 

distance away from it and tlien turns round. The spider whicli is com- 
monly a pretty big ground spider comes out of its borne and stands at 
bay at the mouth of the hole. It docs so with tlie ferocity of a wild 
beast, witli its erect cephalotlioiax and jaws (with the poison fangs) 
wide open. It never moves away from the hole until it is overpowered, 
but simply turns round always facing the wasp. Its action is entirely 
defensive. There is seen a series of tactics and movements displayed by 
the wasp, which appears afraid of the death-dealing jaws of the arachnid 
and so approaches with great caution. It turns round and round and 
occasionally tries to jump on the spider. The spider continues defend- 
ing and for about 5 minutes the fight goes on. The fossorian, 
however, kjiowing the weak point of the spider, viz., its inability 
to strike upwards, waits for an opportunity to jumj) on the 
spider. At last by a clever and agile jump it alights on the spider 
and takes it ujiawares. The moment it is on the spider, it never 
waits for a second, but applies the sting and inoculates the poison, 
first paralysing the victim's poisonous weajions from below. Then 
again it stings, thrusting the lancet along the side of the cephalo- 
thoracic shield. The spider being thus paralysed, the fight ends. In 
some cases the spider proves more than a match for the Salius, in 
which case the latter, after trying its best, gives it up and flies away. 
After making sm-e that the captive is helpless, it leaves it behind and 
goes searching for a convenient hole. In one case the Salius was 
clever enough to appropriate the hole of its victim itself. In this case 
it first enters the hole alone and remains alone for some time mider- 
groxmd most probably inspecting the hole. It then comes back and 
making sure that the spider is paralysed, takes hold of one of its 
chelicera^ with its mandibles and walks back with its face towards the 
captive to the hole. When, on the other hand, it does not like the 
spider's hole, it leaves the captive and goes away some distance 
and begins to search for a convenient nest. In one case the wasp has 
been seen to leave the captive, go straight to a particular hole, not 
approaching any other on the way, and then come back to the spot where 
the spider was. From this it apjjears that the wasp keejjs a hole ready 
before it goes in search of a spider. While it is engaged thus, it often 
comes back to the spider to make sure that it is safe in the original spot. 
At this stage if the captive spider is taken some feet away from the 



198 HYJIENOPTEUA. 

original sjjot tlie Salius tomes back and then after strolling all round, 
it finds the spider and in this case it stings it once again and then 
drags it some distance forwards and there leaving it, goes again i]i 
search of a hole. Several times it visits tlie paralysed spider to be 
sine of its safet^^ At last it drags the spider to a hole and then it 
does not come out for a very hmg tinu'. 

Saliii.'< ftariiti is jiever found frecjuejiting houses as it almost 
exclusively confines itself to catchijig gi'ound spiders. 

PuMpiliin is the largest genus with some widespreatl species, of 
which, perhaps P. analis Fabr. (Fig. 107) is the most common. T. 
V. R. Aiyar made the following observations on this species. This 
red and black wasp is found very commonly haunting the trunks of big 
trees, especially species of Ficus, which generally contain numerous holes 
and chambers inhabited by spiders. I have now and then found indiv- 
iduals on the walls of old buildings and also some hunting ground 
spideis, but 1 have not till now come across any nesting on the 
ground. The following were my notes on the habits of a specimen of 
this species : — 

1st Juire !!!()(). — As 1 was entering the lucerne fieldalong the avenue 
close to the Waini road, containing clumps of bamboos, 1 heard a buz- 
zing noise about me, and on turning round found a specimen of P. anuhs 
perch on the ground by my side and search holes. Watched the insect 
for about quarter of an hour. After some search it came across a hole 
very close to a small wooden post in the ground. It entered the hole 
and came back, followed by a big ground spider. Then ensued the usual 
tight. The combat was found to be exactly like that of SaUus flaviis, 
but with a display of greater fear on the part of the Pomfihis and so 
additional care, .\fter securing the captive, it disappeared for a few- 
minutes and then came back to assure itself of the captive's safety as 
in Sah'iis. This happened three times. On one occasion the spider 
moved a little when the PomfiJtis gave it a sting in addition to the ones 
administered during the combat. 1 found it impossible to follow it as 
it flew high up every time and disajipeared, the black body and the trans- 
parent wings adding to the obscurity. In the end it took hold of the 
spider exactly like the Salitis and began walking back. It directed its 
course across the avenue towards the bamboo clump on the side of 



SI'llKiilD.K, 190 

tlie road. On icacliing tlie clump of haiuhoos it began ascending one 
of tlu'se and then proceeded up for about 7 or 8 yards, when unfor- 
tunately it ilisappeared from my siglit. 1 liave very strojig grounds 
for concluding that tlu' was)) took tlie s))ider to a hollow in some 
liiiiul)0(i, because althougli 1 luive coTiie across several individuals of 
this wasji dragging s])iders. 1 have never found one taking a s])idei' to 
a hole on the ground. It may be argued tiiat the was)) dragged the 
captive u]) the bamboo and afterwaids flew off with it, the burden 
being too heavy for conveyance to tlie nest without the vantage of an 
elevation to start from. Hut my having till now never seen any indivi- 
dual of this sj)ecies nest on ground suj)})orts the foimer view. 

The spiders which /•'. (inalix generally hunts on tree trunks and 
walls are web-spinning foiins and coni{)ared to the ground s))ideis very 
small and ))owerless. In these cases the Pompiluf: finishes the fight 
very soon and at once drags the captive along the side of the tree trunk 
to an exposed hollow on the trunk ; it leaves its victini then and searches 
for a hole in the tree itself. Meanwhile, 1 have tried lenioving 
the captive and placing it on the ground below ; however, the was)) after 
some anxious search found it out and diagged it again up to the tree. 
This sp&cies also thus disj)lays that ))ower of finding out the ))aralysed 
spider if we remove the same and kee)) it away. When at last it finds 
a convenient hole in the tree to nest, it comes back and drags the cajjtive 
home. 

A/junis includes only three s|jecies, of which one, A.rok'si, Cam., 
may be found in the i)lains. 

Sl•HE(;lL).^l 
PmiiotuHi Initi-sccrtti-, not rcacliing llic ln>;('iiion oj the wiai/g. 
This is a large family of Aculeata, with a gieat vaiiety of forms. 
It includes large lobust species with a length of an ijich and-a-half and 
small slender insects not over a quarter of an incli long. The ma- 
jority exhibit some form of warning colouration, bright yellow, metallic 
greens and blues, and similai- bright tints predominating. The head is 
large, with ocelli ajid coni))ouJid eyes, the trojihi aie well developed, not 
cous))icuous. ami the mandibles arc robust. The thorax is massive, 
the abdomen often with a long iietiolc The legs are of moderate 



200 



HYMENOPJ'ERA. 



length, the forelegs often modified for digging. Males and females are 
superficially alike, the latter having a well developed sting. As in 
all Aculeata, there is no free life history and none are social, the female 
storing food for the young. The larva is a white soft grub, without legs 
and with a small head. Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon. 

Sphegids are the familiar digging wasps, whose prey consists of 
insects, stung to insure paralysis and laid up in this state in a suitable 
cell or burrow for the young to 
feed on. The process of stmging 
may be observed and is some- 
times accompanied by other 
injury to the prey to insure 
its helplessness. So far as is 
known, the prey is, when laid in 
the cell, helpless, but not dead, 
and remains so imtil the grub 
attacks it ; how far the perman- 
ence of this paralysis is due to 
the action of the wasp and how 
far it is induced also by the 

conditions in the cell is not known ; a cricket stung by Sphex lobatus 
and laid up, presumably remains paralysed ; but that cricket taken 
out and kept under other conditions may die if kept too dry or may 
to some extent recover under favourable conditions of temperature, 
moisture, air and light. There is no reason to doubt that paralysis 
is caused primarily by injuries inflicted by the wasp, usually in the 
form of a sting or several stings, which are directed against the 
nervous system and induce paralysis. Tlie student will find ac- 
counts of some species below and further accounts in the literature 
mentioned. Home described the habits of Sceliphron (Pelopoeus) 
madraspatatium F. S. bilineatus, Sm., S. violaceum F. (P. bengalensis, 
Smith), Trypoxylon rejector, Sm., Pison rufipes Siii., and P. (Pisonitus) 
rugosus, Sm. There is a large field here for an observer gifted with 
patience and perseverance to add to our knowledge of the habits of 
these important insects. The actual economic importance of the 
group, so far as it can be gauged, is great since most of the species 
destroy insects of economic importance. It is, however, very difficult 




lUS.— Sl'HEX LDBATl'; 



SPHE(iII).K. 201 

to estimate this since tlieir work is not at oiiceobvious, and jiu estim- 
ates of number are easily obtained. 

Sjihciiithr are preyed upon by Cliri/.sitUr and M iitillidtr, while the 
parasites of tlieir prey indirectly check them because, in some cases 
certainly, when a Spheqid lays up a parasitised caterpillar, the parasite 
hatches and the Sphegid larva is deprived of its food. This is a curious 
fact and had we not observed it, we should hesitate to mention it. 
When we remember how large is the percentage of parasitised caterpil- 
lars very often, we may imagine that the Sphegid does often lay up 
parasitised caterpillars, which do not nourisli their larva'. 

Astata aijilis, Sm., though recorded from but few places, is probably 
widespread (Plate X, Fig. 4); it has been seen burrowing iji sandy soil 
but its prey is unknown ; it hmits usually among the decaying fallen 
leaves under trees. 

Taclujtes includes small and inconspicuous insects, nesting in soil 
and, according to Bingham, storing Orthoptera ; T. vionetaria, Sm., a 
black species with golden pubescence on the abdomen, is common, as is 
T. crythropuda Cam. (Plate X, Fig. 3). 

NotO(jonia subtesseUata, Sm., preys on crickets, storing them in bur- 
rows in the soil, or in the stems of plants {e.g., in Euphorhia neriijolia) 
(Plate X, Fig. 7). This insect, which is the commonest of the genus in 
Pusa, is found very commonly in the vegetable garden and orchard, 
where the soil is fairly moist always. The reason apparently is that 
field crickets abound in these localities and the wasp is after them. 
The cricket generally hunted is a species of ' ' Gryllodes ' ' and very 
often not a full-grown one. In several cases the cricket escapes by its 
agile jumps, and it is only after allowing several crickets to escape that 
one is caught. The wasp paralyses the cricket by a sting (sometimes 
two) at the junction of the 2)ro- and meso-sternum. It then drags the 
captive and leavingit in a prominent place, goes in search of a hole or t*^ 
assure itself that its hole is ready to receive its prey. It soon returns 
and drags home the cricket. The process is different from that in a 
Pompilid. Here the wasj) does not jJi'Oceed backwards facing its 



-"- hymenoptera. 

captive, but instead poses itself almost above the captive and holding; the 
antenna by its mandibles proceeds forwards, both captor and captive 
facing one way. In this wasp there is distinctly a marked display of a 
high degree of instinct (intelligence?) in taking advantage of an eleva- 
tion to start on the wing with its pretty heavy load. The wasp drags 
the cricket to the foot of the nearest shrub or plant and slowly ascends 
to about a foot from the ground, and from there it starts on its wings 
with the prey. It continues thus often on its way to its nest, which is 
generally a hole on the side of the hard bank. An interesting point in 
the habits of this wasp is that it digs into the soil to find its prey even 
when the cricket has a burrow opening to the surface. On one occa- 
sion, one was observed flying over sandy soil ; she selected a spot ajid 
commenced to dig ; when a little liole was made, she entered and came 
out carrying soil between her curved forelegs and her head, repeating 
this till there was a considerable heap of soil; this heap she then demol- 
ished by standing and kicking it away with her hind legs. While dig- 
ging, a cricket came out fioni a hole by her, was eventually seen, pui- 
sued and captured. 

Liris uurata. — This beautiful sand was}) is one of the most active 
among Hphegids. It is found in flower gardens and generally nests 
under thick bushes away from human observation. It is very often 
found haunting houses, especially store-rooms, in search of house crick- 
ets. The latter are notorious domestic pests attacking provisions, etc. 
This wasp, in frequenting dwellings, performs the part of an efficient 
natural check on these domestic pests. Fison includes small dark 
insects, of which P. rugosum, Sm., is common in the plains (Plate X, 
Fig. 9). Home states that the nests of P. mfipes, ^m., are nearly glob- 
ular, built in a group on a hanging creeper or tendril, and stocked 
with small spiders. 

Trijpoxijlon (Plate X, Figs. Ul-ll) is common in houses, and 1 liave 
seen T. fileaUdn, Sm., building in cane furniture in a verandah : they 
are extremely slender graceful insects, storing i-mall spideis in their mud 
nests : nests are also found in thatch, and on one occasion a female was 
seen plugging her nest, which was in a hollow leed previously utilised by 
Ceratina viridinxlwa. The hollow is ni>t lined but is partitioned ofi 



20:! 



iiitii cells, each coiitiiiiiiiig siiiall .s]iuliMS ( Kig. 10'.)). '/'. intndli-n.s, 
Sin., builds ill holes in walls and in crevices in hooks. 





Kig. 109.— Tl(Yl'0.\Vl,l)N I'lLK.iTlM UKlNiaxi; A 
Sl-IDBR TO HER NEST IX .A HOLLOW .STKM : 
THE NESl H.4S UEKN OIKNEh TO SHOW THE 
CELLS. [F. M. H.] 



AmmophUu is larger, with a long narrow 
abdomen and a rather Ichneumon-like 
appearance. Several are very common and 
their habits have been observed. The 
habits of A. hevii/ald, Sm. (Fig. IIU), are 
briefly described iji Indian Insect Pests 
(page 271). this insect burying Phisia 
cr/osomrt larva'in soil. So far as is known, 
caterpillars and spiders are their prey and 
they do not make mud nests but burrow 
in soil. A. ufripes, Sm., A. basulis, Sin.. 
./. Ufvitjiitd, Sm., and ./. (r;/l/ir<icfp/i(ilii, 




204 HYMICNOPTERA. 

Fabr., are tlie commonest species, but tlie distribution of some species 
is local. Tlie last is a large robust insect, very unlike the remainder. 

Scelip/iron includes the more robust mud-wasps so commonly seen 
in liousts, which lay up spiders in earthen cells. S. madras patanum 




FiK. 111.— SOELIPHRON MADRASPATANUM ; NEST KEMOVED FKOM A CORNEK AND 

SEEN FROM BEHIND ; IN ONE CELL A LARVA FEEDING; IN ANOTHER 

A SPIDER WAITING TO BE EATEN. [F. M. H.J 



Fabr. (Fig. 113), is the commonest species; the female constructs mud 
nests, consisting of two to seven elongate cells, placed side by side ; 
they are most beautifully constructed of mud and when unfinished 
are very striking objects (Fig. 112). But when the whole number 
are completed, stocked and closed, she puts mud over the whole in an 
apparently irregular manner but so as to give it the appearance of a 
rough lump of mud, when it is much less easily noticed. The nest 
is placed on a wall, a window-sill, on furniture or on tree trunks, and 
may be carefully concealed or in the open. 

The cell is made, the first spider brought in and an egg laid on it 
near the base of the abdomen. The rest of the spiders are then brought ; 
if the work cannot be completed before dark, a temporary mud cover 
is put on as the wasp does not sleep in the cell. When full, the cell is 
closed and a new one begun. The egg is white, soft, about 4 m.m. 
long. The larva on hatching feeds first on the abdomen of the 
spider it is on and then on its cephalothorax, proceeding afterwards 
to work upwards through the jemaining paralysed spiders. (Fig. 111.) 
The larva is white, soft, leg-less, the segments indistinctly marked, 



205 



the head very small : it lionomos sordid-jjrey before maturity, when 
it measures about It m.m. l.arvai life oeeupies about 1:5 days, the 




I'^i-;. 11'2.— SrKI.IPHKOX MADUA.Sl'ATAXL'M-INlOMrLKTK NBST. 

full length being attained on the sixth day. There are apparently no 
moults during larval life, the extremely soft and unchitinised integu- 
ment not preventing expansion as in harder insects. The full-grown 
larva ejects a mass of black excreta at the bottom of the cell and then 
spins a tough cocoon of very fine yellow silk which turns dark brown. 
It rests for three to six days and then moults, placing the exuvium at 
the bottom of the cocoon where it often adheres to the hind end of 
the pupa. The limbs of the future wasp are 
symmetrically folded under the body and are 
free, being easily seen. The pupa gradually 
assumes the imaginal colour and on the 
twelfth or thirteenth day the imago emerges ; 
it cuts the cocoon and forces out the plug of 
mud that closes the cell, thus forming a 
circular orifice through which it can leave the 
cell. The total life from egg to imago is from 
24 to 30 days, nest-making then occupies some 

time and there are probably five broods in one year in the plains 
Hibernation takes place in the larval condition. 




Kig. 113.— SCELIPHRON 
MADRASPATANUM. 



20fi 



HVMKNOn'ERA. 



This species, like others, is not allowed to work and increase un- 
molested but has enemies which prey upon it. Chrysis fuscipennis, Br., 
Hedijchrijdium ruijosum, Sm., and an undescribed Chri/uls are foimd in 
the cells ; a Tachinid fly, of which as many as six maggots are found in 
one cell ; a Bombyliid (Hi/perahnia sph/jnx) is found in the pupal 
cocoon and in this case the pupa of the fly forces itself through the ma- 
sonry so far as to allow of the emergence of the fly to the outside ; finally, 
a MutiUa has been once reared from this species, unfortunately only a 
male. 

This wasp is the subject of a curious belief in the Punjab ; it has 
been noticed that it stores spiders and that eventually a wasp like itself 
is produced ; not knowing what occurs in the cell, it is commonly be- 
lieved that the wasp has the miraculous power of imparting its shape 
and colour to the spiders, and that each spider reappears in the new 
form. 

G. R. Dutt, who has studied this wasp at Pusa, once removed the 
cells of a nearly completed nest which only required covering with mud ; 
the wasp had made two cells, and had commenced bringing mud to 
pilaster all over them when this was done : she however continued to 
bring mud and to plaster it over the marks 
left on the wall until she had produced the 
same appearance as she would have had 
the cells still been there, apparently un- 
aware that tlie cells had been removed. 
The student should read the parallel cases 
described hy Fabre. and translated in 
" Insect Life.'' 



Sceliphron rornmandelicum, Lep.. is a 
large species, of similar habits to the above. 
There are one to seven cells (rarely up 
to 12) in the nest, which is placed in build- 
ings or on trees. It has similar para.sites, 
and a Chalcid parasitises the Chrysid 
parasite, thus adding to the complicatetl 
fauna that centres lound tliese nests. 




Vis. 114.— SCKI.ll'HHOX BII.I- 
NKATrM fKI.I.. K 2. 



M'liEGin.i:. '207 

S. bilinealuw, Sin., is lecorded fioiu Western India. Imt occurs also 
in Beliar. It constructs single cylindrical cells (Fip. Ill) which it finishes 
i)y adding mud till the cell is smoothed over comjtletely. The life 
history occU])ies ahout a month and this species is also extensively 
parasitised. 

iS. viohici'inii. v.. is tlie comnioji hliie s])ecies which nests in houses, 
inakijig no cell but taking advantage of natural holes, wliich it commonlx- 
closes with lime or j)laster in })reference to mud. It lias been seen to 
utilise screw and nail lioles in wood, boies in l)anil)oos, the central hollow 
of a cotton reel, the tubular cavity of tlie handle of a cycle puni]i. ami 
holes into which bolts were to fasten. It has also been found in the 
empty cells of S. madras ixitmi it w. its larval cocoon being smallei' than 
that of the latter. It is possiblv the insect referred to in the follow- 
ing : Lahore Divisional orders : — The Ichneumon ffy is particularly 
active at this time of the year, and the greatest care should be taken 
to prevent barrels of rifles becoming unserviceable from the rings of 
corrosion which invariably follow if the clay plug is not at once re- 
moved. The Hy will build a complete nest within 24 hours, and every 
barrel should be looked through at least once daily to ensure its being 
free from this pest. (Statesman, 28th April, ](K)!».) 

Sphex includes larger insects with a shorter petiole, best known 
from the very common green metallic species S. lobatus Fabr. (Fig. 108) 
which preys on the big cricket Brachijtrijpes achatinus, Stoll. Its habits 
have been described elsewhere (.Tourn. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XV, p. 031) ; it 
has a curious habit of biting out a portion 
of the pronotum of its prey after it has 
paralysed it by stinging. It is seen actively 
at work from April to August : possibly 
the crickets are not sufficiently large before 
the end of April, necessitating a longer 7'est 
than that of other species. 

Ampulex rompressa, Fabr., is a very 
beautiful insect, common in the plains. In 
Pusa this insect is purely arboreal in 
Fig. n.'i.-AMi-cLR.x coMPRE.ss.t. ^^^ habitat. The chief haunts are the 
trunks of old Peepul (Finis rcliginsa) and 




20S HVMENOl'TKRA. 

Fig trees, which possess numerous holes and chinks. It is not an un- 
common sight to see an Ampiilex hurrying along the tree trunk search- 
ing hole after hole for cockroaches and occasionally flying to a distant 
branch only to return and continue the search in a few seconds. As far 
as observed, this species confines itself exclusively to species of Peri- 
planeta for its prey. The specimen of Periplaneta is invariably bigger 
in size than the wasp itself. This wasp does not construct any nest, 
but generally makes use of some empty hole on the trunk of the tree, 
wherein it drags its captive. The manoeuvres emjiloyed in capturing 
and paralysing the cockroach are almost the same as in Pompilids, but 
here there is not so much careful tact and dexterity displayed on the 
part of the wasp' in dealing with the cockroach. The reason apparently 
is that the cockroach is not armed with any poisonous weapons ; it has 
to depend solely on its active motions and irritating spines for defence. 
Unlike the Pompilid and spider fight, the scene of the combat often 
changes, the cockroach taking to its wings very often. The fight is 
simply a pursuit of the desperately flying blattid on the part of the 
wasp and the moment it manages to alight on the back of the captive, 
the latter submits. The wasp loses no time in administering the sting. 
The sting is thrust along the side of the big prothorax and reaches the 
oesophageal ganglia. The cockroach does not, however, appear much 
the worse after the sting, and if the wasp after this so-called paralysing 
strays away in search of a hole, the cockroach manages to slip away 
slowly into some adjacent hiding place. This has been observed more 
than once. 

One species of Stigmus has been observed by Dudgeon to store 
Aphides in holes in wood made by a boring beetle. (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. XV, p. 12.) S. comjruus, Wlk., and<S. wig-ripes, Motsch., have been 
observed collecting aphids in Behar. Gorytes alipes, Bingh.,isnot un- 
common in Western India ; we have observed it burrowing in the damp 
soil of flower pots, the burrows nearly two inches deep, and stocked 
with the very common Fulgorid, Dictyophara Uneata, Don. Gorytes 
pictus, Sm., has been observed to visit the rolled up sissoo leaves inhab- 
ited by the larva of Apoderus blandus (Curculionidse), but the observer 
was unable to determine that the larva was carried off. It is possible 
that, since the weevil larva is in a case, this species paralyses it and 
lays an egg on it, thus not requiring a nest. 



SPHEGID.E. 209 

Stkus includes wasp-like insects whose habits are unknown ; 
S. ni/escens, Sm. (Plate X, Fig. 12), is common in the plains, and some- 
times comes iji numbers to dig in the ground in flat places near houses. 

Pliihnthiis fyulchcrrimus. f^mith (Plate X, Fig. 13). This wasp is 
common at Pusa during the months of March and April. It is usually 
found on floweiing plants, on the flowers of which bees are also hoveling. 
This wasp attacks them, stings them and then flies with them to the 
nest. The bee is held by the wasp below the thorax between the legs. 
Xests of this wasp are in sandy banks, and are in the form of long narrow 
tunnels. Females were observed bringing bees (geneially belonging 
to the genera Hah'ctus, Ceratina and Apis) to their nests and the choice 
seems restricted to the family Apidae. 

Bemhex sidphurescens, Dahlb., is another wasp-like insect, robust, 
coloured in yellow and black. Betnbex makes burrows, which it is be- 
lieved to keep open, feeding the young 
daily with fresh Diptera ; this is an 
interesting habit, and it may be hoped 
that the habits of the Indian species 
will be observed. This species is 
usually found flying over the soft 
sand by rivers, etc. 

-Bembe.x ,srLPHi-KEs,ENs. Cerceris is stated to be predaceous 

upon beetles principally Chri/somelidce, 
in India; they are small wasp-like insects; C. pictiventris, Dahlb., 
C. instabiUs, Smith, and C. flavopicta, Sm., are the most com- 
mon. Oxybelus is smaller with several species, none known to be widely 
spread. 0. squamosus, Sm., has been observed by Purushottam Patel 
to collect the biting fly Stotnoxys caldtrans and also the common 
housefly {Musca sp.), and carry them off to provision its nest which is 
in the form of an oblique tunnel in sandy soil. 

Crabro buddha, Cam., is a small black and yellow species, which 
has been reared from pup* in a tree. C. beUula, Cam., has been seen 
nesting in wet soil in a garden in Western India. C. orientalis, Cam., is 
similar, and has been reared from pupte found in tunnels in a dry mango 
branch. The dry wood was bored through extremely thoroughly and 

UL 14 




210 



HYMENOPTERA. 



contained large numbers of cells packed with Diptera : a Mutillid {Mu- 
tiUa discreta, Cam.), was reared from one of the cells. Bingham remarks 
that he saw a Crabro carrying off Aphides, as do the European species 
and this is likely to be the habit of some of the above species. Nurse 
records rearing C. balucha, Nrse., from hollow reed stems in which it 
had stored " houseflies." (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. So?. XV, p. 16.) 
C. ardens. Cam., was observed in Pusa to have stored its nest with small 
flies and two species of Crabro were observed carrying off aphides from 
a Capsicum plant in a house. 



EUMENID^. 

Wings folded Jonqihidinally , middle tihiw irith one spine 
ril Ihe ape.r, the elairs dentate. 

These wasps include the small slender Odyneri measuring as little 
as a third of an inch in length and the large robust Eumenes which occa- 




117. -El'MRNES ESURIENS WITH OSE FISI.SHED 
ANIl THKEE INCOMPLETE CELLS (sic). 
[Frnm H fir up.) 



sionally measure over an inch. The colouring is commonly warning 
and the females have a formidable sting. In some the petiole 
is well marked and long, in others it is less noticeable. The antennae 
are of moderate length, with 12 joints in the male, 13 joints in the female. 
The pronotum reaches the base of the wings ; the legs are of moderate 
lejigth and slender. All are winged in both sexes and the females are 



EI'MENID.K. 



211 



conimduly seen ciisaficd in inakiiif; or itrovisioninj; tlio rolls for tluMr 
youn-i. 

Tlie life history of no Indian sijecics lias been really studied in great 
detail though the lial)i1s of some of the species are known. Tliese inseets 
have the habits of the ty]iii-al stinninfi jiredators, ])aralysini; insects 
with their sting and laying th'ni u]) for tlicir young to feed on. Our 
Indian species are solitary and make cells, not nests. They are Ijene- 
ficial in that they destroy catei])illais. but their influence is ])robably 
not very great as their numbers are not very large. 

Bingham enumerates nine genera as Indian, of which all but three 
will be found in the plains. Eumenes is the important genus, contain- 
ing the well-known " potters," which prepare mud cells in houses and 
store these with caterpillars. R. C. Wroughton describes rearing 11 
cells, of which three yielded i)arasitic beetles {MnrdcUidcv). three Chrij- 
sidcp. two flies and only three were unparasitized and produced ^Mwewes. 
An account of the habits of Indo-Malayan Eumenidce by Mons. 
Maindron will be found in Ann. Sor. Ent. Fr. 1882, pp. 69, KiO, 2()7 and 
18^5, 21!) : the latter refers to E. petiolata only. Home also has notes 
on the habits of Eumenids. The readers should see the account of 
Eirnienes dimidiatipennis, Sss., by Lt.-Col. Cretin (in Journ. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. XIV, p. 820). which is a model of what such observa- 
tions should be. 

Some are extremely common in houses and are a serious nuisance 
owing to the spots chosen for nest building. E. peliolalci, Fabr., E. 

dimidiatipennis. 8ss., E. 
rsuriens, Fabr., and E. 
cnnica, Fabr., are common 
and may be looked for 
everywhere. Eumenes coni- 
cn. Fabr., makes its mud 
cells on walls, window 
frames, cement floors, etc., 
in houses. A single nest 
consists of seven to ten 
cells, each of which is 
round in ]ilan. semi-elli]itica 




I MF.KF.S I'KTIOI.AT.A. 



212 HYMENOPTERA. 

in section. In making a cell, the wasp brings a pellet of mud and 
spreads it out in a curve ; she brings more and more, working it all up 
into a wall rising from the base she builds on, and curving inwards till 
there is a small round aperture left ; she then puts on a neat rim (Fig. 117) 
and the cell has just the appearance of the upper half of an ordinary 
Indian gylah (water-jar). Through the opening she slips paralysed 
caterpillars, usually green semiloopers (Plate X, Figs. 1, 2); if they are 
large, three to five is enough ; if not, as many as eight are put in. The 
egg is laid before the caterpillars are put in and hangs by a thread from 
the roof of the cell ; when the cell is stocked the rim is demolished and 
the cell closed ; another is then begun above and when the full number 
are made, the whole is finished off with mud evenly. The wasp is very 
sensitive to disturbance and readily abandons the cells ; if the cell is 
more than half stocked, the transformation still takes place though the 
wasp is of a much smaller size. When a cell is partly demolished and 
left undisturbed, the wasp will often repair the damage and in this res- 
pect she shows a much less fixity of instinct than does ScelipJiron for 
instance. The complete making, storing and closing of a cell usually 
occupies one day. 

The egg is a delicate white object, about 4 m.m. long and hanging 
by a stalk about r5 m.m. long. On hatching the larva puts out its 
head but does not leave the egg shell so long as it can feed from it ; 
it attacks the nearest caterpillar and only when it has grown a little 
does it leave the egg shell completely. When it has eaten all the cater- 
pillars it spins a delicate cocoon, pupates and emerges. The imago then 
cuts through the cell and escapes. Chrysis orientalis, Guer., Stilbum 
cyanurum, Forst., Chrysis fuscipennis, Br., and a Tachinid parasitise this 
species, and in one case every cell of a nest of ten contained a Chrysid. 
Eumenes edwardsii has been reared from a clay cell, oval with rounded 
ends, found on a blade of grass. 

Rhyncliium has similar habits, collecting caterpillars, and is found 
everywhere : the common species are R. hcemorrJioidale, Fabr., R. brun- 
neum, Fabr., R. abdominale, Illig., and R. nitidulmn, Fabr. The last 
makes a cluster of up to 25 oval cells coated with black gummy mate- 
rial in which are stored her prey. R. brunneum, F., stores her nest with 



vicsrTD.i:. 213 

llie cati'ipillais "f tlu' I'yralid, Mani.'^niid tnipczalis, CJuer. Clialcid 
j)aiasites attack these species. (Fig. II!).) 

Odynerus is believed to 
store caterpillars in holes 
or in small mud nests. 
Most are small insects, black 
and yellow in colour, with- 
out a petiole. A number 
of species are recorded, few 
of whicli are known to be 
widespread. 

0. punctum, Fabr., and 
0. ovalis, Sss., are likely to 
be fomid anywhere in the plains. 0. punctum has been observed by 
T. V. R. Aiyar to utilise the holes bored in chairs to fix the cane in, 
wlien the cane is broken and the hole empty ; this hole she fills with 
small cateqDillars, after which she closes it with mud. The same ob- 
server noted the latter carrying of? the larva of the Groundnut Leaf 
Miner {Anacampsis oierleria. Meyr) to store in her nest. 




Ki''. 119. — Khynchum MTiun.ciM nk.st. 



Ve.spid.^e. — Wasps. 

Winijs loiKiitudinalh/ folded in repose. Middle tibia; with two 

terminal spurs ; claws simple. 

These are small to large insects, with warning colouration of an 
evident kind. The petiole is usually long and slender, the legs of moder- 
ate size, the pronotal angles reaching 
the insertion of the wings. The fore 
tibia bears a cleaning comb through 
which the antennae is drawn, as is also 
the case in Formicida. The females 
have one more joint (13) in the an- 
tennae than the males and one less 
abdominal segment (6) but are other- 
wise similar. In the majority of the 
species, social habits are observed ; the nest may last more than one 
season, but in our common .species this is not usually the case though 




Fi^. I'JO.— 1( AKIA KKKKUi:lNKA. 



214 



HYMENOPTERA. 



successive communities may continue nests in the same spot. 
Workers, i.e., imperfect females, are found in the more highly organised 
communities and a nest may contain a large number of individuals. 
Owing to the ferocity of their disposition and the virulence of their 
stings, precise observations have not been made into the habits of these 
insects in India and little is known of them. 

Nests are commonly made of papery material consisting of chewed 
vegetable fibre. PoUstes hehrccus may often be seen working at dry 




Fit,'. 121.— Nest of ic^uia aiitifbx. 



posts or trunks from which the bark has been stripped, first moistening 
a spot, then working off the fibre and taking it away. A nest consists 
of cells of hexagonal form, hanging with the opening downwards ; in 
the simple nests of Icaria there are two rows of cells only ; in the 
more complex nests of PoUstes, the cells form horizontal combs, hung 
by stalks, and with a diameter of six or more inches in rare cases ; there 
may be one comb below another but the combs are open all round. In 
Vespa, there is an envelope, the nest completely enclosed and with the 
combs inside clear of the envelope so that there is access to each comb 
all round ; in others the comb is attached to the envelojie and access is 
gained by a central space passing up through the combs. 

The wasps feed on caterpillars, mantids, bugs, grasshoppers, beetles 
and other insects and some constantly seek for fruit juice, sugar, sweets 
and such material. The young are fed up on the crushed insects 
brought home by the parent or worker, but few details have been 
recorded. The number of caterpillars these wasps eat is apparently 



PLATE XI.— Vespa Orientalis. 

Combs removed from the envelope. Reduced about three times. 



PLATE XI. 







Vespa Orientalis. 



VEsriK.i:. 21?) 

very large indeed and large nests probably exercise a considerable 
influence in keeping caterpillars down. The females hibernate in shelter 
in the colder parts of India for about two months or longer and it is at 
this time they are found in houses. Wasps have a distinct economic 
value as predaceous insects but are in some cases not welcome 
neighbours. The "hornets" which attack persons in India are species 
of Fe»7«( whose nest has been disturbed and their stings have been 
known to cause death. 

Of this family, 7 genera and nearly fifty species are recorded as 
Indian. Bingham figures the nests of two species of lachnoi/aater, one 
solitary, one social, and regards this gejius as the link between the 
solitary Eumenids and the social Vespids (Journ. Bombay Nat. His. 
8oc. Y, p. 2-14). 

Icaria fernKjinca, Fabr. (Fig. 120), is one of the common species in 
the plains ; it is the red-brown wasp with the yellow band across the 
second abdominal segment found commonly in Bombay and th" 
Central Provinces. The hanging nest consists of a small number 
of delicate elongate cells. (Fig. 121.) PoUstes hebrceus, Fabr., is the 
common insect making hanging nests in the verandahs of houses and 
in similar sheltered spots. Tliis species has been to some extent 
observed ; the fertilised females hide away in cracks and chinks in 
verandahs, roofs, trees, etc., in November ; we have seen numbers 
of them flying about seeking a refuge and they fight freely when 
two are trying the same spot. Here they remain all the cold 
weather, emerging as the warm weather commences in March. In 
1907 they emerged as early as the third week of February, as did 
other hibernating Aculeates. The female then builds the nest, lays eggs 
in it and rears the young till they emerge to help her ; larger nests are 
then made and these may last until later in the year or new nests may 
be begun by single females at any time. This insect has been reported 
from Peshawar as being so abundant in the Field Telegraph Stores that 
these could not be removed and as rendering houses uninhabitable in the 
Deccan by nesting in the verandahs. The nests are the habitat of a 
PyraUd larva (Hypsopygia Mauritialis, Guen.) which feeds on the larva; 
(see below). 



216 HYMENOPTBRA. 

Polistes stigma, Fabr., is the only other common species of this genus 
and it has been observed to nest in trees. Next to the yellow wasp (P. 
hehrcBUs) this is the commonest of the genus in Pusa and the only other 
species often come across. We have found this insect attaching its slen- 
der paper nest made up of five or six hexagonal cells to the branches of 
trees overhanging the river. 

Vespa includes the large wasps common in towns at sweetmeats 
and wherever sweet stuff is to be obtained. Vespa cincta, Fabr., and 
V. orientalis, F.,are the common plains species; the very large V. magni- 
fica, Sm., and F. ducalis, Sm., are notable hill species. Vespa cincta. 
Fabr., is not as common as V. orientalis, F. It is found generally in 
thick forest. It makes its nest in the holes of big fig and other forest 
trees and has been observed to attack the nests of Polistes hebrceus and 
carry off the larvse from the cells, the Polistes making no opposition. 

Vespa orientalis, F., has also been observed hiding away for the winter 
in holes in buildings. Bingham states that the nests are in trees or at 
the foot of a tree or attached to the beams of a house. Their stings are, 
as he remarks, very painful and to be avoided if possible. There are 
many obscure points about this insect and we would like to see it pro- 
perly investigated. It is the commonest of the species in India and is 
fond of selecting old buildings and walls to construct its combs (Plate 
XI) when many individuals are emj)loyed in the work. These nests are 
sometimes very large and extend far into loose masonry in old buildings, 
the communities being very populous. They are, in the colder parts of 
the plains, abandoned yearly, the fertilised females hiding away till the 
cold passes and then starting again ; in this way the same nest may be 
tenanted year after year. In sweetmeat stalls in bazaars this is a pest, 
perching on the exposed sweet stuffs in numbers, but it is curious to find 
that it injures no one, though driven away now and then. 

I C0LLKTIl)y1<:. 

Tongue emarginate at apex, short and broad. 
This is a small family of somewhat rare insects which are not social. 
They are of small size, all black in colour and inconspicuous. Two gene- 
ra and ten species are known from India and of these none can be regard- 
ed as common or widespread in the plains. Prosopis mixta, Sm., is 
perhaps the most common and will probably be found more widely. 



VKsriii.K. 217 

Nini" species are included in tliis ficiuis and a single Collctes {C. 
dudgeonii, Bingh.) has been found in Sikkini. 

Arin.E. — Bees. 

T()»<jiH' aeiitr. not emarginate. The thorax with hranclicd 
hairs, the basal tarsal joint dilated. 

It is not always easy to recognise a bee at a glance and a fair know- 
ledge of other Aculeates enables one, by elimination, to place doubtful 
forms. Actually the group is not well defined structurally though it is 
so on a combined appreciation of habits and structure. Bees are of small 
to moderately large size, their colours often dull, often more or less warn- 
ing. The head is well developed, usually with three ocelli ; the antennaB 
are of moderate length with a scape and a flagellum ; the mouthparts are 
of varied form but include a pair of cutting mandibles, a lower lip and 
maxillae which form the tongue, often very long, and two pairs of palpi ; 
there is great variety in these mouthparts and they are of value in the 
classification. Bees utilise their troplii in a great variety of ways which 
are really very little imderstood but they are essentially modified biting 
mouthparts of great complexity with the lower lip functioning as a lap- 
ping organ for imbibing liquid. The thorax forms a compact mass and is 
highly chitinised; the abdomen is oval, the petiole short and not notice- 
able. The ventral surface bears the scopa or pollen-collecting brush in 
those species which collect pollen in this way. The legs are short, hairy 
and the hind tibia and basal joint of the tarsus are dilated and densely 
pubescent for carryiaig pollen. The use to which most aculeates put the 
hairs is for cleaning antenna" and other parts ; pollen-collecting hairs may 
be modified cleaning hairs. 

The Apidcp include social and solitary species, the social instinct 
being well developed in Apis in particular though perhaps to a less degree 
than in some Termites and ants. The majority have essentially the 
same habits and life history; the females collect nectar and pollen of 
flowere to feed themselves, to feed their young or to store up for the bene- 
fit of their young. A minority are parasitic, laying their eggs in the 
nests of their more energetic food-storing brethren. 

In the simpler cases, as in Mec/a^hile, each bee makes a solitary nest, 
preparing one cell at a time, filling it with a paste of honey and pollen. 



218 FtYMESOM'EhA. 

and laying an egg in it ; we then find species whieli live in a common 
burrow with separate cells. (Halictus) or which prepare a number of cells 
in one place and have a ' ' nest " ' which suffices for one or more complete 
broods (A'///ofo/jff. Anthophora) \ finally we find the higher social forms 
in which a nest contains not only sexual individuals but imperfect wing- 
ed females which carry on the nest, the reproduction being limited to a 
small number of individuals, and the multipHcation of nests taking place 
in the highest forms by the joint efforts of workers and sexual individuals. 
Xi/locopa is an instance, but in this genus the community lives for one 
year only, the impregnated queens living over the winter ; the honey 
bees are the highest social forms, with however only three classes of 
individuals, males (drones), females (queens) and imperfect females 
(workers); in these forms the nests are more permanent, and continue for 
an unknown period in some cases, or if the actual comb is deserted, 
the community goes on. In all cases the larva is helpless and must either 
be fed or be provided beforehand with a supply of food, either for its 
own use or that of its host if it be a "parasite." There is thus 
no free life history and the activities of these insects are confined to 
the adults. 

With nearly thirty genera and a large number of species it is im- 
possible to mention more than those species which are likely to be 
found generally in the plains. The student must consult Bingham's 
Fauna of India for descriptions of species. 

HaUctus is a small bee with many hill species, and a few plains ones 
which nest in wet soil. The presence of an anal lima in the female dis- 
tinguishes them. H. senescens, Sm., is a common plams form. 

Nomia is the next genus (we omit Spheccdes and Andrena) contain- 
ing common insects : N. elliotii, Sm., and N. oxybeloides, Sm., are 
black with silvery white pubescence; the known species nest in earth, 
canying pollen on their hind legs to stock (he cells. The nests of N. 
westuvodi are found in damp soil in flower boxes and gardens, about four 
inches below the suiface. Lithunjus atratus, Sm., is the bee that 
visits cotton flowers so persistently ; the habits of L. dentifes, Sm , are 
described by Home (Trans. Zool. Soc, VII, p. 17-5). 



PLATE XII.— Megachile Anthracina. 
The Black Leaf-cutting Bee. 

Fig. 1. Part of a series of leaf-cells taken from a hollow branch. 
„ 2. A single cell opened to show tlie larva feeding on the pollen- 
mass. 
,, 3, Full-grown larva. 

„ 4. Cocoon, after the leaf covering is stripped ofif. 
„ 5. Cocoon, after emergence of the bee. 
,, 6. Imago, female. 
„ 7. Leaf of Pigeon pea (Cajanns indiciis) from which an oval 

side-piece (above) and a round end-piece for the cell have 

been cut. 
,, S. Complete series of eight cells in a tunnel in a branch ; two 

of last j^ear's cocoons, without leaf covering, are shown 

beside. 
,, 0. Imago, male. 



•■^i 




\K.SI'I|..K. 21'.t 

Miydcliilc iiicliulcs till' very familial- Ikh' that Imilds luuil ci'lls in our 
houses in aiiv tulmlav cavity that (iffcis itself. Tiic work of the Icaf-cut- 




Ki;;. 12-_'. LKLLS or 5IKi:aiH1I,K LANATA, x 1. 

ting species is well known, though we doulit if many people have seen 
these insects at work. .1/. anthracina, Sm., is tiie common leaf-cutting 
bee of the plains, which cuts neat pieces out of the stiff leaves of rose. 
Bauhinia and pigeon pea. These it takes away to line its cells, which it 
tills with pollen paste. We figure the cells of these species found in a 
tree. (Plate Xll.) A point of interest in this species is that it is found 
as an imago only after the rains, i.e.. October and November. In capti- 
vity the larvae rested from December to September in the cell. This is 
the case in Behar, but it may not be true of all India. M. disjuncki, 
Fabr.. is also common and makes mud cells filled with paste. It has the 
base of the abdomen covered with whitish pubescence. The commonest 
species is M. Janata, Fabr., with base of the abdomen red-brown ; this 
builds the mud cells (Fig. 122) in houses and also, as does M. disjuncta, in 
soil. In the former case, a mud cell is made, in the latter case, a casing 
of leaves is applied to the sides of the burrow direct. It is common both 
in the dry hot weather and after the rains. M. conjuncta, Sm., makes 
its leaf cells in a hollow bamboo. Mnjachile lanata is attacked by 
mites, which fix themselves to the larval integument and draw in fluid 
so that their abdomen becomes immensely dilated after the manner of 
the ■ honeypot " ants iMi/rmecoci/stKs). 



220 



HYMKNOVTERA. 



Parevaspis is a parasitic bee found in the nests of Megachile ; Pare- 
vaspis carbonaria, Sm., is the common Indian species. Ceradna viridis- 
sima, D. T., is the delightful little metallic green 
bee that tunnels in dry stems and lays up food 
there ; it is common throughout India. (Plate 
XIII, Fig. 4.) The pupa is not in a cocoon but 
simply lies free in the cell separated by a wall of 
fibre from its neighbours. (Fig. 123.) The egg 
of Ceratina (like that of some other insects) 
increases in size after it is laid, from about 2 
m.m. to over 3'5 m.m. in length; a chalcid 
parasitises the larvse, four having been found in 
one cell as pupe. The larval period is from 9 
to 13 days, the pupal from 13 to 18 days in 
October, November. G. R. Dutt has found 
a cell in a hollow twig in thatch containing two 
larvae, the cell sealed with black wax, which 
he reared to Heriades parvula, Bingh. This 
little bee is comparatively rare but occurs in 
Behar as well as in Burmah. 



Kig. 1-23.— ("EKATINA VIRI- 

I11SSIM.4 PUPA IN CELL 

ANIl EMPTY (ELL. 

[V. M. H.J 



Coelioxijs includes the black bees with rather sharply tapering ab- 
domen that one sees hovering around walls and buildings. C. basalis, 
Sm., is said by Bingham to be parasitic upon Megachile lanata. C. 
decipiens, Spin., is the second common species. 

Crocisa is said to be parasitic ujion Antiiophora and there is a resem- 
blance in build and colour between them; of the iovm.QX,C.histrio, Fabr., 
and C. raniosa, Lep., which are conspicuously black and white are com- 
mon; Anthopliora nests in the soil; A. zonata, Linn., and A. violacea, 
Lepel, are likely to be found. (Plate XIII, Figs. 5, 6.) 

Xi/locopa includes the familiar large carjjenter bees which make 
tunnels in hard dry wood ; they are large, usually black insects, with 
dark wings and are distinctly the largest of the bees in the plains. A'. 
restuans, Linn., in which the male is covered in yellow pubescence, the 
female in black, is the very common species, whose nests may be seen in 
posts and beams. (Plate XIII, Figs. 7, 8.) A'. /ewes<ra<a, Fabr., A. ame- 
ihijstina, Fabr., and A. iridipennis, Lepr., are also common. Xi/lo.opa 



APID.E. 221 

lenuiscapa. Westw., in C'eyloii is, according to Ureeu (Knt. Mo. Mag., 
1902, 232), the host of the Cantharid, Cissiles I>chi/i\ Faiiin. He also 
figures there the cavity in the base of the abdomen in which lives the 
Acarid parasite Greenia Parkinsi Oudeni. 

Bombus. the "Bumble-bee" of Europe, is entirely a hill species and 
the beautiful Bonibi one sees in the hills do not descend below 3,000 
feet. (Plato XI II, Fig. 9.) 

The species of Apis are the common honeybees, three species occur- 
ring in India wild. These are readily distinguished, so far as the workers 
go, by their size. A. dorsata, Fabr., being the largest, A. indica, Fabr., 
the medium sized and J. fjorea, Fabr., the smallest. While all three are 
common in India, they do not all appear to occur together : A. dorsata 
is the big bee that builds large nests in the forest and away from cultiva- 
tion ; A. indica is common generally in trees, as is J. florea. which in the 
plains of India is very often found making its single combs in any conve- 
nient position on a building. Bingham mentions A. indica as the com- 
monest bee of Burmah, but florea is at least as common in India and 
its nests are far more often seen. 

A great deal can be written about these bees and the reader is ad- 
vised to consult Home's article in Trans. Zool. Soc, 1879, VII, p. 181, as 
well as Hooper's Agricultural Ledger on bees-wax. An Enghsh abstract 
of Castets' article on bees of South India (Revue des Questions Scienti- 
fiques, Brussels, October, 1893) will be found in the Tropical Agriculturist, 
January, 1908, p. 48. It is of interest as containing an accomrt of the 
wild bees, as also of Melipona (Trigona) iridipennis, Smith. For prac- 
tical directions in bee-keeping in India Douglas' Handbook of Bee-keeping 
in India (1884) should be consulted. 

Bees collect pollen from flowers, as well as nectar, and some collect 
a resinous matter from buds, from bark and other parts of plants. On 
the two former they feed themselves or their young ; with the latter 
they make the nest tight. Wax is a secretion produced by young bees 
and used to make cells for honey and comb. About 16 to 20 pounds of 
honey is said to be eaten by young bees to yield one poimd of wax. 

Melipona is distinguished by having one cubital cell in the forewing 
only ; it includes the small bees which build nests in trees and cracks of 
buildings ; they are often called Dammar bees from the dark resinous 



222 HYMICNOPTRRA. 

inattev they use iji making their nests. M. vidua. Lep., is apparently 
the only Indian species at all common and the genus is probably found 
almost wholly in forest localities. Home has remarks upon the habits of 
M. smilhii. Bingh.. (Triijona luficorniii. 8m.). which he found at Benares. 



INSECTS AND FLOWERS IN INDIA. 

I. H. BuRKILL. 

The Xylocopas are the most important of flower-visiting insects in 
the plains of India, and are of very general distribution. They have 
large size and long tongues, and they visit persistently all day, and some 
of them also on moon-lit nights. The Sunn hemp crop is largely ferti- 
lised by them, and possibly the Indian pulses. Cassias in Calcutta are 
commonly visited by one of them and many large showy flowers. 

The place of Xyhcojxi in the plains is, in the hills, taken by Bombus, 
whose methods of work, degree of fiersistence, etc.. are more or less 
completely known from studies in Europe. Bonibns ascends to the 
snows visiting Aconites, balsams, the small honeysuckles, etc., which 
grow high up. 

The genus AntJiophiwa has species both in the region of Xyhcofci 
and the lower part of the region of Bombus : one of its species, A. 
zonata, does great service to plants in the plains, being a diligent visitor 
often to flowers a little less showy than Xi/hcopa seeks, such as the 
Labiate weeds of India, and to flowers into which it creeps such as 
Costus speciosus or Bitelin. 

Of Apis the three Indian species are important. They all seem to 
have the persistence of the hive bee, keeping generally to the same spe- 
cies of plants at one spell of work, and they are all diligent ; but they 
cannot work so fast as larger insects. Whereas Xi/Joropa Jatipes was 
observed to visit 30 jute flower.s per minute and Xi/locopa cestuans to 
visit 35 jute flowers per minute. Apis florea visited about 10-15 flowers 
per minute (see Journ. Asiatic 8oc. Bengal. 1906, pp. 51() and 518). The 
rate at which Apis florea works on tlie extra-floial nectaiies of cotton is 
about 10 fruits per minute. The short tongue of Apis florea sends it 
to comparatively insignificant flowers. It is common in places on Cor- 
ehorus (jute). Evohmhis and other flowers about as broad as the insect 
is long. In the drier hills Apis indica is a very important flower- 
fertilising insect, especially where, as behind Simla, it is domesticated. 

The effect of the water-logging of Eastern Bengal on the flower- 
visiting insect fauna might be very interesting to study ; Xylocopas 
nesting in trees. Apis dorsata, Apis florea, etc., persist ; but the ground 
nesting species cannot. 



PLATE XIII.^MUTII.LID.E AND APIP.K. 

Fig. 1. Mutilla pooniu'iisis, cocoon. 
„ ,, fpmalc. 

3, Steganomus nodicoinis. 
i. Ceratina viridissima. 
Crocisa raniosa. 
Anthophora cingulata. 
Xylocoprt ajstuans, female. 

8. ,, ,, male 

9. Bombus tunicatus. 



TNREOTR AND FLOWERS IN TNnTA. 223 

The habits of the flower-visiting shorter tongued bees are for India 
quite unstudied. Hnllrtiis is common enough in some places and //. 
senescens is recorded from Behar as having some ccuinection with the polli- 
nation there of cotton, it is worthy of passing remaik that in Eurojie 
some of these short-tongued bees have been found to have the very 
closest inter-relations with jjarticular species of ])lants. For instance. 
Bryonia is visited by a Halict\isand by little else, and the Flnlirtiis hardli/ 
visits anything else, but the Bryonia fl()wers. The tongue of Prosnpis 
is very short indeed. 

.\mong the was|)S, we find both long and .short-tongued species ; Odi/- 
nerxs for instance is long-tongued. Vcspa short-tongued. Vespa seems 
to be not unimportant in the pollination of Chiretta {Sirertia Chirata) 
in Sikkim. The long-legged, slow-moving Pnlistes of the plains go to 
ex]M)sed honey. Slphcgids. Pomjiilids ami Scoliids may !)!> seen in 
India at exposed honey. 

Of Lepidoptera there are many common plains species which doubt- 
less do a considerable amount of flower pollination, e.g., Drinais, Terias, 
etc. They seem to recjuire a good deal of liquid during the day but often 
much of it is merely water taken from a wet mud bank. The least in- 
consistent in habits are perhaps the S])hingids. which are not uncommon- 
ly to be seen flower visiting both by day and by night. Possibly some 
Hesperiids are also in a measure not inconsistent in their flower visiting. 

Diftera in the plains seem to play but a small part in flower polli- 
nation. It is different in the Himalayas where laige Bombyliids join the 
Bombi in going to rather specialised flowers, and where out of the Syr- 
fhido', Rhimjia and Erisfalis are not uncommon. Tachinids also have 
some importance in the hills, but perhaps not in the plains. It is to be 
assumed that our laige evil-smelling Aracea^ attract muscids, but 
so far no thorough investigations have been made. A little beetle 
crawls into a foul-smelling Typhonwm ? which grows in Lower Bengal. 

Bibionids are often common on flowers in the hills and Anthomyids 
not frequent both in the hills and the plains. 

Of the relations of other insects to flowers there is really nothing 
to remark : and it may be added here that there is an uninvestigated 
field in the study in India of flower pollination hy birds. Birds at times 
visit for honey . and at times for small insects lying hid within the 
flowers. Keeble's account of his observations on bird-pollination 
of LoranthacecF in Ceylon (Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. V, pp. 91-9fi), and a 
few remarks by Lieutenant-Colonel D. D. Cunningham in his "Indian 
Friends and Acquaintances." p. 130, comprise all that has been put on 
record. (The student should also consult Mr. I. H. Burkill's papers in 
the .Tournal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lOOli, onwards.) 



224 



HYMENOPTERA. 



FoRMiciD^. — Ants. 

The hasal one or tuo segments of the abdomen are in 
the form of detached nodes. 

Ants are sufficiently familiar but the above character is occasionally 
required to verify the fact of a specimen really belonging to this family. 
They are in general small 
insects, of dull colouring, 
usually brown or black ; 
in only a few is the length 
greater than a quarter of 
an inch and ] these large 
forms will be taken for 
wasps. The head bears 
antennas which have a Fig. 124.— SoLE^os i.spiiE.MixATA. workek. 

long basal joint (scape) 

and a number of short joints (flagellum); in the males of some species 
the scape is short. The mouthparts are small, the mandibles often of 
peculiar form. The thorax is much modified in different species and 
in different foims of the same species. The legs are long and most 
species can run actively. The abdomen is distinct, in the female and 
worker of six visible segments, in the male of seven, and is usually 
larger in the female. 

Ants are social, living in communities in which there is a consider- 
able amount of specialisation of forms to serve the purposes of a useful 





Fiy. 12.5.— Camponotus compres- 

SUS, WORKER MINOR, X 3. 




Fig. 120- CaMPONOTUS COJIPRESSUS, WORKER 
MAJOR, X 3. 



FORMicin.1':. 



225 



division of hilxiur ; the nest (■(iiniiKinly consists of iniili-sandfomaies, with 
various forms of woikers ; the dopreo to wliich this specialisation goes, 
varies very nuieh witli tlie species. Commonly there are two or three 
forms of workers, the soldier with large head and mandibles, the worker, 
major and minor, with more normal structure. A nest may consist of a 
greater or smaller aggregation of individuals and there are a few species 
which share the light-shunning habits of Termites, most Jiesting in soil, 
trees, etc., but working in the light. 

In habits theie is the greatest diversity ; we cannot discuss this sub- 
ject in this place nor have we much that is original to add to the little 
that is known. The reader should consult the following papers : — 
Jerdon (A. M. M. H. (2), XIII, pp. 4-'). KM)) ; Wroughton (Jo. Bo. Nat. 
Hist. Soc, VII, pp. -.v.), 179) : Rotlmey (Trans. Ent. iSoc. London, lf<8<», 
p. 355) ; (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, V, p. 38) ; Rotlmey (Trans. Ent. 
Soc. London, 1895, p. 211) : Aitken (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, IV, p. 151 : 
V, p. 422); Green (Proc. Ent. Soc, London, ISilCi) ; Green (Jo. Bo. 
Nat. Hist. Soc, XIII, p. 181). 

In general, the ants are scavengers, the workers bringing to the nest 
the food for the whole cnnuuunity. This food consists of dead insects. 




Fig. 127. -C.A.MFnXoTC.' 



>.\IFKK.SSIS. 




Fig. 128.— Camponotus compres- 

SUS, FEMALE, X 3. 



any available nutritious animal matter, the sap of plants, any nutritious 

vegetable matter that can be obtained ; in this sense ants are excellent 

IIL 15 



226 



HYMRNdPTKliA. 



scavengers and as tliey are practically everywhere in the open, they 
serve an extremely useful function. In some species this habit is spe- 
cialised in one direction : some are ■' harvesters," storing in their nests 
seeds of grasses and small millets, occasionally even that of rice. Hol- 
comyrmex, Messor, Phidolo(jiton and PJiidolc are the best known harvest- 
ing ants and these live entirely in this one manner. In others the 
"agricultural" habit takes another form and what correspond to our 
"cows'' are kept and milked : the latter are insects which suck the sap 
of plants and yield a sweet excretion which the ants remove ; Mealy bugs 
(Coccidce), Green Fly {Aphida) , Psi/llidcp, Menibracidce are the important 
groups of " cows," while the larvae of many Lycanids are attended by 
ants and yield excretion. Cam/ponofiis. Cremastogaster, Catmdams and 
(EcophijUa have this habit as part of their activities and the care they 
take of their cattle is in some cases very marked : it is no uncommon 
thing to see a shelter built over a colony of mealy bug, and in South 
India Lecanium formicarii is found only under hard shelters erected 
by ants on trees. Other ants are predaceous and carnivorous, going out 
on foraging expeditions to seek live food, such as insects. Though 
termites live retired, they are attacked violently by some kinds of ants 
(Lobopeltn). Rothney states that in Madras, two ants {Monomoriuni 
salomonis, Linn., and Solenopsis (jeminata. Fabr.) are deliberately intro- 
duced into warehouses to check the depredations of white ants. This 
practice is not uncommon in Northern India and the Natives of India 
are familiar with the kind of ant which should lie brought in. The 
PowermcB and Dorylince include hunting ants, 
though one species of Dori/lus has also the 
termites' habit of attacking plants under- A'i/VN I / \\ 



V 



Fig. rift. — Pol.VliHACHtSSIM- 

I'LKX Kt.C, NYMPH, Pl'PAI, 

cornoN, X "i. 



ground. 



The life-history is known in a genei'al 
way but not in detail : the eggs are laid by 
the female and tended by the workers in the 
nest ; the larva is a white helpless grub 
without legs, which is fed by the workers 
and is itself incapable of exertion. These 
larvae and pupae are found in galleries in 
the nests, and one may often see the nest being moved, the little white 




FORMICin.K. 



227 



larvae and pup:i' being carried hv the workers, In some, tlie pupa is 
free, in others in a silken cocoon wliidi the larva itself prepares. 

.Vji interestini; feature of ants, especially of tlu' fiercer and more 
war-like species, is the fact that they are mimicked by other insects 
extremely closely. Shna rufo)iii/r(i is mimicked by a Sphegid Rhinopsis 
nificornis, Cam., in Barrackpore and by RInnopsIs ronstanceo'. Cam., in 
the Konkan. It is also commonly mimicked by a spider, as is Sinui 
nigra. Wroughton records the mimicry of a species of Polijrhncliis by 
the nym])h of a Coreid hu}i Piillrli ins inflntus. Kby. (Proc. Ent. Soc, 
Lond. ISIU, p. XVII). 

Bingham lists the Indian species in Vol. II of the Fauna of India. 
Hymenoptera. based on Forel's papers (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. 8oc., VII, 
etc.). In this volume 498 species are enumerated as Indian, of which 
those mentioned below are common in the plains with a fairly wide 
distribution. 

Dori/lince. — Male lai'ge and wasp-like : woikeis blind, subterranean. 
Female apterous, blind and like a queen termite. Pu))a in a cocoon. 
Work'ei' with a sting. 




There are two common genera, 
Doi-i/Iks with one-jointed pedicel, 
.Eiiidiis with two-jointed pedicel 
in the workers. Dorylus makes its 




Fijr. l.SO— DORYLIS ORIK.VTAI.IS 
WORKERS. 



Kig. 131. — DOKYLUS LABIATtJS, 
M.U.K, X li. 

nest below ground and behaves 
much liki> a termite. D. orietifalis 



228 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Westw.. attacks plants, eating them below or at the level of the soil. 
The workers have been observed to attack the workers of Pheidole indica 
and carry them off to their nest, where they were killed and cut into 
pieces. The males come to light and they are common towards the end 
of the cold weather in late February. Mnictus is a hunting ant. (Jo. 
Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, VII, p. 177.) 

Pnnerinw. — A constriction between the two basal abdominal seg- 
ments ; sting powerful, exserted. 

Lobopelta is said to make a sound ; it feeds on termites. Rotliney 
remarks of L. diminuta, Sm., that it marches in two long lines in files 
of two. Diacamm.a vagans, Sm., was found to be common at Barrack- 
pore by Rothney, nesting under stones or brick-work ; the sting is said 
to be "pungent." G. R. Dutt has observed it nesting in soft soil at 
the base of a big tree in Pusa ; outside the nest were several heads of 
workers of Camponotus compressus. 

MyrmicincB. — The pedicel two-jointed in all the forms. Pupa? not 
in cocoons. 

Myrmicaria nests at the foot of trees with a kind of embankment 
round it. Cremastogaster is a tree ant, making globular nests of papery 

/7 /j 





Fig. 132.— Ckemastouastek dohkni; nest and wokkek. [i.m.n.] 



FORMICID/E. 220 

material, or nesting in hollows in trunks or branches ; nests were found, in 
Mantid egg cases, the eggs having been partly removed. It has a habit 
of turning up its abdomen over the body as if threatening to use its 
sting. It bites freely and is stated to keep " ant cattle." Mononioriutn 
destructor, Jerd.. and .1/. pharaonis, Liiui., like some later species, are 
widespread over the tropics and harve probably been carried by 
shipping. M. indkum, Forel, is not uncommon in buildings in the rains, 
nesting in cracks in the masonry. M. <iracillimum, Sm., is found 
in houses in thatched huts and on trees. A nest was found in the 
excavated pith of a dry stalk of 8ami Hemp in the wall of a thatched 
hut ; they have a very painful sting and are a decided nuisance in 
houses. They attend mealy bugs on plants and also carry off flour, 
fat, etc., from store rooms. Holco)nijrmex scabriceps, Mayr., is the 
familiar harvesting ant of the Punjab, which gathers seeds of grass 
and millets into its nests and stores them in galleries. The nest is 
easy to find as there is a ring of chaff round it at a little distance and 
the ant's roads can be followed to the nest from some distance. 
Comparatively large quantities of seed can be extracted from a nest 
and, in times of scarcity, this grain is dug out of the nest and used as 
food. We have seen a pmt of seed taken out of one nest . 

Solowpsis (jeminata, Fabr., is the brown ant of India, nesting usually 
in the ground. Pkidole rhomhinoda, Mayr., is stated by Rothney to 
surround its nest with the leaflet of a mimosa, as a protection against 
the sun. Sima rufo-niyra, Jerd., is very common in India, nesting in 
trees. The sting of the female is, according to Rothney, ' ' the most 
painful of any Aculeate I am acquainted with." This virulent insect 
appears in May. Nests have been found also in hollows in bamboos 
with neat round exit holes at intervals. Sima alhborans, Web., nests 
in young shoots of bamboos and in tree trunks : when disturbed, the ants 
discharge a drop of white liquid. 

CV(<«(//rtf)/s includes sluggish ants of a jet black colour; C. taprohance, 
Sm., nests in hollow bamboos and ' '. latm, For., in the branches of 
teak and siris trees. 

Dolichoderince.— Tapinonia melanocephalum, Fabr., has once been 
found to be injurious under peculiar circumstances. The workers were 
found in large numbers in small temporary chambers at the base of young 



230 



HVMKNOPrEKA. 



tur plants (Cajanus iiidicus) grown for inoculation witli wilt in a special 
plot; these plants they ate into just below the soil level, eating right into 
the stem and through to the bark till the plant fell over, cut completely 
off ; as much as half an inch of stem would be completely eaten and the 
object apparently was, not the removal of the plant but the actual soft 
stem for food. Plants that had been inoculated were most attacked, and 
it is possible that the tissues were specially attractive on that account. 
As a rule, this ant feeds on anything sweet and vi.sits Aphides and Coccids 
constantly. The nests are underground, very deep and populous. 

Irklontijrmex anceps, Rog., nests in sandy soil near plants infested 
with aphids, and there are regular tracks to these plants ; the nests are 
deep and several minor ojies are often connected to a larger central one, 
the workers freely entering all. The eggs and larva? were found abun- 
dantly in February at a depth of one inch, sparingly in July at a depth 
of nearly a foot. The workers emit an unpleasant odour ; they visit 
aphids, coccids, membracids, etc., the glands of Cassia orientaUs, and 
also carry off dead insects. 

Camponotinw. — Pedicel with one joint. No definite sting, the poison 
being ejected from the orifice at the apex of the abdomen. Oecvphylla 
smaragdina is the familiar red tree 
ant of India, which makes large 
nests in trees, often enclosing mealy 
bugs in a covermg of webbed leaves. 
The green females are fomid yearly 
in June starting fresh nests on plants, 
and these nests can be easily obser- 
ved from the commencement. The 
workers are very active and fierce, 
collecting all manner of dead insects 
and even living ones if these are in- 
active ; caterpillars are attacked, cut 
up and carried off to the nest in 
pieces. A colony will have many 
small depots on one tree, each con- 
sisting of a number of leaves webbed ],■;., i;«.-()k,..(>fhylla .«iaka,;i,ina 
together and containing a colony of worker. 




KoinilCID.lv 



231 



Toeeids or a store of dead dry insects. If one is ojjened and patiently 
watched, it will be seen that the workers draw tlie leaves together by 
their mandibles and legs, while others, from inside, web them together 
witii silk produced from a larva held in the jaws. This is a really 
extraordinary sight ajid may ije seen at any time. 

Acantholepis jrdHcnjddi, iMayr., var bipartila nest in soil at tlie foot 
of trees, or in liollows in masonry. They visit Aphids and Coccids, and 
also collect dead insects. Pirnolepis lomjicomis, Latr., is widespread in 
the tropics; the nests are under fallen leaves or in decaying tree trunks 
and contain Panssidiv. 

Poli/rliachi.s siinplej:, Mayr. — Nests of this species are found on low 
bushes, high trees, under bamboo sheaths, and on sugar-cane leaves. 




Fig. 134.- WEBBIXU of OEtOPHYLLA SMARAUDI.VA ON PH-AL SHOOT 
EXCLOSI.VCi LECANIUM HESPERIDU.M. 



232 HVMKNOI'TERA. 

The nest is always constructed in such a way as cannot be easily discover- 
ed by a casual eye. A greater portion of it is covered over by leaves and 
the portion open to view is not easily recognisable. It looks from a dis- 
tance as if it were made of clay and cowdung, mixed with dry pieces of 
leaves, straw and grass. In reality it is a brown silky cobwebby mat- 
erial, over which are thickly and closely laid dry pieces of leaves, straw, 
etc. Just as OecopJiylla smarcujdina, F., workers make use of salivary 
threads secreted by their larvaMU folding the edges of leaves together, 
so do the workers of this sj^ecies. They catch hold of the larva? between 
the mandibles and carry them over to the places where the web is requir- 
ed to be spread. The larvas go on laying and stretching threads mechan- 
ically, as wanted- Other workers bring dry pieces of straw and spread 
them over the web while it is still fresh. When a nest is cut open from 
any part, a few of the workers at once rush up to the spot and plant them- 
selves as sentinels to guard the breach, while others remove larva? and 
pupae or whatever there be in that portion of the nest, to a secure place. 
After the chamber opened to view is cleared of what it contained, the 
workers hold the torn portions between their mandibles and pull inwards. 
Thus the aperture is made as narrow as possible, and then a couple of 
larvae are brought and the web is drawn across the rent in the usual 
way. The whole inside of the nest is lined with the brown silky cob- 
webby material, and the partitions between different chambers are also 
made of this material, but without straw, etc. 

Ants of this species also tend cattle for whose protection they pre- 
pare byres of the same cobwebby material and covered also in a similar 
manner as their nest. Such byres were foimd on a sugar-cane leaf, and 
also on a weed, close to established nests of this species. Workers were 
seen going in and coming out of those cattle sheds. On removing the 
covering large clusters of sugar-cane, aphis were found in the former and 
Monophlebus in the latter shed. Workers of this species have also been 
observed carrying a large dead fly to their nest. Pupae are encased in 
light brown cocoons. The winged sexes were obtained from nests in 
August and September. 

Myrmecocystus setipes, Fore!, nests in the ground in open places, 
and there is often a heap of soil thrown outside the nest. The work- 
ers collect dead insects and millipedes, and nests have been found 



FORMiriD.li. 



233 



stored with the wings and bodies of winged termites wliicli tliey collect in 
great ([uantity : tlie worker-majors carry the worker-minors when on 
tile march. 

Cum/jonotus compressus, Fabr., is tlie familiar black ant of India, the 
large worker-majors coming into houses. Nests are usually in the soil 
at the foot of a tree but occasionally in a wall. They visit Aphides, 
Membracids and Coccids and also feed freely upon termites if a nest or 
gallery is exposed. The winged sexual individuals fly at dusk on warm 
still evenings in the rains and are frequently to be seen at light. 




Fig. 1.S5. — OECOI'HYLLA SMAKAGDINA ; IJUEEN WATCHING OVER LARVA:, 
WHEN COMMENCING TO FOUND A NEW NEST. 



COLEOPTERA.— (Beetles). 

The first pair of wings (elytra) thiickened, acourateiy adapted to tlie body 
and completely covering the lower wings, which fold longitudinally 
and transversely in repose. Many species are wingless, and in many 
the elytra are abbreviated, not covering the abdomen. Mouthparts 
of the predaceous or herbivorous biting type. Antennae of varied 
forms never setaceous, usually eleven-jointed. Simple eyes usually 
absent. The integument is hard ; the parts accurately co-adapted to 
form a rigid outer skeleton. 

Metamorphosis complex : the larva a grub with complete or reduced legs, 
without suckerfeet and without tubercles bearing hairs Silk is not 
utilised in the formation of the cocoon, but anal secretion takes its 
place; after emergence from the cocoon the imago usually passes 
through a resting period during which the integument hardens. 

The order includes minute to large insects, of varied habits, including 
herbivores, predators, scavengers, both aquatic and terrestrial, with 
no social and scarcely any parasitic forms. 

No order is so easy to recognise as this, and only in rare cases, where 
the elytra are much reduced or are soldered together, will a beetle appear 
different. Looking at a beetle from above, the antenna', the large pro- 
thorax, the scutellum, the elytra and the pygidium (plate over the anus) 
are seen, except where the last is covered by the elytra. The large wings 
are folded below the elytra. Looking from below, the antennte can be seen, 
inserted below the head, the large mandibles and the labium, with usually 
two pairs of palpi ; tlie legs, with the coxa embedded in the sternum, the 
trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus. The antenna^ assume different forms 
as shown in figure 137; in 1, the basal joint is elongate and forms a scape, 
the apical three joints form a club and the remainder form a funicle, 
the whole antenjia being elbowed (Rhynchophoru): m 2, the antenna 
is simple, filiform [Phytophmja) ; in 3, it is moniliform, each seg- 
ment a little expanded (Cantharidce) ; in 4, it is serrate on one side 
(Sternoxi) ; in 5, it is clubbed , the three apical segments expanded on both 
sides {Clavicornia) ; in 6, it is filiform (Adefhaqa) ; in 7, it is clubbed, 
the club formed of leaflets closely folded together (Mehhnthidw) ; in 8, 



s'Turni nn. 



235 



it is inegulariy chihhed [H ijdropli ilida) ; in it, it is incompletely clubbi'd, 
with the leaflets not forming a compact mass (Luvanida). 




£ut. 



Fig. 135. — LlCAXIli BEETLE, MALE, HOKSAL VIEW. Ml>., M.\NIiIliLE ; I'KUTH., 
PltOTHOKA.X : SUIT., NCITELLIM ; ELYT., ELVTliON ; PYCl., PVGIHir.M. 



The tarsi are composed of five joints in some forms, of four or three 
in others; in one division (Heteroniera) the tarsi of the first two pairs of 
legs are five-jointed, of the third pair, four-jointed. In the Plu/tojil/aija 
the tarsi appear to be four-jointed, the tiny fourth joint being invisible 
at the base of the fifth. 

There are characteristic features in the immature stages which mark 
the group as a whole. Eggs are of two types, the soft oval eggs laid in 
concealment, the harder variously-shaped eggs laid openly. The latter 
are not ornamented as are those of the Lepidoptera, are not of the form 
characteristic of Hemiptera with fids, nor of the typical Dipterous cigar- 
shaped form. The larva' are without suckerfeet, and if free-living, 
frequently have the single anal tube, which functions as a suckerfoot, as 



23() 



COLKOPTERA. 



well as two dorsal ceici or jjiocesses. The liairsor liair-tufts on tubercles 
arranged as in Lepidoptera are not found in this order, and larvse, if 
hairy, have long tufts not arranged in series. No larval form can be con- 
fused with the Coleopterous larva' which live free lives, the characters of 
Neuropterous, Hymenopterous, Lepidopterous "'• Dipterous larva? be- 
ing wholly different. 




Fig. 136.— LUCANlt) BEKTLK ; FKWAI.K, I'lKlM KKLOW. ANT., ANTENNA; MP., 

MANI IRLE ; LB., LABIUM ; E. , KYK ; C. 1., c. 2., C. S., tOX.K OF LEGS : 

T., TROCHANTER ; F., FEMltR, TI., TIBIA ; TA., TARSUS. 

There are a few prominent points about Coleopterous larvse that we 
may notice here. The tarsi are two-clawed in the Adeplmga only (except- 
ing Haliplidw from these). Anal cerci occur only in Haliplidce, Hi/drophil- 
idw, Silpkidce, Scaphidiidce, Staph nHnidce, Histeridw and Elateridce in 
part, as well as in the Adephaija. If we except the above, the larvae of 
all have legs except Bruchidce, part of Ceramhycidce and Buprestidce. 
Omitting all the above, the Scarabseoid (white, curved, wrinkled) grub 
occurs only in Scarabfpidce, Mehlonthidw, Lucanidce, Passalidw, Ptinidce, 
Bostrichidcp and part of Chrijsomelidce {e.g. Clythrinw). In the Dermes- 
tidcE, the body is clothed in long fine barbed setsc, usually aggregated 



CLASSIFICATION. '2^i 

behind into tufts. All aquatic laivu> coming into none of the above 
divisions are either DaKclllidd'. I'mnidce, HaUjtluld' m Chri/someUda! 
(part). In a number of families not included above, the apex of the 
abdomen is provided with prominent chitinised processes and the 
Mincal si'uinent is harder than the others. These include Rlnpin'rhlw, 




Fig. 137. -Antknn.k, 1 Cdkcii.ionui, ■_' Chkysomkliu, 
3 Cam'Hakiii, 4 Elatkkui, .') Ei'Ii.achnih, 6 Cl- 

CINDRLIU, 7 MEI.OLONTHII), )S HYl>RlieHII,Ili, 9 
LUCANID. 

TrngositidcF, Coh/diida', Mi/cclofhaijidw, Mclyrivw, Clerida', Melnndryidcf 
Pyrochroida', MordeUidce, Tenebrionidw (part), Cioidw, La(/rrida' and 
Elaterida (part). The remainder exhibit none of the above general 
characters. More detailed characters for each family are given below, 
but these are based less on Indian species than on European or 
American larvae. The number of larva- of Indian beetles actually 
known is very small. 

Pupation takes place openly (the pupa fixed at the tail), oi in a 
cocoon of mud, of anal excretion or of fibres, never of fine woven silk. The 
peculiar resting stage of the newly emerged imago, while not universal, 
is general enough in forms whose pupa^ are hidden as to be worth noting. 

Classification. — The beetles are divided into series upon characters 
based upon the antenna' and tarsus as follows : — 

LameUicornia. — Tarsi five-jointed : antenna> with apical joints 
expanded in leaf-like form and forming a club which can be opened and 
closed (figure 137, 7. 9). Four families. 

Adephaqa. — Tarsi five-jointed. Antennae simple. Nine families. 

PohjDiorpha. — Tarsi variable ; antennae usually clubbed or serrate. 
57 families. 



238 CULKOl'TKRA. 

Heteromern. — Anterior taisi with five, hind tarsi with four joints. 
15 families. 

Phytophofia. — Tarsi with apparently four joints, densely pubescent. 
3 families. 

Rhj/nchophnra. — Tarsi as in Phytophaga. head more or less prolong- 
ed into a rostrum. 4 families. 

In actual practice, it is, as a rule, easy to place a beetle in one of these 
series. The peculiar antenna? marks the Lamelhcornia instantly. The 
tarsi and simple antennae distinguish the Adephacja. Heteromera 
are distinct by the tarsi ; as Phytophaga and Rhi/nchophora have the same 
tarsi in most cases, the beginner will confuse some forms ; but the simple 
antenna' of the Phytophaga, and the usually clubbed and elbowed antennae, 
as well as the usually evident rostrum, of the Rhynchophora, clearly mark 
all the common species of each series likely to be met with. All other 
beetles, especially if with serrate or clavate antennae, are Polymorpha, 
a series that includes the old Serricorn and C'lavicorn groups, and in fact 
is an assemblage of all that are not clearly of one of the five distinct 
series. 

The classification of the species that fall into each series is by no 
means simple and no agreement will be reached until more is known of 
tropical forms. Especially is it difficult to fix the families and the 
student will find very diverse views expressed in various books. We treat 
Melolonthidae as a single family ; there is little reason why it should not 
be regarded as consisting of several families. Chrysomelidce are another 
large assemblage that could justly be regarded as at least 11 and more 
probably 15 families, as is done by some authors. We have pieferred 
to retain these as sub-families, but the student will have no difficulty in 
finding the equivalents of any families he may see discussed by wj-iters. 

When a particular specimen has been placed in its series, there may 
be more or less difficulty in deciding on its family. There should be no 
difficulty in the Lamellicorn, Adephagous, Phytophagous, or Rhyncho- 
phorous series, provided the characters mentioned are comjjared. For 
the other series, no keys or sufficient characters can be given. Except- 
ing the few larger families, very little is known of the smaller families, 
and while it is possible to give characters based on European or American 
species, these distinctions may not always apply to new and imdescribed 



CLASSIFICATION. 239 

Indian species, which alone the student is likely to find. We ('numerate 
the diajniostic characters of the families known iji India, with llie reser- 
vation that these diagnostic characters are not as sharply marked as in 
other orders and that, outside the larger families, the logical use of the.se 
characters in referring an obscure beetle to its family may lead the 
student astray : if a beetle is shown to belong to a small obscure family, the 
specimen should be compared with specimens or good figures of others of 
that family to verify the determination. In Coleoptera more than in all 
orders, it is verv difficult to ])lace s])cciine)is that evidently do not t)i'iong 
to the larger families, owing to our ignorance of the Indian rcjuesenta- 
tives of the smaller families. 

In no order is the nieie rudimentary soiling out of species into 
groups rendered so difficult as in this, not merely because of the com- 
])lexit3' of the order, but because of the want of agreement among those 
who studv this order. Had the general Ijody of Entomologists anv 
" business sense," a working scheme of classification to last, say for -^O 
years, would have been evolved and then the necessary and radical changes 
caused by further knowledge made at once: as it is. twoauthois disagree 
in a striking manner: they adopt fresh groupings arbitrarily and the 
student is fi-om the commencement bewildered with conflicting terms. 

For our purpose, a knowledge of the main lines to be adopted in the 
Fauna would have sufficed, but faihng this, we have adhered to the classi- 
fication given in Sharp's Insects, the standard in our work for the past, 
with a modification from Ganglbauer's views as presenting no radical 
changes and as possibly anticipating future \'iews. The earlier authors 
based the main divisions upon the antennal and tar.sal characters 
and it is only lately that authors have gone deeper into the matter 
and used both the wing venation and internal characters. This is, from 
the systematist's point of view, an advance, and those who wish to study 
the relationships of beetles will do well to consult the paper by Gangl- 
bauer (Munchener Koleopterologiscbe Zeitung. Vol.1): unfortunately 
such characters are useless in every-day work of classifying and arrang- 
ing specimens and we have been compelled to disregard this aspect in the 
endeavour to give characters which can actually be used in sorting out 
ordinary collections. The result is. that while nine-tenthsof a collector's 
captures will be readily sorted and placed, there will always remain a 



240 COLEOPTERA. 

proportion which cannot be so placed ; to those who wish to go more deeply 
into the subject, we recommend the voluminous literature ; to those who 
simply want to know where to place the specimen, we would suggest 
sending it to Pusa. For ordinary daily working purposes, almost every 
beetle can be placed at sight in a family at least ; to keep pace with changes 
in classification, to be able to place all beetles more or less accurately, 
one would have to drop all other work and become an expert in this one 
subject, a matter of many years of study. We have tried to give the 
essentials only of such a study. 

A complete list of families will be found at the commencement of 
the volume where we have placed important families in heavy type, and 
families not known to be represented in India in italics. We have not 
tabulated sub-families in this list as these divisions do not imply groups 
of insects so distinct in habits or structure that the student should 
take heed of them. 

Apart from the naturalists who collected in India or obtained speci- 
mens from this country ia the early part of last century, and whose work 
laid thi foundation of out knowledge of the common species, the work of 
a limited number of collectors in recent years requires notice. Thus, 
Father Cardon collected in Chota Nagpur and Kurseong (see Ann. Soo. 
Ent. Beige., 1890—1894); the collections of Messrs. T. R. Bell in Canara, 
of H. E. and H. L. Andrewes in the Nilgiris, Anamalais and other South 
Indian hill districts (loc. cit., 1895 — 1905), of Doherty in Manipur, Bur- 
mah, etc., the visit to India of Mons. Maindron (see Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 
1903 onwards) and the visit of Mons. Harmand to Darjeeling (Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France, 1903, p. 108) have borne fruit in description of new forms, in 
lists of existing known species and so on ; these collections, however, 
scarcely affect the real India (Mons. Maindron's \'isit alone excepted), 
since the insects collected were from hill localities like Darjeeling with its 
temperate climate and fauna ; tlie same may be said of Signor Fea's visit 
to Burmah in another sense (Ann. Mus. Genova, 1892 et seq.) and of the 
visits of Mr. Lewis, Mons. Simon and Dr. Horn to Ceylon. The student 
of the fauna of " British India" will owe a debt to these workers, but 
there have been scarcely any such workers in India proper. 

We have endeavoured to refer to most important papers or to give 
some clue to where the student may find literature ; but this literature 



I.A.MKLLICOKNIA. 241 

is practically wholly coiu-cnu'd with systematic work and descriptions of 
new species ; the student will look in vain for any biological work, of any 
kind almost, prior to the beginning of this century and it is yet to be 
done. There is an abundant held here for observers and, it is no exag- 
geration to say, that while thousands of forms have been examined, 
described, named, listed and put away in Museums, we have accurate 
data of the lives of not one in a thousand of these species. 

We have had, therefore, to confine ourselves hi these pages very large- 
ly to generalities, and we do this simply to guide the student and would- 
be observer in the direction he will probably have to go. Where we have 
accurate data, they are given iji such detail as is possible, which must 
of necessity be brief. 

Lamellicornia. 

The tnmi are five-joitUed, the antennw have the apical joints dilated at one 
side, so that a inore or less compact club can he formed by the approxi- 
mation of the lamellar expansion's. 

It is only in very rare cases that any confusion as to this well mark- 
ed division can arise and these beetles are readily distinguishable at sight. 
The number of species is large, nearly one-tenth of the known species of 
Indian beetles coming into this series. They are commonly divided into 
three families, Passalidce, Lucanidce snxd ScarabwidcE. the last divided 
into five sub-families. It is, however, better to distiaguish the Coprince 
as a separate family, and we have here adopted the arrangement into 
four families, retaining the name Scarabaidce for tlie Coprince. The 
arrangement is as follows : — 

I. Passalidce. — Antennal club imperfect. Elytra covering the 

pygidium. Labrum large and mobile. 

II. Lucanido'. — Antennal club imperfect. Elytra covering the 
abdomen. Labrum small and indistinct. 

III. ScarabceidcB. — Antennae fully clubbed. Elytra not covering 
the pygidium. 

1. Coprince (ScarabceidcB). — No abdominal spiracle visible out- 
side the elytra, all being on the connecting membranes of dor- 
sal and ventral plates, in one line. 
IIL - 16 



2i'2 COLEOPTRRA. 

IV. {Melolonthidce) 2. MeJoJonthince. — Three basal spiracles on 
connecting membranes, three apical slightly diverging and 
usuall}' one visible beyond the elytra. 
:$. Spiracles in two lines, three on connecting membranes, three 
visible outside the elytra, on ventral plates. 
(a) Rutelince. — Claws of tarsi of unequal size. 
(6) Dynastince. — Claws equal. Fore coxip sunk, not prom- 
inent. 
(c) CetonrincF. — Claws ec[ual. Fore coxae prominent. (Scu- 
tellum large). 
This arrangement is in accordance with the larval and imaginal 
habits as well as with the structure. The habits may be summarised 
as follows : — 

Passalidw. Ltiranidne. — Larvae feed in decaying wood. 
Srarabceidoe. — Larvae feed in dung. Imagines feed on dimg. 
Melolonthidce. — Larvae in soil feeding on the roots of plants, in 
decomposing vegetable matter, in manure heaps, in ants' nests. 
Imagines feed on leaves, or on flowers. 

In this group the larvae are all white, soft, curved in ventrally. 
and much wrinkled, with a brown head, no ocelli as a rule, three pairs of 
well-developed legs and usually a much developed apical abdominal seg- 
ment. This type of larva (.Scaraba'oid) is found also only in Ptinidce, 
and some case-bearing Chrysomelidce (Chjthrinw). 

Passalid^. 

Lamellicorn beetles in which the antennce, in repose, curl to bring 

the lamella' together and in which the elytra entirely cover 

the abdomen. Labrum large and mobile. 

These beetles are, as a rule, generally recognisable from the general 
form. They are brown or black insects, in length up to one inch, pro- 
thorax large, flattened and shiny, the elytra elongate, with ten lines of 
punctures, and entirely covering the abdomen. A few Indian species are 
cyhndrical. All are a shining brown or black, the dorsal surface glab- 
rous ; none are very small, most are of moderate to large size. The head 



LUCAXID.T-:. 



243 




Fig. ISS.- Basii.iams 

STOI.KZK.t:. 



is in sonu' species distinctly roughened niul kn(il)l)ed al)ove : the charac- 
teristic antenna' are folded back undei' the head or are extended in front : 
the large toothed mandibles meet just beyond 
tlie edge of tlie clypeus. The legs are strong, 
the fore tibiae broadened and suited to digging. 
the ])osterior legs more slender, the tibia- with 
long brown hairs. \ feature of these, as of 
other laniellicorji beetles which live in decaying 
vegetable matter, is the presence of abundant 
fine brown hair on the legs and lower surface of 
the body. 

The larviv of insects of this family are found 
in decapng wood in forests and are large fieshy 
insects, similar in form to other Scarabseid 
larva-, with the first pair of legs reduced in size 
and functioning as stridulating organs. The anal opening is transverse, 
the upper lip indented longitudinally. The imago lives also in decay- 
ing wood, under the bark of trees and among decaying vegetation. 
They are most abundant in forests and not found in the culti\'ated 
plains. A caustic fluid is secreted by some species, serving probably 
as a protection. They are almost wholly forest species and may be 
met with rarelv in moister cultivated areas of East and South India, 
not in the dry plains. 

Stoliczka remarks that Passalidce are met with only in parts of 
India with a Mala\-an fauna ; he lists 23 Indian species, from South India, 
Eastern Bengal. Burmah. etc. Basilianus is the commonest genus. (J. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal. XXII, p. 14».) 

LucANiD.E. — Stafi Beetles. 
The antennce do not curl, the club being indistinct : the eli/ira cover 

the abdomen, the labrum is small and indistinct. 
Beetles of large size in which the simplest distinguishing character 
is the large mandibles of the males, which project forward as two large 
and formidable jaws. These are. in the female, of moderate size and not 
conspicuous. Xone are small insects, the length varjang from 1^ inches 
to over four. The colouring is brown and black, as a rule, sombre and 
dull as in other beetles of similar habits. 



1244 COLKOPTKKA. 



These beetles are somewhat flattened, the head large, the antennix" 
moderately long ; in the commonest species the eyes are divided by a 




Fig. 139.— LUCANUS LCNIFEB, MALE. [I. M. N.] 

projecting ridge, producing a small upper and a large lower eye. The 
prothorax is large and smooth, the elytra is smooth and shining. The 
legs are long, the tibiae broadened, the tarsi long and conspicuous. 

The beetles live in decaying trees and the males fly at night. The 
fimction of the very large mandibles is not always apparent and it is 
not clear that they use them ; there is great variation in the degree of 
their development and intermediates from those resembling females to 
those with fully developed mandibles are found. (See page 189.) 



SCARAB.EID^. 



245 




The female lays her eggs in a decaying tree, the larva> living upon de- 
caying Vfgi'tahic matter. Tlie larva is a large fleshy insect, distinct 

from Passalid larva- by the 
i'i|iial development of three 
]>airs of legs and the long- 
itudinal anal slit, closed by 
two lateral lips. 

LucanidcB are widely 
spread and find their greatest 
development in the Eastern 
Himalayas and Assam, 
where a great number of 
species, often of large size, 
occur. They do not occur ui 
the plains and no species re- 
(juire mention. We figure Lu- 
raniis lunifer, Ho., one of the 
commonest in the Himalayas. Westwood figures a number of the Indian 
forms (Cab. Or. Entom., 1847). No species are of economic importance. 
Thomson (Ann. Soc. Ent. France. 1802, p. '-WI) lists 'My Indian spe- 
cies which are only a propoition of the known species. The principal 
genera are Lucaniis, Hexarthrius, Cladoijnathus and Dorcus. Parry 
catalogues the family in Transactions of the Entomological Society, 
London. 1S()4. p]). 1 — 113, listing 70 Indian species. Felsche published a 
later catalogue in 1898 on which Boileau's remarks should be also seen 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1898, p. 401), and since then Albers listed the 
Kurseong species (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgium, 190."}. p. 69). Altogether 
about 100 species are recorded ; some of these may prove to be forms 
of the same species, the great sexual differences haviiig led to the mul- 
tiplication of species founded on an insufficient number of specimens. 
ScARAB.BiD.^. — Dumj- Rollers. 
Anlennce with a knob of closely folded leaflets. Eli/tra not covering 
the pygidium. Spiracles in one line, on the connecting 
itienihranes and all covered hi/ tJw elytra. 
.V large gi'ou]) of small to large beetles, usually of sombre colours, 
'!ome few metallic blue or i;it'cii. Tlic body is roimd. thickset, the head 



246 



COLEOPl'ERA. 




141.— HELIOOOPRIS BUC'EPHALUS, 
MALE. [F. M. H.l 



projecting forward as a flat plate, beneath which are the mouth-parts. 
The prothorax often ha.s projections and tlie head a process or spine, or a 
number of teeth on the anterior 
edge. The hard rough elytra 
cover the abdomen completely, 
with the exception of the 
pygidium. The legs are large 
and powerful, the tibiae broad- 
ened and spined at the apical 
half, the tarsi slender. In the 
larger species the fore tarsi are 
commonly absent. The robust 
spherical body, the large broad- 
ened legs, the platelike head, 
the spines or projections on 
head and prothorax aie extremely characteristic, and the bodily 
structure is specially modified in connection with the peculiar habits. 

Throughout this large sub-family the habits are, so far as known, 
fairly uniform. The beetles collect in dung, feeding ujjon it and making 
it into balls which they loll over the surface of the ground and take into 
the soil, where they either feed upon it or use it as food for their young, 
dividing it into portiono in each of which an egg is laid, and which the 
larva inhabits and gradually eats. The flat head is used as a shovel in 
these operations, digging out the food, shaping it and consolidating it ; 
the long legs assist the beetles in rolling these pellets over the gi'ound and 
the digging forelegs aid in excavating or enlarging holes in the ground. 
In the dry hot weather, dung of cattle attracts great numbers of these 
beetles and the spot becomes lively almost at once with these active and 
energetic insects. It is a common sight to see beetles rolling these pel- 
lets, usually larger than themselves, rapidly along the soil and their 
antics are usually very grotesque. All do not roll dung, some (the small- 
er species) making a tunnel below the mass of dung and carrying down 
what they require. The end of the tunnel is filled with dung fairly 
closely packed : the beetles either feed upon it, remaining over it and 
devouring it while a long mass of excrement is depoisited, or they lay an 
egg in it, the white footless grub feeding in the mass, April to Jime 
seems to be the period of greatest activity of the beetles, but the details 



SOARAB^ID^E. 247 

of the life-history of few Ijidian species liave been observed, and many 
forms fly in the rains. Elsewhere careful observatitms have been made 
and the extremely interesting accounts of M. F'abre should he read by 
every student. (There is an Enj^lish translation of M. Kabres first 
volume entitled "Insect Life ;"" the original volumes are in French, under 
the title " Souvenirs Entoniologi([ues "). Major Popham Young sent 
a large ball found eight feet below the surface of the soil in Patiala when 
excavations were being made for a house, which was evidently the ball 
containing the larva of a large C'opride. Sykes gives an account of the 
finding of the immense balls made by Hclioropris midas in Poona in the 
soil. One ball remained thirteen months before the imago emerged, 
another sixteen months. During this time the Insect was in the larval 
and pupal stage, and the life-history would occupy probably two years. 
(Trans. Ent. Soc, London, Vol. 1, j). IH:i").) A ievf [Onthophiujus) attack 
decaying animal matt«r and these are the little beetles which so prompt- 
ly remove the larger dead insects ; the disappearance of dead locusts is 
marvellously quick, and the powers of smell of these beetles must be 
very acute to bring them so quickly to the scene. A few are found in de- 
cayed trees. The larva- are never seen and live below ground. 

The members of this family exercise a very important function in 
the economy of nature ; not only do they cleanse the surface of the earth 
of the excrementitious matter deposited on it. but they carry into the 
soil quantities of this valuable manure that would otherwise become des- 
sicatedon the surface and with the first heavy fall of rain, would be wash- 
ed away and carried down in the streams and rivers to the sea. A very 
great quantity of manurial matter is probably rendered available in the 
soil by the activities of these insects, and though it is not possible to 
definitely estimate the effect of their work, it is certainly a very consid- 
erable one. Species have been imported to the Hawaiian Islands in 
the hope that, by destroying the droppings of cattle quickly, they may 
reduce the numbers of the HornHy iHcpmatohin .serratn) which breeds 
there. 

Sound is produced in a variety of ways, by friction of two parts of 
the body. In Bolboceras, the male has a corrugated expansion of the 
lower surface of the head, and by moving his head up and do\vn, he 
rubs it against the edge of the pronotum. producing a squeaking noise 



248 COLEOPTERA 

In Trox the abdomen rubs against a raised vein in the elytra. In Helio- 
coprts hacephalm, sound is produced by a rotation of the hind coxa, the 
posterior and internal edge rubbing against the sharp edge of the socket 
and producing a curious ' ' wheezing ' ' noise. 

This large family may be divided into seven sub-families as 
follows : — 

I. Antennae 9 or 10 joints : — 

A. Posterior legs with one spur. 1. ScarabaeitUB 

(Coprinw.) 
a. Posterior legs dilated gradually. Scarahaeini 

(Ateiicliini.) 
h. Posterior legs dilated suddenly. Coprini. 

B. Posterior legs with two spurs. 

a. Metathoracic parapleura; simple. 

Antenna' 9 joints. 2. AphodiinoB. 

Antenna; 10 joints. 3. Orphninw. 

b. Metathoracic parapleura- appendicu- 

late. 4. HijbosorincB. 

II. Antenna' 11 jointed. 5. Geotrupinw. 

III. Abdomen with five ventral segments. 0. TroqincD. 

IV. Tarsi very long. 7. Glaphyrince. 
ScarabaeincE. — Four large genera are included in the Scarahaeini 

(Ateuchinw) with over 30 Indian species. Scarahai'iis (Ateuchus) includes 
some of the larger European forms, and but few Indian. S. gnngeticus 
Redt. is the common plains species. Sisi/phus and Gi/mnopleunis include 
the common small beetles with long legs foimd at dung in the plains. 
S. longipes, OUv., is one of the more abundant species, a small black in- 
sect common on roads in April; it makes balls of dung about twice its 
own size ; usually two are found at one ball, rolling it along the soil, and 
they have been seen to take a ball over a hundred yards. Gymnopleurus 
miliaris, Fabr., is also common ; it is dull black with shiny black spots 
on the elytra and thorax. Gi)mnopleurus cyaneus, Fabr., is the metalhc 
blue species that may constantly be observed rolhng dung balls. When 
a ball is made several assist m I'olling it, apparently iji the hope of se- 
curing it ; the stronger individual appears to be successful in the end, 



SCARAB.t:iI).K. 



249 



roUiiiji the ball U) a spot wliere the soil is loose and then, by digging the 
earth away below it, burying it to a considerable depth. Cacrobiiit: in- 
cludes five speeies, one occurring in the plains and of wliich nothing is 
known. Coptorhina and C(u-cophiluK occur in the lulls. 

Copn'ni.— The majority of Indian species are included in this divi- 
sion, over 100 species occurring in India proper. (Uitharsius molossus 
Liim., C. saijax, Quens., and ('. sabaeus, Fabr., are common, moderately 
large black ijisects that fly at night and come freely to lights in the lains. 
Copris is represented by C repcrtus, Wlk., which flies in the hot weather 
and at the first rain. Heliocopris biHTpInihis, Fabr., and H. ijiijas, L. 
(midas F.) are the giants of the family, large thickset beetles with very 
poweiful legs and greatly chitinised prothorax. Onitis is well represent- 
ed, moderate-sized beetles, of an olivaceous brown tint, without the exu- 
berance of horns and tubercles of the previous geneia. (hUhoplKKiiis 
comprises a very large number of usually small forms with very varied 
developments of horns and tubercles in the males. They are common 
in the dry hot weather and while some come to dung, others feed on dead 
insects; the abundant locusts that died after egg-laying at Igatpuri in June 





Fig. 14'2.— OXTHilPHAIU.S LONCKOK.NIS : LAKVA, Ei;(; IX BALL, IMAl 



250 COLEOPTERA. 

1904, were fed on by OH//to/>/tO(/MA(/rayw, Wlk., and the bodies very quick- 
ly destroyed. Onthophayus longicornis, Deyr., has been reared fro m larvap 
found in balls buried to a depth of three to five inches below the surface 
immediately under cowdung. Each ball is oval, the long axis about twice 
the short, about | inch long. This ball is hollow, and the single white 
egg is fixed inside. The larva feeds on the ball, leaving the coarser outer 
shell and then pupates within. The larval life lasts for 21 days and the 
total life from egg to imago is, in May and June, about 5 weeks. At 
other seasons these beetles are found in the soil. Many of our commonest 
plains species are undescribed and no observations appear to have been 
made on their habits. Over 60 species are recorded and many remain 
to be described., Oniticellus cinctus, Fabr.,a black species with yellow 
fasciee, and 0. paUipes, F., a dull brown species, are abundant in tlie 
plains ; the latter has been reared from eggs found in dung-balls buried 
three inches imderground. The eggs a le attached each to one end of the 
cavity in an oval ball ; the larva has the first few segments of the abdo- 
men much drawn out and enlarged, apparently for the reception of the 
alimentary canal which is more than double the length of the body and 
bent back upon itself more than once, being also very capacious and 
filled with food. In habits and appearance it differs little from that of 
Onthophmjus lomjicornis described above. The larval and pupal life 
together occupy about 19 days. 

Drepanocerus is represented by the tiny D. setosiis,Wied., common 
in cowdung. 

Aphodiinw. — These beetles feed in dung, the larvae being found in 
the dung-mass. They are small, brown or black species, cylindrical in 
form and readily confused with the Carabids of the Scaritine division. 
ApJiodius is the principal genus, with over twenty Indian species record- 
ed ; they are extremely abundant in the rains coming to light in great 
numbers. Aphodius has been reared from larvae found in a dung ball 
below ground. Three larva? inhabit one mass, the eggs they hatch from 
being laid in different parts of the ball. The larvae are of the typical 
form, white, wrinkled and bent, with well developed legs. They pupate in 
round black cocoons, apparently made of excrement, emergence taking 
place partly by biting through the cocoon, partly by bursting it. Larval 
and pupal life together occupy about sixteen days in July- August. 



8CARAB.EID.T':. 



251 



Rhysscmus includes very small species, leseinhliug Scolytids; 
Rlu/ssemHs ijermanus, Linn., is the common species in Bengal and Hehar. 
and has been seen Hying in very great numbers in warm still evenings in 
March. (7m/o/)/.s7//c.v is recorded by Wassmann from nests of Tnmcs 
obesii^ in India and may be obtaimd by digging into the large central 
nests and fungus cluiuibcrs. 

(hplnuHw.— Orphmis and Orhodaeus are Indian, with several 
species. Orphnus picinus. Westd., is common in the Himalayas, where it 
makes tunnels in the soil below masses of cowdung, carrying the dung 
down to fill the ends of the tunnels, its larva^ being found in the dung- 
mass. 

Hi/hosoriiKf. Represented by Hi/hosunis oricnialis, Westd., and 
Phwochrous indicus, Westw., the latter not ujicommon in the plains. It 
is a flatter insect, with the ap])earance almost of a Tenebrionid. 



Geotrupina. — These are nocturnal insects, found abundantly in the 
rains and coming freely to light. Their habits appear to be practically 
unknown in India ; Boucomont says of the group in general that they dig 
long vertical tunnels in the soil where they remain by day, and where 
their larvae live ; the beetles feed on dung and fly at night in search of it. 
Lethrus and its allies are remarkable for living in couples in burrows and 
feeding on the shoots of plants, but none are recorded as Indian. 
Boucomont has listed the species (Gen. Ins. 1902), mentioning as Indian 
Geotrupes (9), Bolboceras {2()), Atliyreus 
(2), Cemtopfif/us (1). B. qnadridens, F., 
and /i. siihglohosiis, Westw., are oui' com- 
mon forms. 

T)-o<iince. — Four species of Trox occur, 
(Harold Col. Hefte, IX, p. 1), the common 
plains forms being Trox indicus, Hbst., 
T. omacanthus, Har., both quite common. 
They feed on hard dry excrement, which 
appears to be their normal food, with small 
Fig. 143.— Tkox indicus. carcases and dead insects. 





252 coleopteka. 

Melolonthio.e. 

Antenna' with a knob of closeh/ folded leaflets. Elytra not coverinq 
the pyyidium. One or three spiracles visible bei/ond the eli/tra. 
This very large family includes the familiar cockchafeis, modeiate- 
ly large thickset beetles, the head small, thepiothorax large and round- 
ed, the abdomen, with the elytra, hard, 
round and robust. The forelegs are com- 
monly broadened and fitted for digging 
in the soil. The posterior legs are strong, 
often well spined. Wings are present and 
the beetles fly well. The trachea? contain 
dilations which are inflated before flight, 
thus increasing the volume and reducing the 
specific gravity of the insect as a whole. j,,.^_ i44.-thu'm..stop,eus 
Stridulation of one hard part of the body fullcs, x i. 

against another is frequent, a variety of 

sounds being produced. Sexual distinctions are well marked in some 
by prominent secondary characters. The larvae are fleshy soft grubs, 
the body wrinkled and curved in an arc ; the head is large, the apical 
abdominal segment very much developed. Legs are present but are 
little used. The four sub-families are distinct: their characters are 
enumerated above (page 24'2). 

Melolonthin^. — Cockchafers. Moderate-sized beetles, with robust 
bodies, the elytra covering all but one spiracle, the legs only slightly 
broadened and without horns or spines on head and prothorax. These 
are mostly dull-coloured insects, brown predominating in the coloura- 
tion, and they vary in length from a quarter of an inch upwards. The 
antennae are short, with the knob composed of one more joint in the 
male than in the female, the leaflets also longer in the males ; the 
prothorax is small, the elytra generally smooth and fitting tightly to 
the abdomen. The legs are moderately long, fitted for walking and to 
a less degree for digging. 

The life-histoiy of no Indian species is recorded in any detail. Gene- 
rally speaking, the larva' live in the soil, feeding upon the roots of plants. 
They are fleshy dingy-white in colour, the head brown, the body curved 
in an arch and the apical segment large and smooth. There ai'e many 



MELOLONTHIN.*;. 253 

folds in tlu' skin and tliiee pairs of slioit jointt'd legs. Tlie inontli-parts 
are of the usual mandibulate type and the food is principally loots and 
underground plant tissues. The larva moves actively in soil, but is com- 
paratively helpless on the surface, the curved body interfering with loco- 
motion. When full-grown it makes a mud cell and transforms to a 
pupa in the soil. The length of the life-history is not known and may 
occupy one, two or three years as it does elsewhere though there is at 
present no reason to believe it occu])ies longer than one year. The imago 
Hies by night and comes to light. The forewings are not moved in flight 
but are held rigidly and a])paiently serve for a paracluite and as direct- 
ors of flight. The food consists of vegetable matter, leaves and flowers 
being eaten at night, the beetles hiding by day. Few are active by day. 
but some may lie found clinging motionless to grass stems. 

The destructive species are so on account either of the destruction 
to roots by the larva, or the destruction to leaves or floral orgajis by the 
imago. In Europe immense numbers of Mclohntha vulgaris constitute 
a very formidable pest in both stages and immense multitudes of these 
insects occur. Nothing of this land has yet been observed in India, and, 
though species are plentiful, the enormous multiplication of any one 
species does not seem to take place and the place of the Melolontha in 
Europe is here taken by the Rutelid Anovtala. The grubs of Melolonth- 
idce are the prey of ScoUidcp which seek them out and lay their eggs upon 
them, after they have been parasitised by stinging. 

The number of species is very large and no complete list of Indian 
species exists. A number were described and listed by Brenske ii» 
Indian Museum Notes. The classification of such large numbers of insects 
is a very difficult matter and the sub-family as a whole is not studied to 
the extent it deserves. The identification of Indian forms is possible 
only by systematists with large refeience collections and libraries at hand 
and cannot be undertaken at present. The more common species of the 
plains are figured (I.M.N.) and we can only advise collectors to collect 
patiently, to sort out their specimens into species under numbers and 
hope to get them identified as occasion may offer. The species of the 
Indian Museum were listed by Barlow (Indian Mus. Notes, IV, p. 234). 
The Hoplini include only Hoplia and Ectinolwplia with less than twenty 
species mostly hill forms. The Sericini have been monographed by 
Brenske (Die Serica-Arten der Erde) with 10.3 Indian species. Serica 



254 COLEOPTERA. 

Iwjuhris, Brsk., is a moderate-sized black species found commonly at light 
in the plains. S. indica, Blanch, has been reared from larva^ feeding on 
the roots of cane in Behar and is one of the most common species. 
Macrodactilini include one sjjecies, Dejeania alsiosia, Bl., a moderate-sized 
brown pubescent species which is found in the. plains in June. The 
Melolonthini include over 1 (10 species, chiefly in the genera Apogonia, Schi- 
zonycha, Lepidiota, Hohtrkha (Lachnostema), Bramina, Hoplosternus 
and Melohntha. They are tlie larger cockchafers of the plains, most 
abundant in the moister areas. Apogonin carinata, Brsk., is a shiny black 
species of moderate size which is found passing the winter under the bark 
of trees. A. proxima, Wat., is extremely like it and is found flying in 
June. A. uniformis, BL, is also common, a smaller brown species which 
comes freely to light during the rains. Schizonycha xanthodero, Bl., is a 
larger species, which flies during March and April. Lepidiota includes 
the very large species found in forest localities as a rule ; one species 
L. rugosipennis, Bl., is found in the plains, though rarely. 

Rutehnte. — Lamellicorn beetles, with three spiracles on the mem- 
brane between the dorsal and ventral plates, three on the ventral 
plates and visible, with the claws of the tarsi of unequal size. These 
are moderate-sized insects, in general form closely similar to the 
Melolonthids. Many are brightly coloured, blues, greens and browns 
predominating, and many are sombre. 

The life-history of one species is kno\vn, this being the common 
cockchafer of the plains, Anomala varians, Oliv. The stages are fully 
illustiated in Plate XTV and the details of the Ufe-history are given in 
full elsewhere. (Mem. Agri. Dept. India, Vol. 11.) The life-history occu- 
pies one year ; eggs are laid in the soil in the early rains, which increase 
in size and weight after laying. The larva lives in the soil eating the roots 
of rice, bajra and other cereals. It rests in the soil from .September, 
pupates in March, April or May. and the imago emerges, after about 
ten days. 

A large number of species occur in India, one subdivision, the Ano- 
malides, being distributed through the tropics, another, the Adoretides, 
abundant in India and Africa alone. Anomala with over fifty species, 
Popilia with thirty and Mimelu with twenty-seven are included in the 
first; Adoretus with twenty-four species in the second. To a greater 



PLATE XIV.--ANOMik.LA Varians. 
The Cockchafer. 

Fig. 1 . Egg when laid. 

2. „ just before hatching. 

3. Larva, dorsal view. 

4. „ lateral „ 

5. Pupa, dorsal view, in the last larval exuvium. 

6. ,, ventral view. 

7. ,, lateral ,, 

8. Imago. 







\^ 



^I/ 





DYNASTIN.E. 



255 



oxteut ovon than other grnujis, tliei=;e are hill forest insects, very few 
oecurriii" in the plains pro])ei'. Annmnht p/illida, V., and A. vnrianti. 
Oliv.. are common in the plaijis, both blown sjieeies like cockchafers. 
A noiiiah viridis,¥ ., is the common green RulclidUnmd (uitside the hills, 
the remainder being mainly hill and forest species. Anonuda dorsnUs 
Fabr., was reported from tlie Victoria (iarden, Bombay, as destructive 
toCrinum latifoUtDn (Indian Mus. Notes, Vol. V, p. 130). Pseudo- 
ttim/hala transversa. Burm., is the small black species which comes up 
from the soil in myriads in May in the Khasi Hills and destroys floweis. 
Adoreta cardnni. Br., is recorded as destructive to rose bushes and 
cultivated plants in Calcutta (Indian Mus. Notes. Vol. IV. ]>. 1. ")()). 



DYNASTIN.E. 

These insects have the characters of the Riilclini. but are distinct in 
the labrum, which is not visilile from above in this sub-division, and in 

the equal tarsal claws. They 
are usuallj' large insects, the 
males with a horn on the head, 
and a tubercle or projection of 
some nature on the prothorax. 
The colours are usually dull, 
lack and brown predominat- 
ing ; the body is usually mas- 
sive and thick, and the giants 
of tlie insect world are here in- 
cluded. The males stridulate 
by moving the end of the ab- 
domen in and out, by which 
the apical edge of the elytra 
lubs against a file on the up- 
per surface of the abdomen. 
The larvije are found in old 
trees, in decomposing vege- 
table matter and in soil rich iii humus among plant roots. The pupa 
is enclosed in a hard case and the metamorphosis is believed to be 
long. 




U.'>.— Oryctes rhinoceros mai.k. 



25ti 



COI.EOl'TEKA. 



India, America and Africa contain the majority of species, the num- 
ber of Indian species not being large, probably less than (50 in all. Oryctes 
rhinoceros, Linn., is one plains species, found throughout the cultivated 
plains where toddy, cocoanut or other palms are grown. The beetle 
flies by night and eats into the soft tissues of the apex of the growing 
palm; in eating through the folded developing leaves it makes tuimels 
which are shown bj' ragged holes in the leaves when they open. Fre- 
(|uently the growing bud of the palm dies, growth is stopped and the whole 
palm withers. The insect is known by a variety of names in most parts 
of India where its ravages are known : the toddy-drawers know it and 
often know that its grub can be found in a heap of decaying vegetation or 
in a decaj^ing tree. These larvae are fat soft grubs, with a much wrin- 
kled body, and as the tissues inside move, the whole suggests a well stuffed 
soft pillow in which is a small stiuggling animal. Phi/Uoi/tiathus di/onisius, 
F., is the only other common Di/nastid. The life-history of this has been 
worked out from specimens sent 
in by A. M.T. Jackson, Esquire, 
I.C.S., as destroying rice in Bel- 
gaum. It is fully illustrated in 
Plate XV and has been fully 
described elsewhere (Mem. Agric. 
Dept., India, Entom., Vol. II). 
Shortly, the eggs are laid in 
soil in the commencement of the 
lains (June-July), the larva^ are ^^'^- Ha-ORvcrEs rhi.n'ocrr..s, lakva. 
mature by September and pupate, the imago emerges in October and 
remains in the soil until May, when it comes out. The larvae behave 
like typical cockchafer giubs, feeding on the roots of plants. 




Cetoniin.«. 
Moderate-sized insects, often of brilliant metallic colouring; the 
form of the body is slightly flatter than in the Melolontliida' and the scu- 
tellum is often large. The males are rarely distinguished by prominent 
characters, such as hoins, and the two sexes are closely similar in the 
common species. The colouring is very striking, metallic green in some, 
])rown with varied yellow markings in others ; and Ln conformity with 
this, many are diurnal species which are seen on flowers. The life-history 



PLATE XV.— Phyllognathus Dioxysids. 
The Rice Cockchafer. 



1. 


Egg, wheu laid and just before hatching 


2 


Young larva, dorsal aspect. 


3. 


,, ,, lateral ,, 


i. 


Adult „ dorsal ,, 


5, 


,, ,, lateral ,, 


6. 


Pupa, ventral aspect. 


7. 


,, dorsal „ 


8. 


,, lateral ,, 


0. 


Imago, female, dorsal aspect. 


10. 


,, male, lateral 



CETONIIN.-E. 



257 




U7.— Thau.mastoi'ieus 

I'lILFATS, X 2. 



is practically unknown in India ; the larva- are in general similar to those 
of other Mehlontliid beetles, and live upon decaying vegetable matter 

or roots, or in ants' nests. The 
beetles are commonly diurnal, flying 
actively close to the soil under the 
trees of forests. Tliey are often to 
be seen in abundance on a fine day 
in the rains in suitable localities. 

There are a lai'ge number of spe- 
cies in India and throughout the tro- 
pics. They are distributed chiefly 
in forest areas but extend into the 
plains and form part of the general 
plains fauna. Janson (Tr. Ent. 
Soc, London, 1!)()1, p. 179), lists the 
Cetoniids collected by Andrewes and 
Bell in the Bombay Presidency: 
twenty-seven species are enumera- 
ted, of which twenty are confined 
to South India, four are found also in North India, and three widely 
spread outside India. The volume in the Fauna of India (now in the 
press) may be consulted. Nearly 200 species are described from Ijidia, 
exclusive of Ceylon. Four sub-families are recognised : — The Euchirini 
with Eurhirus. an anomalous insect confined to the Himalayas; the 
Cetoniini, including the majority of the species, the Valgini with less 
than ten species and the Trichiini, with a small number of species 
of Trichius. Both sexes of Eucheirus macleayi, Ho., are figured by 
Westwood (Cabinet of Oriental Entomology). The enormously long 
curved forelegs of the male are the most striking feature of this insect, 
which is found in Assam and the Eastern Himalayas only. 

Naricius opulus, Dup, is a metallic green species in which the head 
is produced into two porrect horn-like processes. In the brown Dicra- 
nocephalus lanllic/iii. Ho., this process is branched, curved and like a 
stag's antlers. Rhomhorrhina includes the large metallic species com- 
mon in and near forests. R. (Torynorrhina) opalina, Ho., has the head 
produced in a flat plate. Heterorrhina amcena, Ho., is a delicate yellow- 
green insect with lines of black punctures on the elytra, found rarely in 

IIL ]7 



258 COLEOPTERA. 

grass in the plains. Clinteria includes several green, brown or black 
species marked vividly in white or orange spots. C. spilota. Ho., is the 
variable species so abundant on grass in the hills. Thaumastopoeus 
pullus, Billt., is a large shiny black insect found in Behar. In this spe- 
cies the prominent mesosternal piocess which projects forward between 
the fore coxae towards the mouth is conspicuously shown. Macronota 
is well presented in South India by species with vivid yellow lines 
on the pronotuni, elytra and abdomen ; the elytra taper a little and the 
abdomen projects conspicuously at the sides. Glyci/pJiana albopuwtata, 
F., and G. versicolor, Y., are found in the plains, abundantly near forests. 
Oxtjcetonia albopunctata, ¥., is the brown species found sometimes in 
abundance at the flowers of cereals, with the green Chiloloba acutawied. 
In the Central Provinces both these species have been destructive, feed- 
ing on the anthers and stigma of juar, rice and millets. The latter is a 
beautiful pure green insect, with very marked golden pubescence. Pro- 
twtia albofiutta, Vig., is a conspicuous deep blue insect with vivid white 
spots, found throughout India. The pupa? have been found at the roots 
of trees, in cases composed of pellets of mud or excrement outside, 
smoothed mud or excrement within. Anthracophora atroniaculata, 
F., is the large dingy black and white species found widespread 
over India. 

Collecting. — Every possible member of these important families 
should be collected ; it is unnecessary to pin at once, as beetles keep 
well in clean sawdust, free of dust, with enough naphthaline to prevent 
mould. For collecting there are two methods, the net or fingers by 
day, the lamp trap by night. It cannot be too strongly insisted 
that since these insects emerge often only once a year, dates of capture 
are of extreme importance. Beetles are pinned through the right wing 
case ; I have not found it necessar}' to remove the soft parts, but it is 
advisable to soak the dried insects in benzene to remove grease. Larger 
ones must be very carefully dried. ScarabciE ids are best got in the hot 
weather at their food and in this group careful observation and study 
of habits is required. Rearing is possible if the dung balls are 
obtainable. Melolonthids can be reared in earth if given roots enough 
and carefully tended. They thrive in soil in which plants are grown, 
e.(j., rice and can then live and feed under normal conditions. 



AnEl'HAOA. 



259 



ADEPHAGA. 

This seiies is by ({anglbaucr aiul otlieis separated from all otiier 
Coleoptera on account of the wing- venation, the details of tlie internal 
anatomy, and the fact that the larva has two-jointed tarsi. It includes 
ten families of wliieh six are conmiojilv found and slinuld be familial'. 



the field from their gener; 



('iciNDKLii).E. — Tiijer Beetles, 
The rli/peiis exlemls Internlh/ in front of the insertion of the antenna;. 
The mdxiUw terminate in an artieulnted hook. 
With few e.\cei)ti()ns, these beetles are gejierally recognizable, in 
form, which is distinct from that of their 
allies, the Carahidrr. They aie often 
brightly coloured, green, brown or 
black with spots or bands of white 
being most common. The majority 
are from one-half to an inch long, few 
under or over tliese limits. The 
head is short and thickset, in Collyris 
(Plate XVI, Fig 11), constricted be- 
hind the eye into a neck ; the eyes 
are prominent, the antennae moder- 
ately long. Long curved mandibles 
project in front of the head, the 
maxilla^ and labium being conspicu- 
ous, the whole mouth-parts evidently 
Fig. l48.-Ci(iNi)ELA sKXPUNOTATA. of the predaccous type, formed for 
rapidly seizing and firmly clasping 
the insects they feed upon. The prothorax is large and cylindrical, 
the elytra usually smooth or only finely pitted. There are many 
wingless species, and some are very distinctly pubescent. The legs are 
long, slender, finely spined and formed for rapid running. The sexes 
are alike, the three basal segments of the male tarsi often elongated, 
while the males show six, the female seven visible ventral segments. 

The life-history is believed to be uniform hroughout the group, and 
larvse that can be leferred with certainty to this family have been found 
in India ; these larva' are found in vertical Inirrows in the wet sand or 





260 COLEOPTERA. 

mud near rivers ; apparently they require wet material which admits of 

the formation of a burrow, but their choice of locality may be determined 

by their prey ; the burrow extends 

vertically from the surface and the 

larva can move up and down by 

means of the legs and a dorsal humj) 

or projection ; the head is flat, used 

to carry up the soil when excavating, 

and the very long jaws are turned 

backwards and upwards, so that 

when the flat head is blocking the 

upper end of the tunnel, the jaws 

have free play above and are in a yj^ i49._cieiNDRLA iarva, x 2 

position to seize any unwary insect 

that alights or walks within reach. The length of the life-history has 

not been ascertained, but as each species appears to emerge in the imago 

form for a definite period in the year, it is probable that the Hfe-history 

occupies one year or multiples of one year ; the imago lives for several 

weeks. The student should read the life- history of Cicindela cani'pestris. 

an English insect, which occupies three years (Proc. Ent. Soc, London, 

1903, p. XV). R. Shelford figures the curious larva of CoUyris emanji- 

natus, Deg. from Java, which lives in burrows in coffee stems, feeding on 

the insects that go past. The larva has on the fifth abdominal segment 

six hooks, curved forwards, on a protuberance. A similar larva was 

found in f'hina (Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1907, p. 83). 

The majority of these beetles appear in the rainy months, some 
at the beginning, some later. Our common species are diurnal in habit, 
though some are known to be nocturnal. They are among the most 
active of insects, flying for short distances with great rapidity and also 
running quickly. So fai- as known all are predaceous on other insects, 
though their exact economic value is difficult to ascertain. Maindron 
records that Derocrania lom/esulcata, Mon., feeds on Silis (Drilina^), 
and such records of food are noticeable for their rarity. The majority 
are found in damp places, in rice fields or thick vegetation, on river 
banks, on the seashore ; some are found only on trees in forest localities. 
Some are known to emit scents, not of an unpleasant character, but 



ciciNDKijn.T':. 261 

which probably sorvc a dofonsive ])ur])()SL' in association with the warn- 
ing colouration. 

Till' family is not a largo one ajid tJu' majority of the species arc 
referred to the genus Cicindcla. Atkinson's Catalogue (Asiat. Soc, 
Bengal. LIX. 18i)0), lists lilt Indian species, fVcmrfe/a (74), Proni/.isn 
(I), Mef/ahmmn (2), Dromicidia (1), Jansenia ('2). Therntcs (I), Tricon- 
di/la (5), CoUi/ris {:V2), Tetrnchn (1). Maindron has added others (Ann. 
Soc. Ent.. France, jSlV.i, p. :\~iS)) ; Bates described Lewis' Ceylon forms 
(Ann. Nat. Hist., \'l, Kl. pp. (iS, U:5, li)9). A revision of Colli/ris 
will be found in .\jui. Soc. Ent., France, 1S()4, page 483. 

Horn has described others (De. Ent. Zcitsclir.), Cicindela (17), 
CoUijrisiW), Tricond!/la(i), Therates (3), Heplodonta (2), NcocoUnris (4), 
Calochroa (4), Euryoda (1), Derocania (1), Prothysa (1), are included in 
these later papers. Horn is now monographing the family in (ienera 
Insectorum. Of these less than 20 Cicindela and one Colli/ris 
(C. diitincla C'hd.). occur in tropical India generally. Cicindela sex- 
functnta, Linn., is a striking species, found in the rice fields where it 
preys on the rice bug, Leplocorisa varicomis. It appears in August and 
September. C. (jmnimophora, Chd. (Plate XVI, Fig. 12), is abundant 
in the rains in Behar, the commonest of the small species and very active 
on wet ground. C. i-lineata, F., is a conspicuous insect with four stripes 
of yellow on the elytra, found abundantly on the seashore of Western 
India ; in May, it feeds on the Hahhates t/erinanus so abundantly thrown 
up on the beach in the strong South- West wind and is a very conspi- 
cuous insect. Cicindela S-notata, Wied., is common on the banks of 
rivers in the plains, a very gaudily coloured and noticeable species. 
C. 20-(iuttat(i, Hbst., with ten yellow spots on each elytron is abundant 
in rice fields with C. sexpunctata, Linn. 

Collijris includes mainly metallic blue tree-haunting species which 
are difficult to distinguish ; nearly all are forest sj)ecies, some living on 
trees and bushes in the plains. Therates, like Collijris, has a long neck 
but is apterous, and includes robuster brown insects, found also in 
forests. The Cicindelidw are often of curiously limited distributioji 
with regard to individual species ; the common forms of one part of 
India are limited to distinct areas and there appear to be few species 
really widely spread even over the plains. A numbtu- of our subtropical 



262 COLEOPTERA. 

species are widespread outside India, and of the species recorded from 
Sind, many are probably not Indian at all. 

Collectinij. — These beetles cannot be caught without a good net 
and should always be killed at once or kept apart till they can be killed. 
Their larv* can be found if looked for, but we have not heard of any 
being reared in confinement. The greatest desideratum is close obser- 
vation of the food of both larva> and adults as the actual species they 
prey on is known in very few instances and until this is known their eco- 
nomic value must be doubtful. They will be found only in moist soil, 
and are abundant in lands where silt is deposited after flood. 

C.\RABiD.E. — Predaceous Ground Beetles. 

Antenncc fHifoDii : the tarsi all five-jointed, clijpeus not extending 

laterally in front of base of antenna, maxillw not hooked. 

These beetles are widely distinguished from all others ; the only 
family with which they are likely to be confused being the Cicindelidce 
which have the lateral extension of the clypeus in front of the antenna^. 
The two families are very closely connected and authorities are not un- 
animous as to their separation. The beetles vary in size from small to 
moderately large, the smallest one-quarter of an inch long, the largest 
nearly one inch. The colouring is varied, often black or brown, some- 
times with bright patches of yellow, and it is often strikingly warning. 
[Anthia sexguttata). As a whole it is the characteristic sombre dark 
colouring of ground insects, similar to that of Tenehrionidce, Blattidce, 
ForficulidcE, etc. The body is usually oval, broader than in Cicindelidce 
and more flattened. The antenn* are filiform, rarely moniliform, not 
elbowed and projecting conspicuously in front of the head. The com- 
pound eyes are large, the mouth-parts conspicuous and long, the biting 
predaceous type with long curved mandibles. The prothorax is large, 
the elytra fitting tightly to the body, often with rows of pits or with 
lines. The body is, as in nearly all Coleoptera, enclosed in hard well- 
fitting chitinous plates, whose morphology is the basis of the classifica- 
tion of this large family. The legs are moderately long, fitted for 
rapid running or short and thickened, fitted for burrowing, the tarsal 
joints distinct, the claws well formed. In the males the basal tarsal 
joint of the fore leg is expanded. The elytra are in some species 
soldered together and do not open, there being no wings below and flight 



362 




Fig. 150.— HAHi'Ai.rs lau 
{After Packaril.) 



not beiiij; possiMc. {.tut/iiu, ('(inilms). On the ventral abdominal seg- 
ments Hie sjiecialiscd set e used in ra])id lo(;omotion along the ground. 

Tlie life-history is alnuist uiikmiwji in detail, lint so far as is known 
elsewhere it is uniform lliroughout the group and the little known of the 
Indian species agrees generally. The larvie 
are sleiuU'r aetive insects, the heail large 
with long mandibles and six ocelli, the 
thorax and abdomen smooth and tapering, 
witli a teiminal paii' of dorsal cerci, an 
anal tube and three pairs of thoiaeic legs. 
The terminal processes are fairly cha- 
racteristic ; the colours aie black or dull 
and the carabid larva is an insect that can 
usually be readily recognised. They are 
in the main predaceous and constitute part 
of the surface fauna and are best found 
when caterpillars are abundant on a crop, when they gather there to 
feed. Elsewhere some are known to feed in the roots of the crops, and 
one is a pest, but no recoid of such vegetarian larvae exists foi' the Indian 
species, which are commonly predaceous. They suck out the juice of 
caterpillais and other insects, and though they must be extremely abun- 
dant, are very rarely found, except under these exceptional conditions. 
No details are available as to the length of the life-history. Pupation 
takes place in the soil. The eggs of one species (Anthia sextjuttata) are 
large oval bodies, white and soft, measuring nearly one-quarter of 
an inch in length. One Ls laid at a time and dissection shows that 
they develop successively and are produced singly ; apparently egg- 
laying is extended over a long period and the active imaginal hfe is 
probably long. The total number of eggs produced is probably 
small. Hibernation, so far as observed, takes place in the imago 
stage, the beetles burying themselves in the soil or otherwise taking 
shelter. Possibly it takes place in the other stages also 

CarabidcB are partly diurnal, partly nocturnal, the latter species 
sometimes coming to light. Most can produce a caustic mal-odorous 
liquid fiom glands opening above the anus ; in a few this liquid is vola- 
tile, and on being set free goes oflt with a little report ; the enemy being 
overcome by the odour and detonation, the beetle escapes rapidly. No 



264 



COLKOPTERA. 



species is iii India knowji to be destructive, and but very few are possible 
pests elsewhere, the carnivorous habits of the family apparently giving 
place to herbivorous habits in a very few species. The family can be 
classed among the great number of miscellaneous predators which check 
the general increase of other insects. They are protected by their fero- 
cious habits, their hardness and by a volatile and offensive fluid 
(Pheropsophus) . Their habitat includes every part of the earth's 
surface, and they are among the most universal of insects. Many thrive 
in the plains, some in the hills. Cultivated areas harbour many, as 
do the wastelands and jungles. 

The number of species in India is a large one, and the family is one 
of the most rich iii species. A list of the catalogued species of the region 
may be found in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 
LIX (1890), Appendix C. By no means all the species are described 
and there are large numbers to be added to this list. A total of fifty 
has been described since Atkinson's catalogue, showing how little atten- 
tion has been paid to the group during the last two decades. The 
student may consult Bates' paper on the Ceylon species, collected in 
five months by Lewis, to realise the magnitude of the group (Ann. 
Nat. Hist., VI, Vol. 1(5, pp. 68, 43, 199). It is a noteworthy fact that 
this family are far more abundant in tropical than in sub-tropical or 
temperate India, and their place in the plains is to some extent taken 
in the hills by spiders so far as their predaceous fimction is concerned. 
Over 600 Indian species are enumerated by Atkinson. The groups 
are divided as follows : — 



('arabin.?-:. 



Harpalin^ I. 



lOmophronini 4. 
Carabini 14. 
Nehriini 3. 
Enccladini 1. 
Scaritini 76. 

' Panagwini 16. 
Siagonini 13. 
Ozoenini 2. 
Nomiini 2. 
Bcmbidiini 19. 
Pogonini 2. 
Picrostichini 65. 
Licinini 6. 
Platijnini 45. 



Harpalin^ 1. 



Hakpalin.I'; 1 1. 



PSBl'DOJlORrHIN.E. 



Anc/ionoderini 2 
Ctenodacti/Iini 5. 
Odarnnthini 11. 
Driiptini 27. 
Lchilni S7. 
UcUiiiinim 12. 
Aiithiini 4. 
Ceratocerini 15. 

Brachynini 41. 
Apotomini 2. 
Broscini 4. 
Chlwmni 90. 
Harpalini 38. 
9.' 



PLATE XV^I.— Adephaga, 

Fig. 1. -Pronyssa nodicollis. (Cicindelid.-e). . 

,, 2. Cicindela withilli. ,, 

,, 3. Calosoma indica. (Carabidte). 

., 4, Scaiites nanus. ,, 

,, ■") Dicranoncus aiiiabilis. ,, 

,, 6. Cicindela imperfecta. (Cicindelidne). 

,, 7. ,, auiofasciata. ,, 

,, 8. Cliloenius circumdatus. (Carabidip). 

,. 9, Tiichisia inorio. (Carabidre). 

,, 10. Haliphis angustifrons. (Haliplidw). 

,, II. Collj'iis di.stincta. (Cicindolidiip). 

,, 12. Cicindela grammophora. ,, 

,, 13. Tetragonodei'U.s sp. (Carabidre). 

,, 14. Rudeina angulatum. ,, 

,, lo. Platyihopalu.s denticorni.<!. (Paussidiv). 



rMlAlUD.K. 



265 



II is iiii|i()ssibl(' 1 attoiiqtt to discuss tlic classification and discri- 
mination of our abundant Indian foims. wliicli form one of tlu^ laifjest 
families. It may he hoiicd lliat tjicsc ijisccts will soon lie dealt witii in 
the Fauna of India. 

Cnndiiis includes oidv a few Indian s])ecies and is more abundant 
in the pala>aictic region. Valosntna (Plate XVI. Fig. ■\). includes the 
species Orientnle . Ho., found in Peshawar to be predaceous on young 
locusts {Schisioccrca perei/riiKi). Opliiowa is a pretty little insect, com- 
mon in the plains, and with several Indian species. The colouring and 
facies are distinctive, siendei' flattened insects marked in brown ajid 
red. Dendrocelli(.s is another Indian genus extending also to West 
.\fiica. Brachiniis is a widespread genus, usually black, with ferrugi- 
nous head and prothorax, and greenish elytra. Lehia is another large 
genus, well represented in India : the beetles live chiefly mi bark anil 
plants, and are brightly colouied. The genus Ant/iia lias a single 
Indian representative, the large .). (Pachymorpha) tiextjuUala, Ho. 




Fig:. I'll.— AiNTHIA SEXi:UTTATA, X IJ. (F. M. H.) 



This insect is one of the most striking beetles of the plains, l)Iack, with 
six large white spots. It is wingless and found wholly oji the soil, 
spending the winter in holes. A few kept in captivity lived for some 
months, fed daily with from one to two hundred grasshoppers. Eggs 
were laid but failed to hatch. This is one of the few Carahids easily 



266 OOLEOl'TEUA. 

idi'Jititiable, and I have been told that it figures among the foll< tales of 
natives of some parts of India. The Scar itince have a distinct facies 
(Plate XVI, Fig. 4), and are further marked by their pedunculate pro- 
thorax and enlarged digging legs, similar to those of the Copriden. 
They are black insects, some quite small, others of moderate size, and 
are, so far as is known, wholly digging insects. Some are diurnal, some 
nocturnal, and while most are piedaceous, some appears to feed on 
decaying animal matter. Clivina is one of the larger Indian genera, 
with many Indian species. 

Collecting. — Carabids are sufficiently abundant to be readily found and 
collected. They must never be put living with other insects but kept 
apart or killed at once with benzene. In this group, details of the food of 
the beetles is much wanted ; every larva found should be reared, feeding 
it on living insects ; though the beetles are extremely numerous, few larvae 
are known and fewer still have been reared. Attempts to rear Antkia 
have failed, though their eggs were obtained and it will probably be 
more satisfactory to rear from captured larva>. These should be care- 
fully sought for whenever caterpillars are abundant, as they collect at 
such spots. Larvae are best preserved in formalin. 

Vavsswm. 
A faiiiily of small beetles most readily recoyiused bij the extraordinary 

form of the antennw, ivhich are usually very large, as well as by the 

truncate elytra ivhich usually leave the pygidium exposed. Tarsi 

five-jointed. 

These remarkable beetles are of small size, generally near to one- 
quarter of an inch long, coloured almost wholly in red-brown and black. 
The head bears the remarkable antennae and the somewhat reduced 
mouth-parts ; the former have two, six or ten joints ; in many cases 
there is a small basal joint and a single large leaflike apical 
joint: in others the expanded part consists of the apical five 
joints. The prothorax is well developed and of varied form ; the 
elytra are parallel-sided and truncate behind, the pygidium visible 
in most species. The legs are of varied form, sometimes expanded and 
leaflike, usually slender and formed for walking. 



I'Ai-ssin.i':. 2fi7 

'I'lu' lifi'-history «f no species is known. These beetles are found at- 
light, Inive lieeji repeatedly found waikinj,' on the soil and are found in 




Fig. 152.— A. Cekatodekl's oberthuki, B. Euplatyrhopalcs aplustifeu, 
C. Platyrhopalus mellyi. 

{After Desneu.c.) 



ants' nests. It is believed they are all myrmecophilous, living on vary- 
ing terms of indebtedness in the nests of surface ants. They fly quickly 
and settle with the wings extremely quickly closed, so that they appear 
to fall rather thaji to settle. As in the previous family, these beetles 
secrete a liquid which is irritant to the human skin. 

Of the known species (Desneux, Genera Insectorum), nearly .'500 
in number, about one-seventh are Indian, and the fauna is comparatively 
rich in forms. They are foimd in the plains as in the hills and probably 
manv plains' forms remain to be discovered. 

Platyrhopalus dentkornis, Donov. (Plate XVI), is apparently the 
most common, found at light and walking on the soil. Merismoderus 
Bensoni, Westw., is known from the United Provinces and figured by 
Westwood (Cab. Oriental Entomology, Plate XLI, Fig. 4) ; he states 
that it was foimd in a " black ants' nest." Many Indian species 
of this family are figured in Westwood' s Arcana Entomologica. 



2(38 COLEOPTERA. 

MYRMECOPHILOUS INSECTS. 

Ill a publication, dated 1894: , Wassmann enumerates nearly 
1,200 insects which live in some degree of association with ants, and 
over one hmidred living in connection with termites. The former 
are the " Myrmecophilous " insects; they possess a special in- 
terest chiefly on account of the fact that a large proportion of them 
are not inimical to the ants in whose nests they hve, but they play an 
important part in the economy of the nest and are deliberately fed and 
maintained by ants. The ant community is much Uke the human com- 
munity ; it has species of insects that it domesticates, feeds, tends and 
preserves on account of the food it derives from them ; there are others 
which live in harmony with them, are tolerated but are not known 
to have any value to the ants ; there are insects hostile to the ants 
themselves, but' which, nevertheless, maintain themselves in their 
nests ; and there are parasites which live in the bodies of ants. 

The same applies to termites but far less is known of them since 
they are tropical insects and have been far less studied. It is probable 
that the " termitophilous insects " are as varied and numerous as the 
myrmecophilous insects and there is here a great field for observation 
and research in this country. 

Comparatively Uttle is known of myrmecophilous insects in India : 
Wroughton, Rothney and others who investigated Indian ants, found a 
number of species and Wroughton has also foimd termitophilous 
insects ; but the number recorded and the observations made covers 
only a very small part of the ground. We have here endeavoured to 
condense from Wassmann's Kritisches Verzeichniss not only the 
groups found elsewhere but the recorded mdian species. 

Escherich describes three Termitophilous Thysanura, of the 
Oenera Assmuthia and Platijstelea from India (Zool. Ajiz., p. 743). 
Mi/nnecophila among Orthoptera is the sole recorded genus : Wrough- 
ton and Aitken record M. acervorum, Panz. var flavocmcta, Wassm. 
in the nests of Playiolepis lonyipes, Jerd. This little insect is 
one of the MyrmecophiUnce (Gryllida?). Wassmann (Zeitsch. Wiss 
Insecten-biol. I, p. 334), describes Mi/rmecophila preiiolepidis found 
in Bombay by Assmuth, running with th.' ants (Prenolepis longicornis) 
which were moving their nest at the beginning of the rains. The same 
Mijrmevophila occurs with the same ant in Brazil. Two other species 
oi Mi/rmecophila are known to live with Pheidole Wro tijhtoni and with 
Cainponotus compressiis. The author states that Mi/n)tecophiIa lives 
with one ant species in its nymphal instars and with another when full 
grown. 

Among Ni'uroptera, a single Psocid is recorded. Some Eutermes 
live in a friendly manner with species of Tenaes and are thus Termito- 
philous. In H i/menoptera, we have first the ants living in a social way 
with other ants ; thus a small ant may make nests by tunnelling in the 



MVRMECOPHILOrS INSECTS. 269 

solid eavth left between tlie galleries of a imicli larger kind of ant : oi' 
two kinds of ants may sliaie a nest. Wassniann records no instances 
from this country but our common ant Mi/niwrori/slus si'tiprs certainly 
allows another ant to build between its galleries, and there are probably 
other instances. Ants are also termitophilous in that they live in 
termites' nests. Two sphegid wasps, Rliinopsis constancia'. and R. rufi- 
rnmifi, ("am., mimic and live where Sima riifoimjra is common : l)ut tlie 
exact relations are doubtful. Elsewhere, Fossorial wasps prey upon 
ants, carrying them off to stock their cells with. Various Paiasitic 
Hymeno])tera destroy ants but none are yet recorded in India. L/'pi- 
(Injitrrn inclucle a very few whose larva> live in ants' nests (none Indian), 
and a number which are visited by ants, which have special " honey 
organs" and which in some cases pupate in the ants' nest.s. 
deNiceville remarks that some of the.se caterpillars will thrive only in 
association with their particular ants. These are all Lj/ro'nidfc : the list 
embraces the following : — 

Poh/onimritits btvticus.h. visited by Camponotus compressus, F. 

,, ,, Prenolepis clandestinus. Mayr. 

,, ,. Tapinoma melanocephalmn, F. 

TiirKciis tlicojiJiriistvs, F. ,, ,. ('aniponolus rompressus, F. 

,, ,, Phridole latinndn. Rag. 

(tfri/diis si/metJnis, Cram. ,, ,, ': 't 

Raptila sell isf area , Ms. „ ,, '! ? 

Chihidfs laius.CTam. „ „ Camponotus compressus. F. 

trochihis, Fray. „ „ PheidoJe quadrispinosn, Jerd. 

Zizern hjsimon, Hubn. ,, ,, Tapinoma melanocephahim. F. 

Lijro'nesthes emnlus. God. ,, ,, CEcophijJla smaraf/dina. F. 

Lampides celianus. F. „ „ Camponotus mitis, Sm. 

Cntnchri/snps rnejus. ¥. „ ,, Camponotus compressus, F . 

,. pandava. Horsf . ,, ,, Prenolepis longicornis, Ltr. 

,. ,■ ,, „ ,, Monomorimn speculare, Mayr. 

., ,, ,, ,, „ Cremastogaster sp. 

Among Diptera, there are less than 20 species recorded, chiefly 
European, Microdou being the best known. A single Indian e.xample 
among Heteropterous Rhynchota is the Coi'eid Dulic/iius inflalus, Kby.. 
which Wroughton found to mimic Poh/rhachis spiniger, Mayr., and to live 
where this ant is common. Of the Homopfera, there are species of 
FuJgoridce and Membracidce which are visited by ants to get the sweet 
secretion. Our common species of Leptocentrus among the latter and 
Pyrilla aherrans. Wlk., among the former are examples. Psi/llidce. 
Aphidcp and Cocridce also afford many examples, ants either simply 
visiting them to get honeydew, or building shelters over them, cir 
maintaining them in their nests. (EcopliyUa smaragdina commonly 
sews together the leaves round colonies of Coccids and makes shelters 
for them : a very large number of our Coccids and Aphids are vi.sited 
by species of Camponotus, Cremastogaster. Cataiilacus, etc .. though we 



270 



COLEOPTERA. 



are not aware of any detailed information as to the species of ants 
which visit each. A small number of Poduridge and Lepismidye 
are also recorded as being found as guests in ants' nests. We 
have left the Coleopteia to the last, as they form the greater 
number of the recorded species. The following families are enumerated 
as having more than ten Myrmecophilous or Termitophilous species :- 





Myrmecophilous 


Termitophilous, 


Staphylinidse 


263 


59 


Pselaphidae 


113 


5 


Clavigeridae 


89 





Paussidse 


169 


U 


ScvdmT?nidse 


32 


U 


Silphidp 


35 


1 


Trichopterygidse . 


U 





Lathridiida- 


30 


J 


Thorictid* 


40 





Histeridse 


128 


7 


Scaraba?id8e 


17 


6 



Below is a list of eleven species more or less definitely ascertained 
to be Myrmecophilous in India ; Wassmann includes many others which, 
from structural characters, he assumes are myrmecophilous, especially 
Paussids. 



Clavigeridce 
PaussidcB 



Chiviger Hageni, Motsch. 
Miistiijcf (ihni'ptus, Motsch. 
Merismoderus Bensoni, Westw. 

Paussus Fichteli, Don. 
Paussus soleatus, Wasm. 



East Indies. 
Calcutta. 

with black ants, Ben- 
gal. 

Black ants (? Pheidole). 
Pheidole Wroughtoni, 
For. 

Pheidole latinoda, Rag. 
Pheidole \Y roughtoni ,¥ ov . 
In ants' nests. 
In Termites' nests. 



Paussus suavis, Wasm. 

Paussus Wroughtoni, Wasm. 
Colydiidce Paramellon sociale, Waterh. 
Scarabceidce Chwtopisthes fulvus, Westw. 

,, simplici/pes, Reiche. ,, ,, ,, 

Pselaphidce AuJacophora sp. ,, ,, ,, 

On the analogy of other countries it is probable that there are abun- 
dant myrmecophilous and termitophilous insects in India and we re- 
produce the list above as a guide to the student for what he may expect 
to find. 

In a later paper (Deutsche Ent. Zeitung, 1899, I, p. 145). Wass- 
mann describes the termitophilous insects found in the nests of the com- 
mon white ant. Termes nbesns, Ramb., at Ahmednagarby Father Heim. 
They are four 8taphylinids, Termitodiseiis Ileittii. }IiinHedonin tridens. 
Myrmedonia Heimi, Myrmedonia sculptieollis : and two Aphodiine 



MYRMKCOl'Un.OUS INSKCTS, 



271 



heeths, Chcrtopistlieii siilciiicr -And Cor i/t/inxleriiii (jibhitja-. As Myrmeco- 
])liilous. Wassnuum mentions the following species : — 








Fig. 153.— MYBMECOPHILOrS BEETLES. -A. TERMITODISCUS HEI.MI.— B. CH.KTOPISTHES 
SULOUiER.-C. CORYTHRODERUSCilBBIGER. — D. ThORICTUS HEIMI.-E. WkOVOHTO- 
NILLA LOBOPELT.f..— F. COSSYPHOPINls INMCIS. — Ci. C. IXDKls, AXTEXNA 
FOLDED IN lAVlTV. 

[A/lcr Wd.iimaini], 



SrAPHYLINIP.^i: — 

Wrouf/litnniUa hhopelta, Wassm. with Lobopelta diiiiinulu, Sni. Nil- 

giris. 

„ Triglypjiotri.r iralshi. For. 
Ahmednagar. 



THi:)KicTni.K — 

Thoricfus Heimi. Wassm. 

LATHRIPIID.t — 

Coluocera Beloni, Wassm. 



,, Plu'idole sulcafircps. Rag. 

Ahmednagar. 
,, Holcomi/rmex scnhriceps, Mayr. 

Ahmednagar. 



272 COLEOl'TEKA. 

(/ossvPHuiuii.1'; — 
Cossyphodinus mdicvs, Wassm. with Plieidole sulcaticeps, Rag. 

Alimednagar. 

Tenebrionid^ — 
Dichillus tenellus, Wassm. ., Holcomyrmex scabriceps, Mayr. 

Alimednagar. 
Schizillus Roijersi, Wassm. „ Plieidole indica, Mayr. Mus- 

soorie. 
Tetranillus coslatus, Wassm. ,, ? V Alimednagar. 

Stenosis dentipennis , Wassm. „ Cremastogaster sp. Thana. 

ttrougktoni, Wassm. ,, Pheidole latinoda. North 

Gujarat. 

Rhysodid^. 

Head with a slender neck. Antennae filiform, eleven-jointed. Tarsi 

five-jointed. Abdomen of six joints, basal three 

connate. Front tibia- notched on inner edge. 

A small family of two genera ; they are elongate, the integument 

hard and with longitudinal impressed lines ; all are coloured black oi 

brown. The few known species have been found under the bark of 

trees. Lewis revised the family in 1889 (Ann. Nat. Hist. VI, Vol. 2) 

and listed forty species of Rhysodes and Clinidium, of which C. apenum, 

Reit., R. aterrimus, Chevr., is Indian and R. taprobancB, Fairni.. is known 

from Ceylon. Three species of Rhysodes have since been described by 

Arrow. 

Dytiscid^. 

Aquatic beetles, the posterior coxcp enlarged, the untennce filijonii. 

Hind leg formed for swimming. Males with the three 

basal tarsal joints of foreleg dilated. 

These beetles are readily distinguished by the above characters 
from other aquatic beetles. They are practically aquatic Carabids 
with the bodily form and appendages modified to suit their mode of 
life. They include some of the larger beetles and many small forms : 
the colouring is sombre and probably renders the swimming beetle in- 
conspicuous. The form is oval, the parts very closely united to form 
one continuous whole with no projecting angles or lines ; the head is 
broad, tightly fitting and only capable of slight movement. The tiophi 
are similar to those of the Carabida^, the biting carnivorous type. 



273 



The elytra cover the abdomen and the wings are large and functional 
in all species. The anterior legs are set close together, of the usual form 

except in the males, in which the 
basal tarsal joints are to a greater 
or less extent dilated : in some this 
dilation is so large as to form a 
conspicuous sucker-like organ and 
used by the male to securely hold 
till' female. The hind legs are long 
and formed for swimming, the tarsi 
(•(nn])ressed and twisted so that the 
upper edge is outward ; they are 
ciliated on one or both edges. The 
cox:r are very large and occupy a 
huge pait of the ventral surface. 
The sexes are similar in general 
appearance and are distinguished 
by the fore tarsi. These beetles 
excrete a whitish fluid from the 
articulation of the head and pro- 
thorax on being seized, and also 
excrete an unpleasant fluid at the 
anus. 
The life-history of no species appears to have been worked out in India 
and there is no reason to believe it differs from the general type. Eggs 
are laid in aquatic plants, under water, and hatch into elongated grubs 
with a large flat head, a long tapering body terminating in two ciliated 
processes ; there are three pairs of long swimming legs. The apex of 
the abdomen ends in two spiracles which alone are open and functional ; 
the larva comes to the surface tail upwards, the two processes lie flat 
on the surface film owing to their ciliations and support the 
grub, which takes in the air supply quickly. The head has a pair 
of long hollow sickle -shaped mandibles, and it has been shown that 
when these are in use the mouth is automatically closed ; the larva 
grasps its prey by the mandibles, inserts them and sucks the blood 
through the hollow mandibles : the larvse are extraordinarily voracious, 
and if confined together, attack and destroy one another. They are 

IIL IS 




Fig. 154.— CVBISTER (ONKlSrS, M.\LK. 



274 



COLEOPTERA. 



abundant in fresliwater in India, especially if stagnant or nearly so. 
Pupation takes place in the mud neai' the water. The adults are 
aquatic, and carry their air supply under their elytra ; they also 
come up periodically with the ape.x of the elytra upwards to renew 
their air supply. They aie carnivorous but less voracious than the 
larvse and fly at night from pond to pond. Nothing is known 
of the habits of the Indian species nor of their mode of hibeination. 
number of broods, etc. 





Fig. Ifw. — EkETES STIOTIcrs I.AKVA AND IMAGO X 3. 

Sharp in 1876 experimented with Di/tisrulw to find the ratio of the 
time spent getting air at the surface to that spent under water. He 
found in Di/tiscus manjinalis a ratio of 1 to 12. Pelobius has a ratio of 
1 to 375. (Proc. Linn. Soc, 1877.) 



The family is a large one, monographed by Sharp (On Aquatic 
Carnivorous Coleoptera) ; Regimbait in 1899 revised the Eastern forms 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1899, p. 18()) listing 140 " Indian " siJecies. 
Three new ones collected by Maindron were added (loc. cit., 190;5, p. 
333). The principal genera are arranged as follows : — 



nYTisciD.T,. 275 

I. IIVHROPORTDES — 

I. Hiidrnpnrint. — Hy(lroi)()nis, 4; IIy]iho])i)ius, ft; Hypliy- 

(Inis. :i : Clypeodyt-es, 0; Bidessus. (> ; Vola. I. 
2. ffi/flroi'tilini. — Hydrovatus, lo. 
."5. Mctlilini. — Methles indicus, Reg. 

II. NOTERIDES — 

Hydroco])tiis . 4 : Cantliydrus. G ; Hydiocantlui.s indicus, Wc 
HI. Laccophilides — 

Lacco])]ulus, 1.") : Ni'])tostiMiius. 2. 
IV. Dytiscidks — 

1. Coli/mbetini. — Agabus, 10 ; Platynectes. ."i : Lacconectes, 5 ; 

Copelatus, 7 ; Rhantus, ."> : 

2. Hydaticini. — Prodaticus pictus, Slip. : Hydaticus, 8. 

3. Thermonectini. — Sandracottus, :$. 

4. Eretini. — Eretes sticticu.s, Linn. 

5. Ci/bistini. — Cybister, 17. 

Hijphoporus includes small oval thickset beetles found widespread 
in wells and tanks. H. aper, Slip., appeare to be tlie commonest plains' 
species. Copelatus indicus. Slip., is a small dark insect, abmidant in 
rice fields and found under the bark of trees during the time when the 
fields are dried up. Hi/daticus Fabricii, Mch., and H. vittatus, Fabr., 
are the commonest plains species of tliis genus, medium sized brown 
insects found in tanks. Sandracoltus Dejeani, Aub., is widespread and 
abundant in wells and tanks, a handsome black and brown mottled 
insect of moderate size. 

Eretes (Eimectes) sticlicus, Linn., is also extremely abundant ami 
common ; its larva feeds on Culex larva?. Cybister includes the large 
forms which take the place of the Eui'opean Dytiscus : Ci/hister confusus, 
Shp., is the large black water beetle with the lateral brown stripe 
fomid in fresh water in the plains. C. Iripunctatus, 01. var. asiaticus, 
Slip., is smallei', also abundant in rice fields and tanks. 



276 COLEOPTERA. 

INSECTS AS POOD 

It is a matter of daily observation that many birds and some mam- 
mals find that insects are an excellent food and one may wonder that 
man has not found this also. But in nothing are the vagaries and 
caprices of man better shown than in what he will and will not eat, 
and so a very large supply of food has, and apparently will, daily perish. 

Herbivorous insects live iji exactly the way a herbivorous mammal 
such as a sheep does, feeding on the tissues of dry or green plants and 
transforming them into animal tissues, which differ little from the tis- 
sues of a mammal or bird and are but the concentrated nourishment of 
the living plant ; only in many cases they do so far more quickly and 
are far easier and quicker to rear in large quantities. Why then are 
they not more eaten ? It is pure caprice and we know that many insects 
are excellent and nourishing food. Unfortunately, there are not the 
data available to really deal with this subject ; in times of scarcity all 
the world over men have turned to insects and travellers have recorded 
the insects eaten and the expertness of the little-civilised portion of 
mankind in finding them ; but the subject rests in darkness precisely 
because the people who practise this habit are not those of whom much 
is known or whom civilisation reaches ; we fear that the spread of civi- 
lisation will lead to the total abolition of these interesting practices 
before we know about them, to the detriment of a later generation which 
will have to rediscover by experiment which are and which are not. good 
to eat ; unless thej^ adopt the ' ' monkey " ' test. It is stated in books 
that what a monkey will eat is good food for man ; it is certain that 
monkeys eat insects with avidity excepting the extremely nauseous 
ones with warning colouring. Mankind eats many curious things, in- 
cluding oysters, shrimps, whelks and cockles, dried sea slugs (Holothu- 
rians), and birds' nests ; the most civilised nation is addicted to eating 
snails, even uncooked ; and yet there is an absurd prejudice against 
insects, not universal, but certainly covering the more civilised portions 
of mankind. We may doubt if the deterioration in natural instincts 
that civilisation brings is not revealed in the races that eat so nauseous, 
deadly and unappetising a thing as an oyster and refuse to consider 
a nice clean white termite queen or a dish of locusts. 

Among the few items of Entomology of this kind, the fact is on 
record that in Assam, the large bugs of the genus Aspongopus are eaten 
with rice ; in Burmah, the red ant (GEcophyUa smaragdina) is reported 
to be a delicacy, its pungent flavour relieving the monotony of the daily 
fare. Locusts are appreciated in many parts of India and it is said that 
dried locusts form an ingredient of curries even in Calcutta, where a 
locust swarm is looked on as a providential occurrence. In Burmah, 
the larvrt" of an aquatic beetle are collected and eaten ; this is the 
beetle, Eretcs (Eunectes) sticticus, apparently the commonest species 
of Dytiscidas in India. The following observations of this insect in 
Burmah, are by J. Carey, Esq., 8ub-Di visional Officer : — 



INSECTS AS FOOD. 277 

" iVn ijisiK-t called the Twijipo (liteially insect found iji pits nr 
hollows) is found in Twinywa, a village about ^i miles west of Hudalin 
situated in a Uivgv depression presumably caused by volcanic eiuption. 
The long slender specimens without wings ( Kig. I").")), are the young 
insects : tlie oval siiaped ojies with wings are the fully developed insects 
(Kig. 1');")). They live and thiive in the wateis of the lake in the middle 
of the depression. The waters of this lake are slightly salt and bittei'. 
Anumgthe developed insects, the male can be distinguished from the 
female by the ciicular extremities of its front legs. Besides tlie male is 
gejierally smaller than the female. Tlie fully develo])ed insects are 
seen onlV after a shower of rain, wlien the lake is sim])ly agitated by 
their movements. This is a sign that breeding is going to take place; 
for sooji after the shower the insects creep on to the land and lemain 
embedded in the mud about three or four feet away from the water's 
edge. Whilst lemaiuing in the mud with their heads slightly ex])osed, 
they lay eggs from which the slender needle-shaped insects without 
wings are found, on the third day. The young insects make for the 
water as soon as they are formed, and after twenty days reappear still 
retaining their original slender form, but slightly larger in size. They 
are then of the same shajje and size as the samples. As soon as 
these young insects appear they make foi' the land and remain 
entirely embedded in the earth at a distance of about fifteen feet from 
the water's edge ; the voung insect remains liidden in the ground for 
ten days and after that period it emerges from the ground entirely 
transformed — instead of the needle-shaped insect devoid of wings, there 
appears from the ground an oval-shaped insect, possessed of a pair of 
wings. The insect returns to the lake as soon as it is fully 
developed. 

•'The fully di-veloped insects are caught at the water's edge when 
they are creeping up the land to the mud. The undeveloped slender 
ones are caught at the edge of the water when they creep up to the land 
to go through the process of transformation. The insect is eaten in 
both forms and is considered a delicacy by the Burman." 

Termite queens are also eaten in some places in India as in Africa, 
and we can imagine no more daintv or tempting morsel than such an 
insect, which is most carefully fed and tended and which presents a most 
pleasing appearance. In some parts of South India, every boy of an 
age of 12 to 1 4 is said to be given a termite que n to eat, after which he 
nms a distance of two or more miles ; having once done this he will be 
able thereafter to endure fatigue and run well. The larg.' fat grubs 
of Ori/ctes are also eaten, and probably many other similar insects. It 
is said to be a common practice among tribes in the wilder parts of India 
to eat the larva? and pup^e of the big jungle bee. Apis dorsata, found in 
the combs. So also rearers of wild silk such as tassar (Autkerwa paphia) 
are kno\vn to regard the j)upa' in the cocoon a-i a delicacy and to eat it 
when the silk has been reeled of!. 



278 COLEOPTERA. 

These are all the instajices we have been able to gather in India : 
notable cases elsewhere are the egg masses of Notonecta in Mexico, and 
the Grugru worm of the West Indies; we can vouch for the excellence 
of the latter, which are the larvae of the Palm Weevil , Rhynchophorua 
pahnarum : these are eaten raw or cooked. Eaton records that in 
Nyassaland. a paste of Mayflies and CuUcidcB is eaten under the name 
of " Kungu." The Mayfly is Ccenis humju, Etn. (Monogr. Rec. Ephem., 
p. 148). A species of Elmis {Parnidw) is used as a relish in Peru 
according to Philippi (Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1804, p. 93). 

The reader should consult AVallace's article "On the Insects used 
as food by the Indians of the Amazon" (Trans. Ent. Soc, London. 
18.54, p. 241). He mentions five insects belonging to distinct orders 
which are used as food; the female of an ant called Sauba (Attn ceplin- 
lotes, Latr.) is captured " in basketfuls " when it swarms out of the 
nests ; Wallace remarks " it is rather a singular sight to see for the first 
time an Indian taking his breakfast in the 8auba season. He opens the 
basket and as the great winged ants crawl slowly out, he picks them up 
carefully and transfers them with alternate handfuls of farina (Cassava 
meal) to his mouth." The worker of a termite (Tennes flavicoUe, 
Perty) is eaten on account of the mass of muscle in the head and thorax, 
a Homopterous insect (Umhonia spitiosa) is eaten roasted, as well as 
the grub of the Palm Weevil (Rlii/nc/iophorus palmarum) ; finally Wal- 
lace's last paragraph is worth quoting entire, as it might quite correctly 
have been written in some parts of India. " The apterous insect which 
is eaten by the South American Indians, more, I presume, as a delicacy 
than as an article of food, is a species of Pedicnlus which inhabits the 
head of that variety of mankind. The method of capturing and de- 
vouring this insect is exactly the same as that which everyone has seen 
adopted by the monkeys at the gardens of the Zoological Society. 
A- couple of Indian belles will often devote a spare half hour to Entomo- 
logical researches in each other's glossy tresses, every capture being 
immediately transferred to the mouth of the operator." 

The following extract fromCuvier's Natural History refers to the 
Migratory Locust (Schistocerca perec/rinum) : — 

"Some people of Arabia and of some other countries of the East, 
take them in great quantities, have them dried, ground and made 
into a sort of bread, when their crops have failed. At Bagdad, they 
are brought to market and by this means the j^rice of other provisions is 
said to be considerably lowered. According to report, the locusts have 
something of the flavour of a pigeon. One man can easily despatch two 
hundred of them at a meal. The modes of cooking them are various. The 
Bedouins of Egypt roast them alive upon the coals, and eat them as a 
great delicacy, having first removed the wings and feet. They also 
remove, at least in some places, the intestines. The women and 
children of some parts of Arabia Felix, string them together, and thus 
sell them. The Arabs roast these insects and .steep them in butter. 



HAL1PLII).«. 



279 



and wlioii thov wish to cany their hixury to an extreme, they give them 
l)iit a single l)oil in water, and afterwards fry them in butter. The 
inhal)itants of Moroeco dry them on the roofs of teriaces of their iiouses 
and eat tliem eitlier smoked or hroih'd or boiled. Othei' people of Bai- 
baiv jneseive tliem in ])iel\ie. .Vecording to F'orska'l, there is no great 
relish in this aliment, ajid if used to too great a degree, it thickens the 
bliKid. and becomes injurious to melancholic temperaments." 

That the art of cooking insects is not extinct is shown by the fol- 
lowing extract from Harry Roberts" "' The Tramp's Handbook " {\W-'>, 
]>. r_M). " The iaivM' of cockchafers fried with a little salt and ])epper 
are not to l)e ik'spised, and manv of (uir common cater])illars — including 
those of the cabbage white butleitly and of tlic currant moth — may be 
cooked in tlie same way."" 

The cabbage white butterfly is oui' Pieris brassiccr, abundant occa- 
sionally in Behar in April; this insect may then prove to be a 
blessing in disjiuise. 



Haliplid.e. 
Posterior coxrv produced behind in a plate pnrthj eoverimi the olido- 
men. Antennw hare, ten-jointed. 
A small fannly distinct by the coxa- from Carahidcr and Pi/liscida-. 

The antenna' are ten-jointed, inserted near the eyes ; the scutellum is 

aljsent ; the tarsi are narrow as in 
C'arabida^. and not formed for swim- 
ming ; in the males the basal three 
joijits in the anterior legs are slightly 
dilated. These small beetles are 
tomid in fresh water, such as jionds 
and streams ; they have a habit of 
coming out to gather on plants near 
the water and may sometimes be 
captured in numbers. No Indian 
species seems to have been reared and 
but a very few species are known from 
India at all. Caidon's collections 
yielded Hal i pi as pulchellas, C'l.. and 
H. (imjustifrons. Reg. The latter is a 

small yellow brown insect with black speckles, found also at light. 

(Plate XVI, fig, 10,) 




Fig, loti.— Halipli's angcstifkons, 

VENTRAL VIEW OF ABDOMEN TO 
SHOW THR LARGE PLATE- LIKK 
COX-E. 



280 COLEOPTERA. 

Gyrinid.^. — Whirl>(ji(i Beetles. 
Antemiw short, e,/es divided, posterior coxt. fixed, posterior legs formed 
into paddles. Larva aquatic, invujo on surface of fresh water. 
There is little difficulty in recognising membeis of this family, small 
shiny beetles which move in incessant activity on the surface of stream? 
and tanks. They are usually of a black 
colour, the submerged portion pubescent, 
the rest shiny. The head, prothorax and 
elytra are closely fitted, the antennae shoit 
and inconspicuous, inserted in a groove 
in front of the eyes : the head is well de- 
veloped with the large compound eyes divi- 
ded, so that one part is in the water, one 
part in the air. The fore legs are long and 
slender, the tarsi in the males of some spe- 
cies dilated to form a plate which is set 
below with little suckei's. The posterior 

legs are modified to serve as paddles, the femur and tibia each dilated 
into broad plates, the tarsal joints forming a single broad plate. The 
elytra may be wholly smooth or simply sculptured, or the ' ' submer- 
gence line ' " extends along it, the part below being pubescent, as is the 
ventral surface of the body. A foetid liquid is excreted by these beetles, 
presumably as a protection. 

Nothing appears to be on record as regards the life-history of any 
Indian form ; elsewhere the known larvpe are aquatic, living in fresh- 




157.— DlNEUTKS 
INDICUS. 




Fig. I'lS.— Gyrinii) larva. 



water tanks and streams near or at the bottom ; this larva has lateral 
processes on each abdominal segment, fmictiojiing as gills, as also four 
apical abdomiiral hooks and is active and predaceous on other aquatic 



POLYMORPHA. 281 

insects. The pupa is in a papery cocoon fixed to water plants. The 
adult lives on the surface of the water, the broad paddles propelling it 
swiftly along the surface, where it feeds on small insects which it finds 
near the margin. Numbers may be seen on the margins of fairly still 
water, continually describing complicated movements together ; when 
alarmed, they plunge below the surface of the water, carrying a bubble 
of air attached to the hind end. Some species are confined to smooth 
still water, others to swift mountain streams. All are unable to walk- 
on land and they are found away from water only when flying at night, 
when they come to light. The family has no economic importance 
and has been little studied : nothing is known of their hibernation, 
enemies and the like. 

Regimbart's latest monograph (Genera Insectonnn) enumerates 34 
Indian species, in the genera Dineutes (4), Aulonogi/nis (1), 0//rinus (2). 
Orectocheilus (27). Orectocheilus ijamjeticus, Reg., is the common plains" 
species, a medium sized black species found abundantly at the margin 
of rivers. Dineutes tndicus. Aube., is a larger insect found on streams 
and stagnant water both in the plains and in the hills. 



POLYMOEPHA 

If we omit the large distinct, series of beetles the Lnmellirornia. 
Adephaga. Phi/fophaga. R/n/nchophom and Heteromera, there remains 
a great assemblage of beetles, many of which fall into well marked 
families, but a proportion of which are extremely difficult to unite 
into natural families. Especially is this the case with the numer- 
ous forms which live in decaying wood, under the bark of trees, or in 
mushrooms ; these beetles are imperfectly known, their structural charac- 
ters are very varied and no simple and accurate method of classing them 
has yet been arrived at, largely through the fact that but few are known. 
This, while true of these insects as a whole, is still more the case with 
the Indian forms, of which scarcely anything is known. Nominally these 
beetles fall into two series, those with antennae distinctly clavate, those 
with antenna' distinctly serrate ; but many which have other structural 
affinities with one series have not clubbed or serrate antenna' : their tarsal 
characters vary in even what are regarded as the limits of a family 
or sub-family : and actually many families are characterised by such a 
number of characters relating to the trophi, antenna?, coxa', tarsi, ven- 
tral abdominal segments and the like that the diagnosis to be of any use 
must be extremely full and detailed, occupying far more space than is 



282 COLEOPTERA. 

available here. While we have given a brief diagnosis of the families 
we know to be represented in India, we are not sanguine that the stu- 
dent will place every beetle in its family by consulting these diagnoses. 
Some of the larger families are distinct enough ; for the rest if the char- 
acters obviously agree with any diagnosis, the beet'e can probably be 
placed piovisionally in that family ; if, as in many cases, the student 
abandons the task as hopeless, there is no remedy but to consult some 
woik in which the diagnoses are given in fuller detail. 

Actually a large majority of the smaller obscurer Polymorphous 
beetles found will undoubtedly be new and while their characters may 
agree with known genera, they are likely not to and we must anticipate 
the formatioii of new groups of beetles when our fauna is better studied. 
Finally in this heterogeneous group above all, a good reference collec- 
tion is essential as the actual interpretation of the characters and their 
just appreciation is no easy matter and is only to be gained by practice 
and experience. The majority of the following families can usually 
be distinguished, so far as known Indian forms are concerned : — 

Hijdrophilidce. — Antennae of three parts, fitting under head ; a 
sternal spine often. Part aquatic. 

Pselaphidce. — Tarsi three-jointed. Elytra truncate. Abdomen of 
7 or less segments, not mobile. 

Staph ijlinida. — Tarsi three- jointed. Elytra truncate. Abdomen 
7 or 8 mobile ventral segments. 

Sphceriidcp. — Tarsi three-jointed. Antennae clubbed. Three ventral 
segments. 

Trklioptenjijidce. — Tarsi three-jointed. Wings fringed with hairs. 
Very minute beetles. 

Conjlophidce . — Tarsi four-jointed, first joint very small. Wings 
hair-fringed. Very small. 

Scaphidiidce. — Tarsi five-joiirted. Antenna^ with the five apical 
joints broadened. 

Histerida'. — Tarsi five-jointed. Elytra truncate. Short clubbed 
antennse. Hard compact beetles. 

Phalacridw. — Tarsi five-jointed, fourth very small. Posterior 
coxse contiguous. 

Nitidulidce.—llB.vs\ five.jointed, fourth very small. Posterior 
coxa^ not contiguous. Elytra often abbreviate or truncate. 

Tro(jositidce. — Tarsi five-jointed, first very small. Antenna- with 
apical joints broadened on one side only. 

Erotijlidw. — Tarsi five-jointed, basal three broadened, fourth small, 
fifth long (c.f. Chrysomelidos). Antenna- clubbed. 

Coccinellida. — Tarsi four-jointed, third very small. Antenmo not 
clubbed. 



HYDROPHI 1,111,15. 



2«:5 



- Tiiisi I'luir- JDiiitrd 
'I'avsi tlircc- joint I'd. 



.Vnii'jini 



third very sii 

Five visible vriitral st'i,'iii<'iits 

\lllrlilir sliovt. cluhhcd. mid 



all. hard (■(iiiiiiact hcrtli's. tlu 
.V.'iiciurr with scN'i'ii apical joint > 



Tarsi Hve- 



E)\(h<iiiiirlii(hr 
clubbed. 

Ldllindililir. 
(c.f. Sta]diyliiuds). 

Dcrmcslitln'. — 'Paisi five-jiiintfd. 
liidden in a groove in protliorax. 

Bi/rrliidd'. — Tarsi five-jnijited ; > 
femora fitting into the coxa'. 

Heteroccrida". — Tarsi fmir- join ted 
bioadened. Aquatic, in mud. 

Parnidd'. — Tarsi five-jointed, fifth h)ng. .Vijuatic. 

Bostrirliidd'. — Usually cylindrical, hard, and rugose 
jointed, basal joint small. Antenna> often serrate. 

Plinidrr. — rsually cylindrical, hard, and rugose. Tarsi five-jointed, 
basal joint not small, Antenntr often serrate. 

Mdlacodvrmidw. — Soft beetles, with (i. 7 or 8 ventral segments, 
antenn;i> pectinate or serrate. 

ElateridfT. — Antenna- pectinate or serrate usually. Pro.sternal process. 
Hind angles of prothorax prolonged backwards, prothorax movable. 

Btiprestidcp. — Antenn-e serrate. Prosternal process, prothorax fixed. 
Tarsi five-jointed, Ijasal four with pads. 

Hydrophilid.'e. 
Tlir antenncB with a lonij basal joint, the remainder joninnij a rhih. tli< 
apical joints broadened, fittiw/ below the head. Tarsi 
five-jointed, basal joint often small. 
This family is recognisable by the antenna\ which are of the form 
figured (fig. 137), the broader apical joints being pubescent. They con- 
sist of a basal joint, a club of three to five 
joints and one to three small intermediate 
joints. They often bear a general resem- 
blance to Dytiscidos, the aquatic forms having 
a similar oval form but being less compact. 
The terrestrial forms are more globose and 
rounded, but with the general facies of the 
family. They are black or dull-coloured 
in.sects, generally less than half an inch 
long. The head, prothorax and elytra fit 
cloiielv, and are usually smooth and shin- 

S. 1.59.— Hydrophius . T ,1 • , , , 

oLivACEUs. ing- tn the aquatic species, the huul 




284 



COLEOPTERA. 




legs are slightly flattened and set with liairs, so as to render tlieni 
capable of acting as paddles. 

The life-history of no Indian species has been worked out and 
nothing appears to be on record. The life-history of aquatic species else- 
where is known and the student should 
consult Miall's "Aquatic Insects." The 
eggs are laid in a case formed of filaments 
excreted from the silk tubes at the anus of 
the female beetle ; this case is hollow and 
has a projecting process like a mast ; it is 
fixed to aquatic plants at the surface of the 
water. The young are similar in general 
form to those of the Dijtiscids (the tarsus 
with one claw) and also predaceous ; air is 
obtained by bringing the large spiracles at 
the hind end of the body to the surface. 
Pupation takes place in the mud. The 
beetles swim actively and obtain air by 
coming to the surface head up, the air being 
contained on the lower surface of the body 
and communicating with the cavity in which 

the antenna lies ; when the head comes up, the air supply is in 
contact with the atmosphere through this channel and is renewed. 
The beetles are principally vegetarian and not predaceous. Only a 
part are aquatic, some being found in mud , near streams and ponds, 
under the bark of trees and in dung. 

The family is a moderately large one, divided into five sub-families 
as follows ; — 

1. Basal joint of posterior tarsi short, second 
long. 
[a) Posterior tarsi formed for swimming. 

A sternal process present 
\aa) Posterior tarsi normal. No sternal 

process 
Four basal joints of posterior tarsi short 
and equal 



. 160.— HYDROPHILr: 
PICEUS LARVA. 
(After Chaimis.) 



11. 



H ydrophilince, 

HijdrobiinoB. 

Spercheinoe. 



HYDROPHILID.^. 285 

III. First basal joint of posteiior tarsi very 

short, rest short and e(iiial . . . . Ilchiphorino'. 

IV. First basal joint of ])ostt'rior tarsi elon- 

gate . . . . . . . . Sphrrridiinrr'. 

Kegimbavt's papers (Ann. t^oc. Ent., Fvanre ilio;'.. p . .")2 and 
p. -VM). should be consulted for descriptions. The II iidrophilimf are 
aquatic and eighteen Indian species were listed by Atkinson. 7 having been 
since described. Ili/dropliilus includes among several species the com., 
mon species H. olivaceiis, Fabi-. : this may be found in tanks and should 
be handled cautiously on account of the large spine projecting from the 
sternum beyond the hind coxa'. The European H. piceun. Linn., is not 
an Indian species pro])erly, though captured in the Himalayas. 
Hydrous has the sternal spine shorter and a double keel. The larger foims 
of these two genera are revised by Regimbart under the same Stefhoxus 
and Dibeloct'lus : (Ajui. Soc. Ent., France, 1901, p. ISS). Out of forty 
species the seven following are given as "Indian: " 

H. senet/alensis. Perch. ; H. olivnceiis. Fabr. ; H. mslnnirensis 
Redt. ; H. rufoinctus. Bedel. : H. Indiriis, Bedel. ; H. nruminatiis. 
Mots. : H. piceus. Linn. 

These larger forms can be identified from tliis paper, but the student 
must remember that the smaller forms are still listed under H)/drophilus. 

Hijdrobiince. — These include the smaller aquatic beetles which are 
found in water, but which crawl along the bottom near the edge rather 
than swim freely. The females lay eggs in cases fixed to plants or which 
they carry with them. The larvte are predaceous. 

Philhydms nigriceps, Westw., is common and widespread. Bewsiis, 
deerescens, Wlk., is a small species found in tanks. Berosus indicus 
Motsch., Brachygaster indica, Muls., and B. metaUescens, Muls., are 
recorded. Globaria leachi, Latr.. represents this genus. 

Spercheince. — So far as known, these are aquatic, their larv;e preda- 
ceous in stagnant water. Spercheus is the common genus but none are 
known in India. 

Helophorince. — Not strictly aquatic but living in mud ; Hifdrofnoi 
hinodosus, Motsch., H. opacus. Motsch., and H. violaceomkans, Motsch. 
are the recorded representatives of this group. 



286 



COLEOPTERA. 



Sphrpridiino'. — Terrestrial beetles, except Cychnotum, which is 
aquatic. C. orhiciiJare. Fabr.. occurs in India, as also Europe 
C. capense, Deg., and C. ahdominale, Fabi., also occur. 

Sphwridium 5 maculatum, Fabr., is common in the plains, a small 
black and brown species. Cercyon is well represented in Ceylon and by 
five Indian species. Pachysternum apintum, Motsch, also occurs. 



SlLPHID.^. 

Antennce usually clubbed. Abdomen of five or six segments, free. Eyes 
finely granulated. Tarsi of four or five joints. Anterior 
coxoe conical and contiguous. 

A larger family of beetles of varied form, usually of small size. The 

elytra are sometimes truncate, exposing the apex of the abdomen, but 

usually cover the whole abdomen. The 

posterior coxas are contiguous. The 

known larv;i? are flat, tapeiing to the 

hind end, with a pair of anal cerci and a 

distinct labrum ; no Indian Iarv;e are 

known. The beetles have, in general, 

similar habits to the Staph ylinids but a 
few (Necrophorus, 
etc.) of the larger 
are the so-called 
iSexton or Bury, 
ing Beetles, which 

by removing the soil below small animal's 

corpses bury them, and then feed and breed 

in the decomposing body. The latter are not 

known inTropical India. One species has been 

sent in as being destructive to dry cured fish 

in Sylhet, with Necrobia ruficollis, Fabr. 

{Cleridce). 

Necrophorus is represented by N. nepalensis. 

ii'TTOKAi^s^-TARvT^ ^'^■' "^ ^'^^ Himalayas, and N. encaustus, Fairm., 

{Aftfi- ciiajmis.) from Simla. Necrodes osculans, Nig., is Indian, 





i_U. nil. — SlLIMA ■[■KTKASPII.Or.^. 



srYnM.^ENiT).?;. 287 

as are 7 species of SV//)/(ff. of wliic-li S. tetrnspilnta. Fabr. (fig. 161), is 
not uncommon in tlie plains. Xodi/nxs nitidiisi. Ho.. Apntctica lehinides, 
Ho.. Choleva resliln. Muir. and .tcIi/pca siiil ji/in-atd . (irouv.. aii' the 
remaining species. Portexin ha.s recently ilesciibed eleven new s])eeies 
{and four new genera) from the collection made by Mons. Harniand at 
Darjeeling. (Ann. Soc. Ent.. France. JiKM. IllO.").) 

Apatetica lehioidcs. Westw., is described and fijiured from the 
Himalayas (Cab. Or. Entom. PI. XLl, fig. !)). It is in a|ipearance a 
Carabid. and with its allv Pteroloma was formerly ))laced in the Ciira- 
bidcp. 

SCYU.M.BNII)^. 

lili/hfi rnvcrhu/ the iibdnmen. irhieh is si.c-jomfedhelnir. Ei/es roarseh/ 
i/rriHulnled. Tarsi five- jointed. 

This family includes small, usually winged beetles, of brown colour. 
covered with erect hairs, and in .structure closely allied to the last family 
from which they differ in the eyes and the more conical form. Tliey are 
found in ants' nests, in decaying vegetation, under bark, etc., and are 
probably largely predaceous, though there are few actual records of the 
food. The 14 known Indian species belong to the genera Sci/dma-nns 
(^t). Sundicits (1) and Euniicrus (5): they are of no economic impoitance 
whatever, are only seldom found and are never abundant. 

P.'tELAPHID.E. 

Eh/lrn short : ahJomcn of five {rarehj six) ventral seiiments ; niaxil- 
lari/ palpi large and tarsi three-jointed. 

An extensive family of small beetles, imperfectly known. It differs 
from the next chiefly in the abdomen. The colours aie sombre, brown 
predominating. The beetles are known to be predaceous on small forms 
of life, such as mites and in some cases (Claviger) are myrmecophilous : 
the family is widely spread but little known. Two sub-families are recog- 
nised. Pselaphides with many genera, Clavigerides with few. The 
family are of no importance economically and our knowledge of Indian 
forms must remain small until Indian beetles are far more carefully 
collected. 



288 



COLEOPTERA. 



Raffraylias catalogued tlie known species (Ann. Soc. Ent. France- 
1003-1904, and Genera Insectorum, 1907). He lists 5.3 Pselnphhus 
and one Clavigerine as occurring "' in India,' ' 
the majority having been found in Ceylon 
and Burma. (No less than sixty additional 
Indian species are characterised by Raffray 
as "species mentioned by Motschoulsky 
but not "described;" these are included 
in Atkinson's catalogue but are not valid 
species). Raffray has since described nine 
species from the Nilgiris and Belgauni (Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Beige, 52, 205). We have found 
one species in an ant's nest (Mijrmecocijstus 
setipes) in Behar; the only known Indian 
Clav'iqerine beetle is Mastiqer abruplus, Fig. 163.-Dinopterus 

Mots' described as from Calcutta. ,S^Z^., 




Staphylinid.^. — Rove Beetles. 

The elytra truncate and covering only the base of the abdomen, which 

is long toith ten dorsal and at least seven visible ventral segments. 

Tarsi variable, three, four or five-jointed. 

In this family are small beetles, rarely exceeding one-quarter of an 
inch in length, usually recognisable in the field from all but Nitidulidce. 
The colours are usually sombre, browns and blacks as in most surface 
insects, while a few which live openly on plants exhibit a brighter 
colouring (e.g., Pcederus). 

The antennae are of moderate lejigth, simple, the head large with 
short biting trophi ; the prothorax is distinct, the sides of the body 
more or less parallel and the abdomen long, tapering and flexible. The 
large folded wings are concealed under the small truncate elytra, which 
meet in a straight line in the middle over the base of the abdomen. 

The legs are short, formed for rapid running ; the tarsi are often 
three- jointed, in some four or five-jointed throughout, and in a number 
the fore tarsi are four- join ted, the posterior tarsi with five pairs of joints. 
The integument is less thickened and hardened than in most beetles, 
the abdominal segments are mobile and readily turn up, suggesting the 



STAPHYLINID.B. 



289 



Forfin(lid(P which these beetles much lesenible at first sight. The tip 
of the abdomen is curled upwards over the dorsum to assist in packing 
away the wings under the small elytra after flight. 

Nothing is on record as to the life-history of Indian species. In 
general the larviv resemble the imagines in general form, witli large 





Fig. 164.— Lbiicocraspe 

nUM PULCHELLUM. 
^From Kra(i(.z.\ 



Kig. 105. — Leptochirus mandibularis 

LARVA (LEFT) : UOLOSUS TACHINIFORMIS. 
[Frtnn Kraal.z.) 



heads, shorter antennie and prominent mandibles : the body tapers and 
is provided with two dorsal processes and a short anal tube. The latter 
assists in locomotion much as the anal prolegs of a caterpillar. The 
larval habits are probably similar to those of the imagines, though the 
larvie live a more retired life and are not readily found. They form 
part of that great fauna which lives on the surface of the soil ui conceal- 
ment, and of whose habits we are profoundly ignorant. The study 
of the habits of this immense fauna is far less advanced than that, for 
instance, of the plant feeding species and there is here an immense 
field for research. 

"L 19 



290 



COLEOPTERA. 



The beetles have a variety of habits, feeding on decaying vege- 
tation, decaying animal matter, small insects and probably other small 





Fig. 166.— Staphyli 

NUS CHLOROPTBRUS. 
L4KVA. 

(After Ptrris). 



Fig. 167.— Heaii of lakva 

OF STAPH YLINUS CHLOROP- 
TERUS. 

(AJIn' Ferris). 



forms of life. A few frequent plants for the purpose of obtaining plant 
sap or pollen. Some live upon fungi and none are known to be feeders 
on living plant tissues or directly injurious. They are, on the whole, 
scavengers, with a tendenc\ to being predatory. Exceptional species 
have been found in ant's nests, and there are probably a considerable 
number of these Myrmecophiious forms in India. The larger forms can 
exsei-t two vesicles from the hind end, which set free a noisome fluid. 

The familv is a very large one. not much studied. Atkinson lists 
28<) Indian species and over fiO have been since described. The papers 
of Motschulsky and Kraatz prior to the Munich Catalogue, and those 
of Fauvel and Eppelsheim more recently, contain the desciiptions of 
most of our species. Wassman has described the Myrmecophiious 
forms. We figure the large Staphylinus semipurpureus, a giant among 
the species of this family found in the moister parts of India. 

The only common genus likely to attract attention in the plains is 
Pcederus which includes several small species coloured in dull red and 
blue, which are common on plants and run actively about on crops. 
They have been seen to feed on pollen but have not been found to be 
injurious and at times they are ceitainly predaceous on small 



TRICHOPTERYOin.^. 



291 



insects ; m one instance they fed upon the egg masses of Caradrin<i 
exigua and destroyed large numbers. 





Fig. 168. — Myrmedonia 

L-«VIGATA KK. 
(From Kiualz). 



Fig. 169.— Staph YLlNf- 

PUEEUS. 



Collecting. Stapliyhnids are found most readily by searching in 
damp decapng vegetation, in rotting fruits, under stones, at small 
carcases ; many come to light and a few are foiuid on plants or running 
on the surface of the soil. Moisture seems to be a necessary condition 
for their well being. None appear to have been reared in India. For 
the collection all but the largest forms should be very carefully gummed 
on card, the abdomen being carefully drawn out as it is apt in drying 
to shrink. It is to be hoped that more attention will be jiaid to the 
habits of these small and insignificant insects, which may be fomid to 
play an important role. Careful observation and rearing is required 
coupled with through and exhaustive collecting ; results of great inter- 
est and possibly of economic value will reward the ])atient investigator. 



Trichopterygid.e . 

Antennw with a three jointed club. Ehjtra abbreviated or complete 

Wings fringed with hair. 

The smallest known beetles are here included, measuring from 1 2") 

to 1 75 of an inch in length. A characteristic feature is to be found in 

the wings, which consi.st of a narrow stalk bearing a blade set with long 



292 COLEOPTERA. 

hairs on each side. These wings fold under the elytra. These little 
beetles are found amongst decaying vegetable matter and under the 
bark of trees ; most are shining brown and are apt to be passed by on 
account of their small size. They are often found in numbers together. 
No Indian species appear to have been reared. The larvgp of the known 
species are stated to be active and predaceous on small insects. Pteni- 
dium macrocefhalum, Nietn. . with several Ceylon species is recorded. 

CORYLOPHID.E. 

Verii small beetles, the antennce of peculiar form, six free abdominal 
sefjments, tarsi apparently three-jointed . 

Like the Trichopteriigidn , many of these small beetles have fringed 
wings. Eleven species are known from Ceylon and one from Burmah. 

SCAPHIDIID.^. 

Abdomen with six or seven visible ventral segments, the basal ventral 
segment large. Tarsi of five joints. Elytra truncate, with two 
longitudirud striw, with raised points between. Antennce with the five 
apical joints broadened. 

These small beetles are found in mushrooms and beneath stones. 
They are recognisable only from careful examination of the whole 
characters. The antenna? are but slightly clubbed. The truncate 
elytra expose only the apex of the abdomen. The wings are well 
developed and the beetles are active. The apex of the abdomen 
as seen from below is conical and rather long. Only a few genera 
are known and these are widespread. Scaphidium, conjunctum 
Motsch., S. Junatuni, Motsch. and S. cyanellinn, Obart, are recorded 
as Indian with several Ceylon species. 

HlSTERID.^. 

Elytra usually truncate. Integument hard, body compact. Antenyue 
of one long basal joint, a number of small joints{7). and an apical 
club of three joints. 
These small hard beetles are generally recognisable at sight from 

their general build and the above characters. Nearly all are black or 



HISTERID^. 293 

dark blue, a few variegated with brown (ir yellow. The colouring 
is that common to so many beetles which live in concealment and on the 
soil. The body is thickset and short, sometimes very markedly flat- 
tened : the integument is peculiarly hard and the whole structure com- 
jiact anil neat. Tlu' upper surface is commonly bare and shining, the 
elytra smooth or with indented lines between which are punctures, whose 
form is suthciently constant to serve in species discrimination. The 
head is small and retracted, the antennie short, hidden in repose, the 
biting mouth-parts well developed, the mandibles often long and con- 
spicuous. The prothorax is large, receiving the retracted head and 
broadly united to the abdomen. The elytra are truncate behind and 
do not cover the pygidium. The legs are short, folding under the body 
in repose, the tibiae broadened and fitted for digging. 

No species appear to have been reared in India, and little is known 
of the details of the metamorphosis of the family at all. 80 far as known 
the larvise are active and predaceous. They have anal cerci. the labrum 
and ocelli are wanting and they live wholly in concealment. The 
adults are found under bark or stones, among roots, in dung, in car- 
casses, in dead insects ; some (Teretrius, Teretriosoma), are known to 
be predaceous in the bores of Bostrichid beetles, others on insects 
found in the spots they frequent. A species of Hister is stated to 
feed on A(/rntis larv.e in Corsica (Ann. Soc. Ent., France, ISiU, p. 304). 
How far they are scavengers themselves and how far predaceous upon 
insects is uncertain ; none are in any degree injurious and it may be 
found that as a whole they are beneficial. They are rarely found 
in the open by day and are jtrincipally nocturnal in habit. 

Marseul's Catalogue (Ann. .Soc. Ent., France, 18(52). enumerated 
lOKJ species of which 51 were Indian. Many additions have been made 
since that time and Lewis has published descriptions of many new spe- 
cies in the " Annals of Natural History." In his recent Catalogue, 
Lewis enumerates 95 as occurring in India and Assam, apart from 
Ceylon and Burmah. These are Niponius (3), Hohlepta (5), Trype- 
iicus (1), Teretriosoma (i). Teretrius (1), Plcesius (1), Apobleies (2), 
Platylister (;i), Pldtysoma {(^), Eblisia (1), Pa-hf/lister (5), Hister (23). 
Epierus (1), Par lii/lo mains (1), Cypturus (4), Phelister (I), Anai/ ymma 



294 



COLEOPTERA. 



(1), Nolodowa (1), Sitaliii (1), Epk-chmus (1), Ahnms (3), Halacritiis 
(1), Saprinus (14), Gnathoncus (1). 





Fi;,'. 171. — HOLOLEPTA 
INDIIA. 



Fig. 170. — PAt'HYLI.SIER 
BENGALEN.SIS. 



Till- family is divided into a mimbev of sub-families which need 
not conceiu us. Hololepta and Plali/tsoin'i include flattened black spe 
cies found under the bark of trees, where they prey upon bark- 
feeding insects. In Hololepta ehnijata, Er. this flattening is carried 
to an extraordinary extent, the beetle being scarcely thicker than a 
visiting card. Hister is the abundant genus with many species ; H. 
javanus, Payk. is common in cow dung in the plains as is also H. bipus- 
tulatus, Fabr. var immaculatus. Saprinus interruptus, Payk. repre- 
sents this genus commonly, the beetle being black with a large yellow 
blotch on each elytron. 



Phalacrid.e. 

Antennre tvith a distinct three-jointed club. Tarsi five-jointed, fourth 
joint small. Abdomen five visible ventral segments; front coxce 
globular, hind coxce contiguous. 

A family closely resembling the next, but distinct in the structure 
of the coxa\ There are but few genera and the Indian species appear 
to be little known. Olihrus (5 spp.), Augasmus (3 spp.), and Phalacrus 
(5 spp.) are the recorded genera. 



NlTIKULID.t:. 



295 



NiTIDULIU.E. 

Antennw with a club of three joints. Tarsi five-jointed, fourth joint 
smallest ; abdomen with five free ventral segments. Anterior coxw 
transverse ; elj/tra often truncate. 
Small beetles, of blown or black colour, finely pubescent above, 

whicli have a general resemblance to Staphi/linidrp as many have the 





Fif. 172.— Caki'oi'hilus hemip- 

TERl'S, X iO. 



Fig. 173.— Larva of amphi- 

CROSStJS DIS-COLOE. 



elytra truncate, leaving the apical half of the abdomen exposed. The 
structural characters above separate them from other beetles and they 
can often be recognised in the field. 

The known larvic live principally in flowers, feeding, for instance, 
on the anthers, but also in dead animals and in decaying fruits. Car- 
pophilus hemipterus, lives in dried fruits and similar food articles, feed- 
jng on this or possibly on moulds or fungi growing on this material. It 
has been reared from larvae found under the sheathing leaves of 




29fi COLEOPTERA. 

bamboos. The beetles are found in a variety of situations; many come 

to fallen fruits or to damaged fruits or plants to obtain the sap. 

Others are found in flowers, 

particularly cotton flowers, in 

injured bolls, in the bores of 

insects, at cut canes, in almost 

any situation where they can 

obtain the sap of plants. Others 

are found at decaying animal 

. ,.,. , ,, , Fi;;. 174.— CARPOl'HILrS HKMIPTEKUS, 

matter, or m mding at the roots i.arva x 3-^ 

of plants, under leaves, etc. They 

have also been found breeding in the decaying fibres of the fruits of 

a palmyra palm and are common among decaying vegetable matter 

breeding freely in decaying mangoes, for instance. Others are found 

killed by the sticky leaves of the tobacco plant. 

Murray summarises the habits of the group as follows : — 
" The chief function of this family is that of scavengers. Theii' 
main business is to clear off decaying substances from the face of the 
earth, especially those minute and neglected portions which have es- 
caped the attention of other scavengers whose operations are conducted 
on a larger scale. We may characterize them in one point of view as 
retail scavengers. They are so to speak, users-up of waste 
materials. After the beast of prey has satisfied his hunger on the 
animal he has slain, after the hyana and the vulture have gorged them- 
selves on its carrion, after the fly with its army of maggots has consumed 
the soft parts, after the burying beetles and the Silphidae have borne 
their part in the clearing away and when nought but the bones remain, 
then come the Nitidularice to go over what they have left, to gnaw off 
every fragment of ligament or tendon and to leave the bones as nearly 
in the state of phosphate of lime as external treatment can. In anothei' 
point of view, however, their employment is wholesale and wide enough. 
They conduct their operations all over the world, their branches extend 
into the most remote district ; the materials with which they have to 
do, although mere waste, have no other limit to their variety or their 
number than the organized substances found on the surface of the globe. 
As in all great establishments, too, the principle of division of labour 
is carried to a great extent. Each different kind of substance has a 



COSSYPHODID^. 297 

(litTeront luiMuher of the firm told oft" to take charge of it. One species 
confines itself to rotten oranges, another to bones, a tliird to putrid 
fungi, a fourth to decaying figs. Decaying wood, decaying bark, decaying 
flowers, decaying leaves, all furnish distinct employment to different 
species. They are not all scavengers, however. Many pass their lives 
in flowers ; othera feed upon fresh victuals ; and Mr. Frederick Smith of 
the British Museum has, whilst I write, brought to my notice a species 
of Brackt/peplus (B. auritus) which he has received from Australia, in 
a wild bee's nest, where it feeds, both in the larva and perfect state 
on the wax and honey." (Trans. Linn. 8oc. Lond., XXIV, pp. 211-414 
lS(i4.) 

Though of no economic importance, they are common insects and 
will be readily observed on crop plants under circumstances that would, 
in the absence of careful observation, give rise to the suggestion that 
they were themselves the originators of damage, whereas they are es- 
sentially the followers of decay. 

Murray monographed part of the family in 1864. (Trans. Linn. 
Soc, XXIV), while Reitter completed the work in 1873 (Verh. Ver. Brimn., 
XII, pp. 5-194). Many species have been added since by M. Grouvelle, 
including Father Cardon's species (Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, 1891, 1892), 
and Harmand's Darjeeling species (Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 190."3, p. 108). 
A total of over 100 are known from India inclusive of Ceylon. Carpo- 
ph ilus I ove I coll i!>,Mu.v. and V. heniipterus, L., are found under the sheath- 
ing leaves of bamboos where their larvae live and the latter, with other 
species, breeds freely in dried fruits in stores and godowns. C. dinii- 
diatus, F. var mutilatus, Er., is the common small brown species found 
in borer holes in canes, in cotton flowers, etc., in the plains. It has 
been reared from larvte found in bores of CJiilo simplex in juar, the larva? 
feeding in the decomposing tissues. They pupated in the soil and re- 
mained two months as pupap during the cold weather. Amphicrossus 
discolor, Er., is a rounder deep brown insect, which has been bred from 
larva' found under the bark of Semul (Bomhax malaharicum). 

COSSYPHODID.^. 

A small family of beetles, separated by Wassman from the foregoing 
and following families to receive certain Myrmecophilous insects. 



298 



COLEOPTERA. 



Cossjiphodinuii indicus, Wassman, lives with Pheidole sulcatkeps, Rog.. 
and is the sole recorded Indian species. (Fig. 153). 

CoLYDIIDiE. 

Antennrp cluhbed or dilated towards the apex. Tarsi four- jointed ; 
five visible ventral segments. 
These are small beetles of varied form foimd under bark in decay- 
ing trees or in fungi. They are not common and but few species are 
known from India. Tarphiosoma indicum. 
Wal.. is described from Coimbatore. 
Dastarcus and Colobicus are also re- 
presented. Botrideres is, in Europe 
known to be predaceous on the larv<p of 
the Bostrichid beetle, Sinoxi/lon, which 
bores in wood, and Stebbing records 
the same in India. A total of 17 species 
are recorded, Dastnrcu-^ indicus, Fairm., 
being common under the bark of trees 
in the plains. 




Fig. 175.— D^-STAKLis iNCicus. 



Lathridiid-^!. 
Tarsi three-jointed ; antenme with a club formed of one, two or three 
joints. Ventral abdominal segments five or six, free, the first longest. 

Small beetles rarely more than one-tenth of an inch long, found in 
ants' nests and in decaying vegetable matter, where it is supposed they 
eat fungi. None appear to have been reared in India. Wassman 
writes about Goluocera maderw, Wall, and 0. Beloni, Wasm. Zeits. Wiss. 
Insecten Biol. I, p. 3S4) which live with Prenolepis hngicornis and 
Pheidole spp. in India. Assmuth observed the former to move with 
the ants along their runs when shifting nests and Wassman comments 
on the fact that C. Maderie, like Mi/rmecophila prenolepidis, is found in 
the nests of this ant in South America as in India, the beetle and cricket 
having apparently been carried by shipping with the ant. 

Eighteen species are recorded in Genera Insectorum as Indian : 
Goluocera (1\ Holoparamecus (<>), Lalhridius (1), Ericmus (1), Cortica- 
ria (3), Melanophthalma (5), Migneauxia (1). 



TROCOSITID.K. 



291t 



'rKOCOSITlD.K (TeMNOC'HILIU.K, OsTOMID.lc). 

Tarni irilli lour (ipptirciit, bid five iirtudi (the first siikiII), joiiitK. An- 
ti'timv Willi terminal sci/ineiUs dilated at one side. 
These beetles may lie recognised with care, though superficially 
they cl()S!'iy resemble those of other families. They are small dark 
coloured beetles, with short antenna', a well 
developed prothorax, the elytra closely 
fitting over the abdomen and short running 
legs and are predaceous in their habits. The 
species aie in general found under the bark 
of trees and in decaying woody matter. Te)i,- 
ebroides (Trogosita) niauritanica, Linn., is a 
cosmopolitan insect of which much is written 
but little known. It is commonly found 
in stored grains such as wheat, etc., and in 
almonds and similar seeds, but is generally 
accounted as a pretlaceous insect, really useful since it feeds on other 
insects that feed on the wheat ; against this must be put the fact 
that it has been reared in India more than once from almonds and 
rice in which no other insect was found ; it is probable that, in view 




Fig. 176.— TROtiO.srr.* 

MAUKITANICA, X S. 




Fig. 177.— Trogosita 

MAURITANICA LARVA, X ! 




Fig. 178.— Alindria parallela, x U. 



300 COLEOPTERA. 

i)f all the evidence, the larva is grain-eating, the beetle predaceous, 
that it was once a grain-eating insect, became predaceous, but still 
can feed on grain if insects are not available. A. M. Lea records 
both larva and imago as feeding on caterpillars in Tasmania 
(1908). The larva causes a pecuhar form of injury to wheat seed, eating 
out the embryo only and leaving the remainder of the grain intact. 
It is worth noting that it is found living in the open, the larva feed- 
ing on larvae that live under the bark of the oak and chestnut trees in 
Europe. Alindria parallela, Lev., is a larger black insect caught at 
light during the rains and Lardites chevrolati, Reitt., is to be found 
under the bark of trees. 

A. Leveillee has catalogued the family (Ann. 8oc. Ent., France, 
1900, p. 1). He gives 17 species as found in the Indian region including 
Alindria (3), Melambia (4), Temnochila (1), Asava (1), Tene- 
broides (1), Acrops (3), Grijncharina (i), Anojrona (3) . 

MONOTOMID.^. 

Two Darjeeling insects are recorded, Europs indica, Grouv. and 
Europs harmandi, Grouv. (Ann. Soc. Ent., France, LXXII, p. 123). 

CUCUJID.B. 

UsKiilly small brown fattened beetles, tarsi apparenth/ four-jointed, the 

first joint often small. Antennce lomj, with a small 

club (often absent). 

These little beetles do not readily come into a general definition 
and are not easily recognisable. The family as a whole are found under 
tree bark, in decaying wood and attacking stored produce. Several 
species are found feeding upon grain and stored produce in India, 
and others have been recorded in Indian Museum Notes. The most 
noted is Silvanus surinamensis, Fabr., whose larva lives in dried 
fruit, flour, dried mohwa (the calyx of Bassia latifolia) and similar vege- 
table matter. The complete life-history occupies about 7 weeks : the 
eggs are laid in the food, the larva? feed inside or between two pieces 
and pupate in a chamber closed in with bitten pieces of their food. 
This insect causes considerable annual loss in India, attacking Mohwa, 



CUCUJID^E. 



301 



foi' instance, during tlie rainy weather and l)reeding in it steadily till 
iniK'li is lost. La-mophld IIS pitsiUus, F., is a brown beetle which has 

been reared from larva' in dried fruit 
and in ship's biscuit in Calcutta. 
Linnotmetus ferruginpus, Gerst., was 
recorded as feeding upon cut cane 
and probably habitually feeds upon 
sap. L. insignis, Grouv., was found 
in the wood of a tree bored by 
Sinoxyhn and is probably e((ually 
harmless. Hectarthntni heros, F. 
{hrevifnssvm, Newm.) is a larger 
Ijlack beetle, found under tree bark 
and in wood tunnelled by borers. 
About twenty species are recorded 
as Indian, and many remain to be 
Fis. l79.-S.Lv..Nrs scK.NA- recorded when they are more col- 

MRNsi.s, X 20. lected. 






Fig. 181.— Cucu.ius 

H.«MATODES LARVA. 
{From Clinpu !.«.> 



Fig. 18U.— SILVANUS STT- 
BI.VA.MF-NSIS, LARVA, x20. 



302 coleoptera. 

Cryptophagid^. 

Antennce with a three-jointed cinb. Tarsi fire-jointed, rarely hele 

romeroiis in males. Five abdominal visible ventral 

segments, first longest. 

Small oblong beetles, pubescent above, found in mushrooms and 

decajang plants. Ten Indian species are described by Motschulsky 

Reitter and Grouvelle. 

Helotid^. 
Five visible ventral segments. Basal tarsal joint reduced. 
This is a small family of beetles resembling the Erotylidw in ap- 
pearance and found feeding on the flowing sap of trees. Helota is 
represented by twenty species from the hills, mainly described by Rit- 
sema (Notes, Leyden Mus., 1893-1901). Helota mellyi, Westw., is des- 
cribed and figured from Simla (Cab. Or. Entom., PL XLl, Fig. 8). H. 
servillei, Ho. (Coleopterists ' Manual, 3, p. 187) from Poona and H. 
Guerinii, Ho. (loc. cit., p. 188), are the previously described Indian 
species. 

THORICTIDiE. 

Antennce clubbed ; prothorax large, elytra short. Tarsi five-jointed. 
Head sunk in prothorax. 
A small family of peculiar beetles, of which very little is known, 
and which are separated on the above structural characters. Thorictui 
heimi. Wassm. (Fig. 153), is myrraecophilous and T. indicus, Grouv.^ 
was found at Belgaum. 

Erotyltd.^5. 
Antennce with a three or four-jointed club. Tarsi with five joints 
the fourth joint reduced in some forms, the basal three 
often broad and pubescent. 
A moderately large family of small beetles, found chiefly in mush- 
rooms and plant stems, where also their larvae live. The fourth tarsal 
joint is so small as to be scarcely visible and they appear to have four- 
jointed tarsi. The individuals of the family will scarcely be distin- 
guished by the above characters and the accurate diagnosis of the family 



COCCINELLID^E. 



303 




Fig. 182.— Tethalaxcukia 

ELONOATA. 



iiiclucles the troplial characters also. Males and females are murh 
alike with no marked sexual characters. Apparently no Indian spe- 
cies has been reared and but few larv* 
are known at all. The greater number 
of the species are found in the New 
World: Fowler and Kuhnt have listed 
the family in Genera Insectorum (1909). 
Lnnquriinw are represented in India, 
by elongate slender beetles, the elytra 
with metaUic blue or green colouring, 
the prothorax dull red or metallic green ; 
they are found on the leaves of plants 
but not apparently in the plains. One 
species (Tetralanc/iiria elongata F.) is very 
common in the hills and can be caught in numbers. This genus in 
America contains the "Clover Stem Borer" (T. inozardi, Lac.) a 
minor pest and the Indian species will probably be foimd to be borers 
in plant stems also. A total of .'5.") species are described from India, 
wholly hill forest insects. 

Erottjlina — A total of .'51 species are known, from hill and forest 
locahties almost wholly. Ainhh/npiis. TripJax, Aulncnchilus, Episcapha 
are the commoner genera. Gorham's papers on the collections of 
Andrewes should be consulted. (Ann. 8oc. Ent. Beige., 189.5, p. ."528, 
1903, p. 323.) 

Mycetophagid.b. 
Antennce irith a tiro or three- jointed club. Tarsi four-joinlcd, 

the anterior tarsi three-jointed in males. 
Small beetles of dull colour found in "Mushrooms" and under 
the bark of trees. No Indian species are recorded, though several are 
known from Ceylon. 

CocciNELLiD.E. — Ladijhird Beetles. 
Tarsi apparenth/ three- jointed, the second joint expanded and 
pubescent. Antenna' short, not clubbed. 
These small beetles are most readily recognised by their oval or 
rounded form, and their warning colours which include black, red. 



304 



COLEOPTERA. 



yellow and brown, alone or together. The tarsi at once separate them 
from the family they are most readily confused with in the field, the 
Chrysomelidce, these having apparently four- 
jointed tarsi. They are most closely allied 
to the Endomychidce but differ in the anten- 
nae, which in the latter are clubbed. These 
beetles are rarely more than one-quarter of 
an inch long ; the head is small and nearly 
hidden by tlie prothorax (see Hippodamia) 
which fits smoothly into the rounded elytra. 
The antennae are not distinctly clubbed, 
short biting mouth parts are not conspicuous, 
under the body and formed for running. Males and females are not 
distinguishable on superficial characters and are of the same size, as a 
rule, the male sometimes smaller. 




Fig. 183.-A. CoCtlNELLID 
B. CHRYSOMELID TARSI'S. 

moderately long. The 
The legs are short, hidden 



The life-history is well known and several Indian species have been 
reared. Eggs are laid in clusters, openly on the plants, and are cigar- 
shaped yellow bodies laid 
on end. (Plate XVII.) 
The larvse are active, 
widest in the middle and 
tapering to either end ; the 
head is small, the thoracic 
segments broad. Each 
segment has spines or 
tubercles bearing hairs. 
The abdomen tapers and 
there is an anal foot which 
assists locomotion. Most are black or slate coloured, some a vivid 
red and a number have waxy processes similar to those of the mealy 
bugs on which they feed and which render it difficult to distinguish 
them from their prey. When full grown, they pupate openly on a 
plant, the larva firmly fixing itself by its anal foot and the pupa 
remaining often partly enveloped by the larval skin which bursts along 
the dorsal surface. The larval, as the pupal, life is short, the whole life 
history occupying but a short time, often not more than three weeks. 




Fig. 184.— CHII.OI ORUS NIfiRITllS LARVA X 8. 



PLATE XVI r. — Chilomene8 Sexmaculata. 
The Six-spotted Ladybird Beetle. 



Fig. 1. 


Egg when laid. 




2 


„ just before hatching. 




„ 3. 


Larva, first instar. 




., 4. 


third ,, 




1) 5- 


,, fourth ,, 




„ 6. 


Pupa. 




„ 7. 


Imago. 




., s. 


Cotton plant with aphides. 




„ 9- 


Egg cluster on leaf slightly magnified. 




„ 10. 


Larva ,, „ ,, 




„ 11. 


„ .> » 




„ 1-2. 


Imago ,, „ ,, 




Tlie black haii-liues show the iictual size of the figures 1 — 7, 


and til 


wliite one.s on the plant those of 8 to 12 on the plant. 





COCCINELLID.E. 



305 




Fig. 185.— C'HILOCORUS XKiKITI'S 
LAKVA >. 8. 



Hibernation or periods of scarcity are universally ])assed in the imago 
stage, the beetles living for long periods without food and awaiting 

the proper conditions for egg-lajang. 
The imago is protected by the exud- 
ation of oil. in some cases, an acrid 
yellow Huid being excreted at pores 
on the margin of the prothorax or at 
the joints of the legs. With the excep- 
tion of Epilachnides. nearly all are 
predaceous upon scale insects, mealy- 
bugs, aphides and similar small forms 
of life. Many species are known though 
no complete list of Indian forms is 
available. The most important of the 
plains forms are described below ; this 
by no means exhausts the common 
species, and much has yet to be learnt 
of the species which prey upon the less evident forms of pests. Each 
species appears to have a well defined series of prey, which it exceeds 
only when it must, and we know little of what preys upon the rarei' 
species of Aphides and Coceides. 

A great deal has been written about the value of introducing lady- 
bird beetles to destroy scale insects and the hke ; hundreds of trials 
have been made, a regular exchange of Coccinellids was established and, 
as a result, there was one real case in which good resulted. Unfor- 
tunately, the idea has been taken up by the Press at different times and 
still crops up. Ladybirds, like parasites, do their best where nature 
puts them, but cannot be moved about the world to eat indiscriminately. 
The species of this country play an essential part in maintaining an 
equable balance of life, and we have a large number of useful species 
which would repay more careful study. CocrineUids are divided into 
two series those with simple or bifid mandibles which feed on insects, 
and those with many toothed mandibles which feed upon plant tissues. 
All of the species mentioned are confined in the first series, excepting 
Epilachna. Crotch re\'ised the family in 1874 and since then Gorham 
has described numerous species (Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, liS92, 1894, 
l«t.",. i;»o:i) as has also Weise (Ann. 8oc. Knt. Beige. 18112. I8!t.^) and 

in. 20 



306 COLEOPTERA. 

Stettiner, Ent., Zeit. 1908). We may divide the family into the Cocci- 
nellmw insectivorous, Epilachninw herbivorous ; the former may 
be divided again. Of the Coccinellini, 84 species are recorded, of the 
Chilocorini'-yi. of the Scymnmi (Scymnus)'!^. Exoplectrini (Vedalia, etc.) 
10, and of the Rhizobiini {Aulis) five species. In the Epilachnina: 38 
species are described. These beetles are extremely variable in size, 
colouring and markings ; climate exerts a marked influence on them, 
and it is possible the number of distinct species is not really so large. 

Coccinella includes three common species, two of which are wide- 
spread in our limits. C. septempunctata, Linn., is the abundant Seven- 
.spotted Ladybird which is found on wheat and mustard. The larvse 
are slate coloured with yellow spots, very active and feeding voraciousl)' 
on the wheat aphis (Mmrosiphum (jranarimn, Kby.) and the Mustard 
aphis {Aphis hrassicce, Linn.). The beetle is red with three black spots 
on each elytron and a joint one at the scutellum, with some white on 
the prothorax and head. In the hills, as in Europe, the size of the 
black spots is constant; in the plains it varies immensely and some 
beetles have them so large that they fuse and almost cover the elytra. 
Like their prey, this species is found only in the cold weather in the 
plains ; the beetles have been found to go into dense grass and other 
sheltered spots in March where they apparently remain until the fol- 
lowing cold weather. This species is a very important check on the 
increase of the Aphides it feeds on and one of the most economically 
valuable insects in India. In the Punjab (and rarely further South), 
we find also the Eleven Spotted species, C. undecimpunctata, Linn., 
with a similar life-history and habits. Both are palearctic insects 
which have spread into the Punjab and further south and adapted 
themselves to the conditions by a prolonged period of rest ; the evid - 
ence points to this period of rest being passed in the imago stage. 
This species has only once been found in Behar while it is very common 
in the Punjab. Its usual southern limit appears to be in the United 
Provinces. 

(7. repanda, Thunb., is a widespread insect in the plains, the spots 
in the form of three black curved bands and a small central spot ; it is 
found abundantly in the cold weather feeding on mustard aphis, 
{A phis brassicfi') , and is reported to feed on A lemodes bergi, Zehn ., in Java. 



COCCINELLin.1^. 



307 



Then cincta, Fabr., is a round yellowisli insect found feeding on tlie 
fiuiting bodies (Peiithecia) of the fungus that attacks mulberry leaves 
iPln/llactinia cori/Ien, Karst.). Larva^ were reared upon this material 
and a great number of individuals were f(nind on the mulbeny Inishes. 
It presumably has other food also. 

Chllomenes sexmaculata, Fabr.. is the commonest species in the 
])lains. It is a small rounded beetle, varying in colour from red to 
canary yellow , usually yellow. It deposits eggs on the leaves of the 
cotton plant, among or near an aphis colony. Each egg is oval, almost 
cigar-shaped, about one-twentieth of an inch long, hght yellow in 
colour. (Plate XVII.) In captivity a beetle lays about 90 eggs in clus- 
ters of about !• each. These eggs hatch in four to five days, a small 
spinose larva appearing which at once begins to feed on aphis ; it runs 
actively about seeking aphides and crushed skins of the victims testify 
to its rapacity. In captivity each larva required about 200 aphides a 
day and Hved thus for 10 to 13 days. The young larva is black, with 
long legs, the body tapering to the hind end ; as it grows older, 
white spots appear and the full-grown larva is black with yellow and 
white blotches. Pupation takes place on the leaf, the larva fixing 
itself by the tail, the pupa only partly emerging from the cast skin in 
some cases. The beetle emerges after four to six days and also feeds on 
apliis. Besides the Cotton Aphis (Aphis gnssypii. Glov.), this species 
feeds on Aphis cardui, Linn., and on Aphis adu.-ta. Zehnt. When food 
is not available, the beetle waits, hiding in shelter until food is again 
forthcoming and eggs can be laid. These periods of rest may be of 
many weeks' duration, but if food is available, the species goes on breed- 
ing except in the very cold weather. 

Scymnus includes the smallest species. 

round pubescent beetles of usually dull brown 

or black colour. Sci/mnus xermnpelinus, Muh., 

is common, feeding on cotton aphis (Aphis 

gossypii, Glov.); the larva is clothed in 

white waxy processes which make it look like 

Fig. 1H6.-.SCVMNUS ^ mealybug : a single larva required 75 

.xERAMPRLiNu.s. « s. aphidcs daily for its food and lived 7 to 10 

days. The pupa remains in the cast larval 

skin, emerging as a beetle after a week. This species occurs with 




308 



COLEOPTERA. 



S. nubilans. Muls., throughout the plains, feeding also on cotton 
mealybug. We figure Aulis vestita, Muls. (PI. LXXXIV, Figs. 7, 8. 
9), found feeding upon Monophlebus. This beetle and its larva are 
found on trees infested by this mealybug and would readily escape 
notice. Like its prev the beetle appears only from February or 
earlier to May. and breeds freely at that time ; the beetle is found 
during the rains in concealment on the bark, awaiting the return of 
Monophlebus. (Mem. Agric. Dept., India, Vol. 11, No. VII.) 

Chilocorus nigritus, Fabr., is a moderate-sized round black beetle, 
very shiny, which feeds on Aphis mrd'd as well as several scale insects 
{Asterolecanium.) and aphides. It is widely distributed but rarely found 
abundantly. Brumus suturalis, Fabr.. is yellowish with black stripes 
on the elytra. It feeds on cotton aphis, cotton mealybug and probably 
other small sucking insects. The larva was reared on Phenacoccus in- 
solitus, Gr. ; it is a sluggish insect, grey covered with a fine white bloom, 
measuring about five millimetres in length, two and a half in breadth, 
the abdomen being the thickest part. It eats the mealybugs in all 
stages and pupates among them in the usual way, Clanis soror. We.. 
is a small round beetle found feeding upon the Castor Mealy Wing 
{Aleiirodes.S-p.). The stages are figured. (Plate LXXXI, Figs. 9. 10, 11.) 
Epilachna is herbivorous and is universally distributed. The 
beetles are comparatively large for this family, of a dull red-brown 
colour with black markings. The vari- 
ability of the markings has led to the 
species having many names and it is not 
clear how many species there are. Our 
common ones fall into two types, E. 
dodeca-stigma, Muls with 12 spots, E. 
vigintiocto- punctata, Fabr., with 28. These 
vary in colour, in size and number of 
spots, in extent of pubescence, and in 
the extent to which the colour is ob- 
scured by dark suffusion. So far as can 

be seen the life-history is the same throughout the common Indian 
forms ; eggs are laid in clusters on the leaves, which hatch to oval 
yellow grubs with spiny processes ; these feed on the epidermis of the 
leaf and pupate there when full grown, in the ordinary manner. 




Fi^. 187.- EplL.tCHNA VIOINTI- 
ULTO-rUNCTATA. 



ENDOMYCHtDi^. 



309 



Cucurbitaceoiis and Solanact>ous plants aii 
he destructive when abundant. 



Ihi'i?' food and tliey may 



('nllecti)Ki. — Cofcinellids are of sufli im])(ir- 
tance that no o]iportunity of collectino; 
should be lost, .\bove all. when collecting, 
it is useful to search carefully for their food ; 

I/^HM^^V*^, the value of each species depends wholly 

^J/ ^^l^^p'^ ll_^ \ipon their food and while some are restric- 

ted to one or a very few insects, others are 
probably less restricted. The question of 
food also determines the times at which 
they are prevalent and we are still largely ignorant of how these insects 
pass through the year. ( 'occinellid larvse are very easy to rear if given 
sufficient food and the adults, if well fed, lay eggs freely in captivity. 




Fig. 188.— EriLACHNA 

DODECASTIIIMA. 



ENnOMVC'HIT).^. 

Antenna' modcrnteh/ lomj with a threc-jointrd chih. Tarsi 

apparcntJi/ three- jointed but reaUij four-jointed ; 

the basal tn'o joints broad. 

These beetles are distinct from all but the preceding {Coccinellidw) 

in the peculiar tarsi : the longer clubbed antennae further separate them 

from Coceinellidce. The family is not a 

large one ; all known are apparently feeders 

on lichens and fungi, and are found in 

concealment often gregariously. They are 

characteristic of moister warm areas than 

the plains of India. The transformations 

of several species have been recorded in 

America and Europe, but much remains 

to be learnt. The student should consult 

Gorham's papers : the species of Ceylon 

are described (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1886. p. 

154) and some new Indian species (loc, cit. 

1807, p. 4.'5r), Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, 18SI.5. 

p. .328. 1<K)3, p. 323). Nineteen Indian 

. , Fig. 189.— Edmorphus 

species are recorded. pulchripes. 




310 coleoptera. 

Dermestid.e. 

Tarsi ivith five-joints : antennce short with a dub, and received under 
the prothorax in a cavity. Head retractile. 

These small beetles are not readily separated from those which 
come nearest to them unless the life-history is known, the commonest 
species, which are household pests, having 
characteristic larva'. The beetles are often 
clothed with fine hair or scales. The head 
in some bears a median ocellus. The api- 
cal joint of the antennae in the males may 
become enlarged. 




Fig. 190.— Df.rmestks vi'L- 



The life-history is known iir general but of 
no Indian species except the household ones. 
The larvae are predaceous or feed upon dried 
animal matter. The free- living larva> are 
found under the bark of trees and in similar 
situations where there is a quantity of 
PIN us F. X 41. insect larva? on which they can feed. House- 

hold species feed upon skins, horns, wool 
and similar dried animal matter. The larva> are characterised by the 
development of tufts of long hairs (Plate XVIII), which in some cases 
reaches an extraordinary development, especially in the predaceous 
free-living species. The reader should consult the figure in Sharp's 
Insects for a typical free-living Dermestid larva, such as is found under 
the bark of trees. Other larvae are provided with small terminal and 
lateral tufts of hairs, capable of being moved and extended. These 
larva? eat into their food, making holes in skins or horns and complet- 
ing their metamorphosis there. The length of the life-history is not 
known but it can be very greatly extended in every stage, if food is 
scarce. It is known that the eggs are capable of remaining unhatched 
for long periods, that larvae will starve and that the pupal stage may 
be a very long one. The pupa is commonly found almost wholly 
enveloped by the larval skin which is not shed but only splits along the 
dorsum. Several household species are likely to be foimd, having been 
recorded several times ; these are cosmopolitan insects spread by 
eomraerce. 



PLATE XVIII.— Anthrbnus Vorax. 
The Woolly Bear. 

Fig. 1. Larva, dorsal view, x 12. 
„ 2. Young larva, feeding on a bristle, x 12. 

,, 3. Pupa, in tlie larval skin, which is open along the dorsal line. 
X 10. 

llnaago. x 16 

„ 5. I 

„ 6. Egg. X 20. 



PLATE XVIII 




UVUKIIIll.K. 311 

The recorded speeies are less than twenty, including the cosmo- 
politan Dermestes cadavcrlnu/i. ¥., and the species mentioned below. 

Dermestes vulpinus, F., whose larva feeds upon the cocoons of silk 
worms, is common in India, as elsewhere. It is curiously fond of these 
cocoons eating through the silk to reach the pupa within, on which it 
feeds. Cleghorn mentions it as a destiuctive insect to silk in India, 
the cocoojis having to be quickly reeled off to avoid loss. (Indian Mus. 
Notes, 1, p. 47.) Silkworm cocoons (containing pupae) must be so 
packed that the beetle cannot get access to them or the cocoons on 
arrival will probably be infested and partly spoiled. Dermestes htva, 
is elongate, cylindrical, tapering behind ; the prothorax is large, the 
hind end bears two dorsal hooks and a ventral anal tube. Each segment 
has a dorsal plate, behind which is an erect row of long hairs and 
a backwardly directed row of stiff hairs ; there are longer hairs on the 
sides, and a third row on the prothorax. Aethriostoma undulata, 
Motsch., is found in wheat. Its larva is broad, with short hairs, with 
no anal tube or hooks. The part it plays in wheat is not ascertained 
but it is likely to be predaceous upon the other insects there or to feed 
on their dead bodies. The larva of Attagenus is similar but the seg- 
ments are completely hardened above and each segment fits over the 
next ; there are no hooks or anal tube, and each segment is clothed in 
scales, with also a row of hairs which extend on to the sides ; the hind 
end bears a bundle of hairs. A. ijloriosce, Fabr., probably occurs in 
India. The larva- of Anthrenus, Tiresias, Troyoderma, are provided 
also with bundles of long hairs on the posterior segments, these hairs 
being moveable and erectile, often of peculiar form; in Anthrenus the 
bundles are on the three posterior segments. A. vorax, Wat., is known 
to attack skins and horns in India, as well as woollen clothes and the 
bristles used in making brushes, and is constantly reported as destruc- 
tive. (Plate XVIII.) 

Byrrhid.*;. 

Antenna clubbed. Head retractcdj^tarsi five-jointed, 

a prosternal spine fits a mesosternal cavitij. 

Small oval beetles, convex and short, of dark colour, found under 

stones and on the soil in temperate regions. They are vegetarian, one 

genus {Chelonariinn) living also oii the leaves of trees. C. indicum, Gr., 



312 



COLEOPTERA. 



lives in the plains of India but is rare. Motschulsky described five 
Indian and one Burmese species of Byrrhinux. Four other species are 
described, Cheloiinrium indinim, Grouv., being the most widespread. 

GEORY.ssin.T.. 

Antenna' nine -jointed, three jnnnin(j a eliih. 

Tarxi of four joints. 

A tiny family of beetles distinguished on the above characters 

and chiefly found burrowing in soil in the Northern Hemisphere. 

Two species of (jeori/.'<su.'^ occur in Ceylon. 

Heterocerid^. 
Anlennw with n long seven- jointed eluh. Tarsi four-jointed. 
Semi-aquatic beetles found burrowing in the mud of river-banks 
and tanks. They are capable of stridulating and on being seized, emi: 





Fig. 191.— Heteeocbrus sr. 



Fig. 102. — Hetkroce- 

RUS MARGINATUS 

LARVA. 

(From Chapnis.) 



a sound. The life-history of the European species is known, the pub 
escent larvae burrowing in mud. Little is known of the Indian species 
six species being recorded. They are common in freshwater in India 
and come freely to light. The beetle is probably predaceous, feeding 
on the insect life of its habitat which is abundant and having its body 
and strong expanded legs formed for burrowing in the wet mud in 
which it lives. 



BOSTllYCHIH.K. 313 

Parnid^. 
Aniennir varinhlr. Tarsi five-jnintrd. the Irixt join' lan/r ; 
prostcrnnm produced in front to protect the mouth, 
behind to fit into the mesosternum. Aquatic. 
Small beetles clothed in fine pubescence, found in water. They 
are seen clinging to plants, stems and other objects in running watei- 
for which purpose they have the enlarged tarsal joint and claws, and 
the pubescence holds a sufficiently large bubble of air to supply the 
needs of respiration. The pubescence in Parnus covers the whole body, 
which is thus set in a bubble of air, but in Ehnis extends only along the 
ventral surface, to carry air to the spiracles. The family are possibly 
simply clavicorn beetles which have, from feeding on decajan" vege- 
tation near water, become aquatic and retain the same food habits. 
Their larva- are also aquatic, wholly unknown as yet in India. 

Less than ten species are recorded, in the genera, Dri/ops, Par/jqrus. 
Stenelmis and Sostea. Drt/ops opacus, Grouv., is the common species 
found frequently at light in the plains and hills. 

ClOID^. 

Antennr of eiijht to eleven joints, with a three-jointed club. 
Tarsi usuallij of four joints, the first small, the last 
long. Abdoynen of five segments, first longest. 
Small insects of cylindrical form, uniformly coloured in deep brown 
or yellow, with small impressed points on the elytra. The beetles are 
foimd in corky mushrooms, usually in all stages of development to- 
gether. Lyctoxylon japonum, Reitt., is recorded from the Himalayas 
and Japan. 

BOSTRYCHID.^. 

Antenna' irith a three-jointed club. Tarsi fire-jointed, 
basal joint small, second and fifth long. 

The family is recognisable most easily by the cylindrical form, the 
produced and tuberculate prothorax in many cases, and the general 
resemblance to Scoh/tidcr. from which they differ in the straight (not 
elbowed) antennse, in which the apical joints are often expanded on one 
side onl}-, and in their tarsi, which are five-jointed. They are small 



314 



COLEOPTERA. 



insects, scarcely as much as a quarter of an inch long and nearly 
always the dull black or deep brown of wood-boring and light-shun- 




Fig. 193. -BosTKVi/Hus .E(jualis lauva, imai^h anh hokkh wooh. | (. M.N.] 

ning insects. The body is cylindrical, the integument thickened and 
hard, the structure compact and the insect well fitted for boring tun- 
nels in wood. The legs are short, the femora and tibiae broadened, 
folding up under the body, the trophi are well developed and powerful. 
In many the front of the prothorax overhangs the head and is toothed 
and roughened, while in some the body terminates behind in a flat slope 
in which are tubercles, as if the hind end had been cut off obliquely 
and tubercles put in for the beetle to get a purchase on the sides of the 
tunnel. Males and females are aUke in appearance, the former the 
smaller. 



The life-history of some species is known and details must be sought 
in the literature of forest insects. In general, the beetles bore tunnels 
in wood, depositing eggs in these tunnels ; the larva- are white, the body 
white, soft and tapering behind, the apex curled round underneath. 
Thoracic legs are usually present, eyes are absent and there are small 
four-jointed antennse. Thevlarval food is the same as that of the 
imago ; pupation takes place in the larval tunnel, no cocoon being 
formed. In the known common plains species there are at least two 
broods yearly, the beetles emerging after the cold weather, a brood 



BOSTRYCHU).^?. 



315 



being completed before the rains and a second brood commencing then ; 

this may be a hibernation lirood or may emerge and yield a third or 

hibernation brood. In warmer parts 
of the plains there is no hibernation 
but it is not known whether there are 
then more than three brood^i. 

The family is of importance a^ it 
contains species which destroy cut 
timber or dry wood, as well as bam- 
boos : in one species at least, stored 
grain and food products are attacked. 
The fimction in nature of tliese beetles 
is to clear away dead wood : when 
these beetles attack furniture and cut 
wood, as well as bamboos, they are 
serious pests. The bamboo-boring 
species are extremely common in the 
plains but the remainder are almost 
wholly forest insects and only found 
outside forest limits in dry wood. 
There are two special points about the bamboo-boring species that are 
worth note ; there is a general belief, not confined to India, that 
bamboos must be cut at certain phases of the moon or they will be 
attacked by Bostrychids ; this is probably connected with the rise and 
fall of sap, bamboos cut at one time containing less sap than those cut 
at another ; secondly it is a general custom to soak bamboos in water 
for a number of days, after which they are not attacked ; any one 
may observe the effect of this by using unsoaked bamboos in a roof ; 
they are attacked very heavily and almost at once, while soaked bam- 
boos are not ; the explanation probably is that soaking removes not 
only sugar and soluble carbohydrates but also albumens, and leaves 
the bamboo without nutritious content. 




Fiji- 104. — A. HcOLYTlD. B. 
TIUIHII) ANTENNA. 



These beetles suflfer from a considerable number of enemies, small 
beetles which invade their tminels and attack them or their yoimg. 
Histerida of the genera Teretriosomo and Teretrkis are found in their 



316 



COLEOPTERA. 



burrows and Lesne mentioi^s a Cohjdiid beetle (Bnthrideres) which lives 
upon Sinoxjflnn crnsstim. Cleridw attack them also {C//lidrus, Dennps, 
Tillus, Opilo, etc.), and a Melt/rid (Axinotarsus) is also recorded. Hy- 
menopterous parasites are known but are uncommon. 

The family has recently been monographed by Lesne (Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France, 18%, p. 95; 1897. p. 319; 1898, p. 4:^8; 1000, p. 473; 
190(), p 445). He divides it as follows : — 



1. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 



Psoince. 
Poli/caoninw. 
Dinoderince. 
Bostrich ino' . 

1. Bostrichines. 



Bostrichi. 
Xyloperthi. 

2. Apatines. 

3. Sinoxylonines. 

Of the Polycaonincp, one Indian Hetrrnrfhron is recorded. The 
Dinoderince, Bostrichines and Sinoxylines are alone of any importance 
in India. In the first, five species of Dinoderus and one of Rhizopertha 
occurs in India. Of the Bostrichines, there are nine Bostrichi, and seven 
Xi/loprrlhi mcorded. Jnthe Sinoxi/lines, 17 Indian species are recorded. 



Dinoderus distinctus., Le., attacks the 
pilifrons, Le., is bred in bamboos, both green 
minutus, Fabr., is smaller than the prece- 
ding and is common also in bamboos. It 
was also found in cut sugarcane. Rhizo- 
pertha dominica, Fabr. (pusilln, F.), is a 
household pest boring into biscuits and 
other dry stored produce, as well as grain. 
It is apparently common in Indian houses 
and we have reared it from wh?at flour. 
Bostrichopsis parallela, Le., is mentioned 
by E. P. Stebbing as boring in bamboos. 
Bostri/chus aequalis, Wat. (fig. 192), was 
found in tea-boxes from Calicut. Sinoxijlon 
indicum, Le., has been captured in many 
localities in South India and Burmah, but 



branches of mango. D 
and dry, as in wood. D. 




Fig. 195.— DiNoiiEuus 

DISTINCTUS. \l. M. N. I 



317 



does not appear to have been reared. S. anah\ he., has a length of 
one-eiglith to a quarter of an ineliand is commonly found boring in cut 





Fig. 19K — SlNOXYI.ON ANALE. 



and dead wood. A number of trees it infests are recorded, as well as 
bamboos ; apart from its significance as a forest pest, it is hkely to 
be found anywhere in the plains. It is the species twice referred to in 
Indian Museum Notes (III, p. 12:3, V, p. 1I.'5) and we have reared it 
from ordinary dry wood in Behar. .S'. coniijeruDi. Gerst., is recorded 
in South India, and is widespread in the tropics. S. crasstim, Le., is 
referred to by de Niceville (Indian Mus. Notes, V. p. lOfi) as boring in 
Acacia catechu and is known to attack the cut or dead wood of other trees. 



Ptiniu.^e. 

Tarsi five- jointed. Antennw ojten ivith a feeble three- jh ml cJ 
club. Head retractile into the prothorax. 

Small beetles, often of cylindrical form, the integument hard : the 
tarsi are of five joints, the basal two subequal in length (c. f. Bostri- 
chida-). The colours are sombre, dark brown or black predominating. 
The antenna? are often feebly clubbed. 

The larvw are well-known as borers in wood, furniture, dried fari- 
naceous matter, books, drugs and tobacco. These larva> are of a form 
similar to the Lainellieornia, the body white and thickset, set with fine 
hairs, and curved back on itself; the head is small, with distinct eyes 
and small antenna> usually of two joints, the body is finelv wrinkled, 
and there are three pairs of legs. Tliese laiva' eat tunnels and are very 



318 



COLEOPTERA. 



destructive ; pupation takes place in a cocoon in the tunnel, 
beetles on emergence couple and lay eggs soon after. 

The family, which is a large 
one, is divided into two, the 
Pimides, with the antenna" in- 
serted on the frons, Anobiides 
with the antenna^ inserted on 
the anterior margin of the eyes. 
Ptinus includes the cosmopolitan 
P. fur, Linn., a museum pest, 
and P. niqerrim.mus, Boi. Gihhimu 
contains a cosmojiolitan species. 
G. scotias, Czen., a small shiny 
brown insect with swollen and 
united elytra, and no wings. It 
is a household pest and is re- 
corded (Indian Mus. Notes, I, 
p. 106) as feeding on the outer 
shells of opium cakes ; the larva 
makes a hard whitish cocoon 
of anal secretion ; we have reared 
it from the rubbish found in 



The 




Kifj. 107 



SlTOPREPA PANK 
ANfl IMAOO. 



the bottom of a cupboard of papers 
in an office in Dharwar ; the insect is 
common in Egypt and the East, 
feeding on all manner of dried animal 
and vegetable matter and is recorded 
from a box of cayenne pepper. 

Of the Anobiides, Anobiuni is the 
best known, the larvae boring in dry 
wood and furniture, the beetles in the 
tunnels producing the knocking noise 
known in England as the "Death 
Watch." Anohium (Sitodrepa) •panicea. 
Linn., is found attacking books, papers, 
dry wood and similar dried vegetable matter. Th^^ beetle and grub are 
both borers, making neat cylindrical tunnels in which they live. The 




iW.— GiBBIUM .SCOTIAS. 

[I. M. N.] 



PIRATE XIX. — Lasioderma Testaceum. 
The Cheroot Beetle. 

Fig. ]. Two eggs on a piece of tobacco leaf, x 10. 

2 Larva, as it is usually covered with particles of leaf, x 1 2. 

3. Larva divested of the covering, x 16. 

4. Pupa. X 16. 

5. Imago, dorsal view, x 12. 

6. ,, resting attitude, x 16. 

7. Bored cheroot. 



PLATE XIX. 




^Bfi^JI 



6 




mWtf 




mm 




4 



MALACODERMID.E. 3]!) 

beetle is said to knock witli its head in tlie tunnels, as a signal presiuu- 
ably to others of its kind. This is a cosmopolitan insect and is common 
in l)ooks in this country. Lasioderma Icstacea. Duft. (Plate XIX), 
is slightly broader but otherwise similar in appearance, pubescent brown 
with five lines on the elytra. It l)ores in cheroots and cigarettes, the 
larva also boring in the same place. This insect is a serious pest in cured 
tobacco and any form is liable to become infested. The larva pupates 
in a case in the tobacco or between the cheroots and the hfe-history is 
a short one. It is recorded as attacking opium in the Gazipur Factory 
(Indian Mus. Notes. I. p. 57) and is a well-known insect in South Indian 
tobacco factories. It may also be found in turmeric and probably 
other drugs sold in the bazaars. In addition to the above household 
species, nine species have been described from this country. No 
details of the lives of these free-Uving species are available. 

MALACODERMAT A . 

This grouji may be divided as foUow.s ;— 

Lycidw. \ 

Lampi/ridte. 

Telephoridce (CanOiaridfp). Here treated as Mrilacoddmida'. 

Drilidw, 

MehjridcB. {Malac/iiidw.) j 

Cleridce. 

Lymexi/Ionidw. 

Bhagophthaltnidm. 
Amongst important recent papers are Gorham's on the Andrewes 
collection (Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, 1895, p. 294; 1903. p. 323; Proc. 
Zool. Soc, London, 1S89. p. 96) and Bourgeois' papers (Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Beige, 1892, p. 7 ; 1905, p. 4fi ; 1906, p. 99 ; 1891, CXXXVII ; Bull. 
Soc. Ent. France, 1896, p. 117; Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1903, p. 
478; 1905, p. 127). For Li/cidcp, Waterhouse's Illustrations of Typical 
Coleoptera, Vol. I. is valuable and the Lampyridce are listed by Olivier 
in Genera Insectorum. 

Malacodermid.^. 
Tarsi five- jointed. Integument soft. Six. 
seven or eight ventral segments. 
This family is a large assemblage of forms which are difficult to 
define accurately but which are, as a general rule, easily recognised. 



;-520 



C'OLEOPTEKA. 



'J'he colours are often sombre, though many are yellow and a few a vivid 
red. They vary in length up to nearly half an inch. The body is flat- 





199.— Macrolycus 
bowrinoi. 







Kiff. 200. — Malacopek 

M[Il LAKVA, X S. 




Fig. 201.— Malacodermiu 

LAKVA, X 3. THK light 
PATIHES ON THE APEX 
OF THK ABIKIMEN ARE 

LUMINOUS. 



Kig. 202.— Luminous malacouer- 
MiD larva; or females, X 1. 

tened, the integument soft, the body without that hardness and rigidity 
which is a feature of most beetles. The head is generally concealed 
under the prothorax ; the antenna? are often pectinate, sometimes mo- 
nilifoim, serrate or vaguely clubbed. The large fiat pronotum fits 
loosely to the elytra, the latter lying over the abdomen but not accu 
lately adapted to it. The mouth-parts are usually feebly developed. 
Sexual differences are marked in a number of characters (most easily 
in the larger eyes which are often contiguous in the males) and some 



MALACODERMID^. 32 1 

females never attain to tlie winged form but remain as incompletely 
matured insects or are of the form of the males but with incompletely 
developed wings. The females of many species are unknown. 

Though these beetles are among the most abundant of Indian 
insects, little is known of their metamorphosis. They are themselves 
found in the moist warm parts of India in great abundance, in the drier 
parts of India in the rainy season only and less abundantly. The 
beetles are found during the day on plants, the brightly coloured ones 
openly, others in concealment, and they come out at night, only for a 
short time at a regular hour. Some are probably vegetable feeders, 
some predaceous, and their larvse are, in some cases, known to be pre- 
daceous on molluscs. One appears to have been reared in India ; the 
larva of Lamprophorus nepalensis is mentioned and figured : — (Ritsema. 
Tiydschr. Ent. XXXIV, p. CXIV, and Notes Leyden Mus. XIII, pL, 
X. 1891). 

Iji moist localities, as in the submontane forest areas, are found 
the peculiar flat larvae (Fig. -201) of the sub-family Lampyrinse. 
These insects are often over one inch long, the segments flattened, the 
notum forming a flat plate which covers the segment ; the head is con- 
cealed under the large pronotum and is protrusible, with small antenna^, 
slender curved mandibles and inconspicuous mouth-parts. There are 
three pairs of short legs, and the ventral surface of each segment has a 
brush of short stiff hairs : from the apex of the abdomen are protruded 
a bunch of soft slender filamentous processes which act as a sucker and 
give a firm hold on the soil. These are retractile and are normally com- 
pletely retracted into the rectum. On each side of the eighth abdominal 
segment is an oval white patch which becomes luminous at the will 
of the insect. The reduced spiracle occupies the middle of this patch, 
the remaining spiracles being laiger. This luminosity is very striking, 
a bright greenish white light being emitted. The light is evidently 
mider the control of the insect and can be quickly produced, though on 
the cessation of stimulus it fades only slowly. The luminous patches 
are on the ventral surface and though the overlapping dorsal plate is 
to a large extent transparent, the light is emitted principally upon the 
ground. These insects are nocturnal, are dependent upon moist condi- 
tions and feed upon snails. A large specimen required at least six 
small snails daily and with sufficient moisture and enough snails 
IiL 21 



322 COLEUPTEKA. 

throve in captivity. The luminosity is not used in feeding : tlie insect 
seizes a snail, curls over on its back with the snail held in its legs and 
slowly devours the muscular part, leaving the alimentary canal. 
This has been observed frequently and the luminous organ is not func- 
tional. What purpose this organ serves in a larval insect is not clear 
unless it be defensive. Quite young specimens exhibit it and though 
none of these larvae have been reared, all that have been observed in 
India are sexually immature and evidently larval. It is to be hoped 
that these curious -insects will be investigated by an observer situated 
where they are abundant and that the species to which they belong 
may be determined by rearing them to maturity. Olivier states that 
while the larvae are well known, in no single case has a larva been 
reared and the imago identified. A larva, apparently of this group, 
was found in Behar (Figs. 199, 200), an elongate, slightly flattened 
insect, of a dull reddish tint with soft integument ; the legs were well 
developed, and at the apex of the abdomen below were two light-emit- 
ting patches. Apparently this was a mature larva seeking a place in 
which to hibernate or pupate. 

The nature of the luminosity of these insects has been much dis- 
cussed ; certain tissues of the bodies of these beetles have the power 
of giving off light, just as other tissues exert a mechanical action or 
emit electrical energy. The luminosity is under the control of the 
insect and heat is not produced. It has been remarked that these in- 
sects can convert a quantity of energy into its full equivalent of light 
without loss due to the production of heat ; no means are known of 
doing this artificially and even the most modern devices for light pro- 
duction convert only a fraction of the energy into light. The precise 
object of this luminosity is not clear ; while most of the beetles are noc- 
turnal, a few are actually diurnal in habit and the luminosity would not 
appear to have any value. In the case of nocturnal species, the emis- 
sion of light may serve as a " warning signal " to bats and nocturnal 
birds but there is little to suppoit this view. It is more likely that 
this property is connected with sex, but it is also possible that it is a 
part of the vital activity of the insect which has no function but an 
ornamental and pleasing one. It is worth noting that the luminosity 
is greatest in those species which have the least developed antennae ; 
forms with long pectinate antenna? are the least luminous. 



5iAi,AC0DEinnii.T':, 



.'523 



in Indin the Liim])yride division of tins family includes the only 
Inmiiioii'^ iiisi'cts : the only other light-emitting insects in which the 
light is the direct production of the insect's tissues are the species of 
Pi/mplionis {El((t"rida>). whicli are confined to tlie Neotropical Region. 
This large family is divided into sub-families (tribes) as follows : — 
. Antenne inserted on the frons 
or at tlic base of the rostrum 
dorsally. 

(a) Intermediate coxa- separated. 
V>) .. ,. contiguous, 

antennie sub-contiguous. 
Antenna^ distant. 
II, Antennae inserted laterally in front 
of the eyes. 

((/) Clypeus not distinct. 

(b) Clypeus separated by a suture, 
Lijcince.—Ovev fifty species are recoided from India, lai'ge'y from 

hill forest localities. Red and orange are prevailing colours in our 

species ; the beautiful Lijcostomus 
prceustus, Fabr., is found in the plains, 
a deep orange insect with the elytra 
tipped with black. We have seen 
bushes so clustered with red Lycos- 
tomus as to appear to be covered with 
red blossoms. L. rufiventris. Wat., is 
another of our species, the colouring 
bright red ; it rests by day openly on 
a plant or grass stem, and is active 
at night only. 

LaiHpi/rime are monographed by E. 
(.)livi('i' in (ienera Insectorum (1907). 



I. Lijiiiuf. 

'1. fAUiiii/in'nrc. 
'■'>. Teh'jihnn'ncf. 



Drilince. 

Melj/rhirp. 




Fij;. -03.— Lycoisto.Mcs 
THuKAtlCU.S 



Indian species are as follows 
Lucidotini 
Lamprophorini 



LucerntUa 9. 
Lamprophorus 10. 
Diaphanes 17. 

L<(i))pi/n's I . 



324: COLEOPTERA. 

Megaloplithalmini . . . • Harmatella 2. 

Luciolini ■• • • Luciola 31. 

Pyrophanes 1. 

Diaphanes margineUa, Ho., Luciola Gorhami, Rits. and L. ovalis, 
Ho., are the light-emitting species so abundant in trees at night during 
the rainy months. The males have a larger luminous area (three seg- 
ments) than the females (two segments) and are extremely bright and 
vivid in some cases. 

Telefhorinw. — Over fifty species are described from the continent, 
but one of which occurs in the plains. This is Tylocerus bitnaculatus, 
Ho., a yellow insect with a black blotch on each elytron, the male with 
the basal and apical segments of the antenna dilated. In Silis, the 
male antenn* are beautifully pectinate, the beetle flying or walking 
with the antennr stretched out, each branch very long and erect, 
giving the appearance of a frond of a delicate plant. Insects with such 
specially developed antennae are not uncommon in deep forest and 
presumably these structures are associated with special senses. 

By some authors, the name Cantharis is associated with an insect 
of this family, which would then be known as the Cantharidce ; this 
would create profound confusion in the mind of the student, who asso- 
ciates the term, in all literature up to now, with the blister-beetles 
below. To such authors, the Scolytidw are Ipidw, the Bruchidw are 
Lariidce or Mylabridce, the Trogositidce are Tenmochilidce or Ostomidce, 
the Parnidw are Dryopidce, the Ptinidce are Anohiidw, the Cistelidce 
are Alleculida, and so on. It is to be hoped that such alterations in 
the nomenclature will, by the general consent of Entomologists, be 
barred ; the tendency to change names long in use on accoujit of some 
purist's discoveries in priority is deplorable : the work of practical and 
teaching Entomologists is being burdened with an immense nomen- 
clature constantly increasing in complexity, and the difficulties of the 
student are greatly increased. To convert Heliothis artnigera to Chhi- 
ridce obsoleta. to call Locustidce Pliasgonuridce, to change the significance 
of such names as Mytilaspis, Dactylopius, Lecanium and Coccus, (each 
with a clear significance to the practical worker) are instances of this 
practice referred to elsewhere in these pages and which the student 
should clearlv understand. 



Drilina-.— This sub-family includes less than twenty Indian spe- 
cies. Srlasici latireps, Pasc. and Doderatoma bicohr, Westw., are to be 
found during the rains, delicate yellow and black insects, with pecti- 
nate antennae. 

Mehjrinw. (Malachiinw). — These beetles are of small size and 
bright colouring, active by day in some cases and found occasionally 
in great abundance at flowers. The larvae are not known. Over 
thirty species are described and several are common in the plaimi. 
Hapalochrus fasciatus, F., is a small beetle, coloured in orange and me- 
talhc blue, found running on crops and small plants. Laius jticundus, 
Bourg., is smaller, an ecjually brightly coloured insect, which runs 
actively about in grass and on soil. Prionocerus bicolor, Redt., is a 
large yellow insect, with the appearance of the typical membeis of the 
family. Melyris is represented by a small pubescent black insect found 
abundantly on the flower heads of Artemisia in the hills. It is quite 
unlike most Malacodermids, more compact and chitinised. and much 
smaller. Idgia includes the typical forms, brightly coloured insects 
which are active by day and feed on the anthers and stigmas of plants. 
Idgia cardoni, Bourg., has been found to be destructive in this way, 
though not on any scale, destroying the flowering parts of cereals and 
preventing fertilisation. 

Clerid.'E. 
Antennw clubbed, dentate or flabellate. Lamellce under 
the tarsal joints. Tarsi five-jointed, but basal 
joints of posterior legs often very small. 
Brightly coloured insects, of small size, the majority with warning 
colouration. Many are banded in bright colours, some uniformly blue 
or other metallic colours. The shape is characteristic, the head and 
thorax narrower than the elytra, the sides parallel, the body cylindrical. 
The antennae are feebly knobbed, moderately long. The head is pro- 
minent, the prothorax distinct, the elytra covering the abdomen. The 
legs are of moderate length, formed for running. 

These little beetles are active in flight and are found in the open 
on flowers, on trees, in gi'ass, on fallen wood, at carcases. Some are 
predaceous upon other insects, notably those that bore in wood and 
bamboos. The bamboo boring Bostrichids, as also wood-boring 



326 



COLEOPTERA. 



Scolf/tids, are tlieir jiiey and the larvae have the same habits. Little 
is known of the habits of the larva) as a whole, some being predaceous, 





Fipr. •20o.— Callimerus 

HBCORATUS. 



Fig. 204.— Nei.'KOBIa rufites. 



some scavengers and some being known to live in the nests of bees and 
in locust egg masses. With the exception of those that prey upon wood- 
boring beetles none appear to have been reared in India. 

The family is a large one, the latest monograph (Genera Insecto- 
rum) giving nearly 2,000 species, of which 109 are Indian. They are 
less common in the cultivated plains than in the hill forest areas and 
the warmer moist parts of India. Gorham describes Doherty's Indian 
and Burmese species (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 18!l.'l p. oOli), and Fea's 
(Ann. Mus. Genova, 1892). 

Few are likely to be found unless they are specially looked for, and 
there are probably many species to be found in the plains. The fol- 
lowing are noteworthy : — Necrobia rufi.'pes, F., a bright blue insect, is cos- 
mopolitan and is, with N. vinhcea. L., a household pest feeding on 
animal produtcts (horn, etc.). N. riifirollis, F., in which the thorax 
and base of the elytra are red, is known to be destructive to the dry 
cured fish prepared in Sylhet. Cortjnetes ccendeus, de G., is also cos- 
mopolitan and carried by commerce. Ommadius indicii.s. Cast., is a 
larger dark-banded brown insect, found in .Southern India. Tillu^ 
noldtiis, Klug., is found in abundanc(> in the Imrrows of bamboo-boring 



lillirUKIIMi.K 



327 



Bust rich ids and, in Ijiunhoo-rnofcd Iniildings. is at tinios cxtreniely 
alnuulant. Its iaiva> are supposed to live in the burrows, feeding on 
the Vdvxiv of tlie Bostrichids : it is probably an important factor in 
checking this pest. We figure Callimerus decoratus, Gorh., as an ex- 
ample of tlie vividly marked species so common in forests ; the ground 
colour is deep blue, the s]nits are dense white and the legs are yellow. 
Opilo siibfascintiis, Westw.. Ortlirius hcmidlr. Westw., and other species 
of Orthrlun are found in the jiiains. l)rown and black species that 
fre(iuent flower.s and which suggest small longicorns. 

Lymexylonid.«. 

Tarsi of fire joints, first and fifth long, remainder 

sliort. Antennw short, serrate. 

Elongate cylindrical beetles, whose larvae are cylindrical and bore 

galleries in dead or dying trees. They are a very small family and 

doubtfully distinct from both Malacodermids and Melandrijids. They 

are extremely widespread and occur in tropical forests in th" East. 

Atraetoceriis occurs in Ceylon and is likely to occur in India. 

H H AGOPHTHALMID^. 

This family includes two Indian species Rhaijophthnhiius hrevi- 
pennis, Fairm.. from Xagpur and R. (Ochrotyra) seiniiista, Pascoe, from 
the Nilgiris. 

Da.scilud.^. 
Tarsi five-jointed. Abdominal .seijmeHts five. 
A small group, near to the Malaeodermida' and doubtfully homo- 
geneous or distinct. Most are American and European. Less than 
twenty species are recorded from localities in India; of their haliits 
nothing appears to be known. 

Rhipicerid.e. 

AntenHCv flahellate or pectinate in the mahs. Tarsi five-jointed, 

the filth joint icith a weH-developed setaceous oni/chium. 

Anterior legs icith trochantin. 

A family, closely related to the Malacodermidce , of small numbers 

and but little known. The antennse in one genus, Rhipicera, have 



328 



COLEOPTERA. 



more than the usual eleven segments, as much in some cases as forty. 
The beetles are not common and are essentially tropical. Three 
species of Callirhipis occur in India. 

STBRNOXI. 

Schwarz gives the following classification of the Stemoxi : — 

Bxprestidoe. Elateridoe. 

Throscidw. Dicronychidce. 

EucnemidcB. Plastoceridce. 

Cerofhytidce: Cebrionidw. 

The Eucnem;idce are monographed by Bonvouloir (Ann. Soc. Ent., 
France, 1870) and the Cehrionidce in the same pubHcation. 1874. The 
student will also find Maindron's ElateridcE in this publication for 1905, 
p. 319. Elateridw are listed by Schwarz and Bitprestidce by Kerre- 
manns in Genera Insectorum. 



BUPRESTID.'E. 

There is a prosternal process extending back into a mesosternal 
cavity. The antennce serrate, short. Tarsi five- 
jointed, basal four joints with pads. 

These beetles resemble Elntei idee superficially but have not the 
hind angles of the prothorax pioduced backwards. They include tiny 





Fit;. 206.— PsiLCfpTEKA 

FASTUO.SA. 



Fig. 'iOT.— JuLODi.s 

ATKINSOXI. 



beetles less than one-quarter of an inch long as well as large robust forms 
nearly one inch in length. The colours are usually metallic, from dul 



Fig. 



PLATE XX.— Sphenoptera Gos.syph. 
Cotton Stkm Bork.h. 



1. 


Larva in stem of Cotton plant. 


2 


Larva, magnified. 


;?. 


Pupa in stem, x 3. 


4. 


,, magnified. 


5, 


Imago magnified. 


6. 


Imago. 


7. 


Parasite. 




"3"~\ 



BupREsTin^:. 329 

hioiizy black to bright green with red lefiections. Some species are 
covered with an efflorescence produced from a secretion in the skin. 
Warning cok)uration is not usually shown and the exact significance 
of the colour schemes is perhaps doubtful. The integument is hard 
and strong, the head partly sunk in the thorax, which is strongly fixed 
to the abdomen, the elytra accurately adapted to the body ; the antennae 
are readily concealed under the head. The mouth-paits are short and 
of the herbivorous type. The legs are short and fold under the body 
when at rest. The wings are large and functional in flight. Males 
and females are similar in appearance and usually also in size. The 
life-history of a few species has been worked out in India and agrees 
with that of the group as a whole. The larvae are borers in the tissues 
of plants, some mining in the leaves, others boring in the twigs, the 
branches, the woody stems or beneath the bark of trees. The larva 
is of a characteiistic foim, legless with the thoracic segments swollen 
into a distinct bulb (Plate XX). the abdomen very long and slender. 
The swelling fits the bore made in the plant and gives the larva the 
necessary hold to move along the bore or to work with its mandibles 
against the hard tissues. Pupation takes place in the bore, the pupa 
lying naked in a chamber made by closing the bore with debris, as a 
rule ; the larva prepares the hole of exit for the pupa, leaving only a 
thin covering of bark through which the beetle can readily emerge. 
The beetles feed on leaves, eating the parenchyma and leaving the 
veins only. They fly actively and are diuuial. 

The large species have a life-history lasting one year at least, and 
the beetles are seen at one season in the year only. Some at least of 
the smaller species have several broods in the year depending upon 
their foodplants. Hibernation appears to be passed in the larval and 
in the imaginal states. A few are pests, those which breed in culti- 
vated plants such as guava, cotton, jute, groundnut and citrus trees. 
The family is of moie importance in Forestry than in Agriculture. 
Hymenopterous parasites attack these larvae just as they do other 
boring larvae, and birds are known to feed on the beetles. 

This family is a very large one and widely spread, with nearly 300 
recorded ' ' Indian ' ' species. Kerremanns divides the family into 
12 sub-families, which need not be touched on here (see Ann. Soc. Ent., 



330 



COLEOPTERA. 



Belg., XXV, p. Ui5) ; he has recently listed the known species in Genera 
Insectorum and is monographing the species of the world. By far the 
larger number of recorded Indian species are Himalayan or Burmese. 
A very small number are common in the plains with a small number 
that have been occasionally recorded. 

Sternocera includes large brightly coloured species, of somewhat 
oval shape, with smooth elytra and deeply punctate pronotum, the 
sternal process prominent. They are rarely found outside the hills 
and forest areas, »S. chrj/sidioides, C. & G., and S. v/lidicoUis, C. & G._. 
being occasionally captured. 

Juhdis is of similar form but without a marked sternal process, 
the elytra pointed at the apex. J. atkinsoni, Kerr., was reported (in 
error) as an injurious insect in the Punjab but is rarely found in North- 
West India. It appears to be a genus characteristic of sandy desert 
areas. 

Chnjsochroa includes 17 Indian species, of which ('. mutahiUs, Oliv.. 
is found in the plains. This is a metallic gieen insect with red reflec- 
tions especially at the margin of the elytra. ! 
C. chinensis, C. & G., is the beautiful green 
and red beetle sold as a curiosity in the 
hills and very common in some forest 
localities, while C. edwardsii, Ho., is the big 
yellow-blotched species abundant in the 
Khasi hills and also a source of income to 
the Khasi insect collector. 

Psiloptera cupreosplendens, Saund., is 
occasionally caught in the plains, a smaller 
green and red nretallic insect, the elytra 
much punctured. 

Sphenoptera is the most abundant in culti- 
vated areas, several species being fomid breed- 
ing in wild or cultivated plants. They are 

deep metallic bronzy insects, not of large size and by no means easy to 
discriminate. Kerremanns gives 20 Indian species. »S'. (/ossypii, Kerr. 
(Plate XX), is the cotton stem borer of the cotton areas, apparently wide- 
spread over India, and. as a rule, veiy common but only once found in 




■2ns.— Chrysochroa 

I'HINEXSIS 



EiTNiaiin.T';. 



.3:^1 



Hfliiii'. Its lift>-liistiny is elsewhere described (Indian Insect Pests, 
p. KW). Another Sphennplern is a seiious enemy to groundnut {Am- 
cliis hjipoijea). tlie larva' boring in the underground rootstock. It is 
abundant in Soutli India. Bclionota prnsina.. Tliunb.. is found boring 
in guava and mango trunks and is found commonly. It is a ver}' dark 
metallic blue-black, the pronotum with a lateral indentation and red 
blotch, the elvtia with four fine longitudinal ridges. 





Fig. •JOO.-Helmnot.a 



-MO.— AORILUS 
OKI.SATOK. 



Kerremanns lists nearly I.JOO species of Atp-jhis, :^8 of wliich are 
Indian. A species that is probably A. grmitor, Kerr., has been reared 
from lemon trees and another species breeds in the same plant. They 
are small linear beetles of vai-ied colouring. 

Finally, we have the still smaller, more oval forms included in 
Trachfjs. 41 out of 260 of which Kerremanns records as Indian. 8o 
far as is known, the larva" of these beetles are leaf miners and one 
has been reared from the leaves of Jute, another from Beal. Several 
species are common. 



Throscid.e. 

Represented by Throscns (Trixagus) pmpriiis 
North India. 



Bon v.. found 



ErCNEMID.«. 

Twelve species are recoidcl fr„m dif^'erent localities in the hills 



332 



COLEOPTERA. 



Elaterid^. — Click Beetles. 

The hind nngh's of the thorax usually produced backwards. A pros- 

ternal process received in the mesosternum. Antennw 

often serrate or pectinate. 

A very large family of small or large beetles recognizable usually 
at sight from the very striking general facies peculiar to the family. 
The large forms, which are half an inch 
and more in length, are in many cases 
brightly coloured, the small forms, of 
which there are a great number, in dull 
tints of brown or yellow. The antenna> 
are moderately long and of varied form. 
The head is small and embedded in the 
solid prothorax. The prothorax is 
remarkably large and powerful, fitting 
loosely but accurately to the elytra, the 
lateral angles prolonged backwards. On 
the ventral surface is a process, which 

passes into the mesosternum in which is a cavity fitted to it. The 
abdomen is long, covered by the hard eljdira ; the legs are moderately 
long and formed for running. The striking structure of the prothorax 
is associated with the faculty many of the beetles have of leaping up 
with a cUck when placed on a flat surface with the venter upwaids. 

Although these beetles are common everywhere in India, and there 
is an abundance of species, practically nothing is actually on record'as 




Fig. 'ill.— AfJRYPNPS FUSCIPES. 




Fijr. -212. -LiKVA OF AGRYPNUS FUSCIPES. 
iFiom We.ilwootl.) 



to the life-history. We figure from Westwood a larva possibly that 
of Agrifpnus fuscipes. the commonest large Elatend of India. We are 
not aware that any species has actually been reared, though larvse that 
are probably of this family can be found commonly enough. The known 



ELATERID.^. 



333 



larvw elsewhere are cylindrical and elongated, the segments smooth 
and fitting closely to one another, the whole head and body forming a 
smooth riexible cylinder. There are three pairs of legs, and the hind 
end terminates in hooks and chitinised processes which probably give 
the larva leverage on the soil or other medium in which it lives and 
facilitates rapid locomotioji. 

On the analogy of known European 
forms there can be no doubt that these 
brown shiny larva' are those of Ehiteridct 
but the difficulty is to rear them. It is 
uncertain whether they feed on roots or 
other vegetable matter or whether tliey 
are predaceous on other insects and so on 
those which really injure the roots of 
plants (e.g., Melolonthidce) . They are 
associated with damage to roots but may 
not cause it. and we are not aware of any 
instances of damage to roots by Elaterids 
in India. In the known species, the 
development is slow and several years 
are occupied in the metamorphosis. 
Nothing is known as to their enemies, 
none are known to be pests in India, and 
there are as yet no data as to their hibernation or seasonal occurrence, 
save the very general observation that, like most insects, they are 
found most abundantly in the rainy season. 

The family is so large and complex that the prehminary difficulty 
of identifying or even separating the distinct species is at present 
insuperable. Practically all the known Indian species were described by 
Candeze. whose works must be consulted. Schwarz has listed the 
Elateridce. as apart from the Eucwmidce, etc., in Genera Insectorum 
(1906), enumerating 503 species as occurring in India and Burmah 
alone. This cannot be more than a part of the actual species and new 
species are found in quantity. 

Of the 28 sub-famihes, 21 are represented by Indian forms. The 
light-emitting Pipophnrini are confined to the new world and do not 




-'13.— Larva of alaus 
oculatus. 
{After Chapuis.) 



334 COLEOPTERA. 

occur in India. Agrijpnus (13 spp.) includes tlie large iovms. A. fusci- 
pes, Fabr. (fig. 210), being the common large black click-beetle of 
the plains. Lacon (44 spp.) is a common genus, with several plains 
species, smaller forms, with somewhat expanded prothorax. Camp- 
sosternus (30 spp.) are large insects of metallic colouring, usually 
green, abundant in hill forests and of striking appearance. The ex- 
tremely common small click-beetles which come so abundantly to light 
in the plains during the rainy months are species of Heleroderes (16 spp.) ; 
nothing is yet known of their life-history or habits, in spite of the 
numbers in which they occur ; they are wholly nocturnal, the beetles 
found by day in hiding on plants, in bark, under dry leaves, etc. Car- 
diophorus (75 spp.) is widely spread over the plains and abundant; 
C. stolatus,^!'.. is a small beetle, the elytra chestnut with a black fascia, 
also very abundant at light. Cardiophorus qnadrimacidatits. Motsch., 
has yellow blotches on the elytra and is conspicuous. Mclanolus (23) 
includes larger dark brown species, M. fuscus, Latr., common in Kanara 
and the hills, other species occurring in the plains. Penia eschschoUzi , 
Cost., is a broader rounder beetle of a bright brown colour with ochreous 
fasciae, common in the Himalayas. Plectroslernus rujus. Lac, is the 
large led beetle with black longitudinal grooves, in which the prothorax 
is small and the antennse conspicuously serrate. Hemiops cmssn, Gylli., 
is smaller, the ground colour yellow but equally conspicuously coloured. 

DlCRONYCHID.*;. 

These are separated as a distinct family by Schwarz on account of 
the absence of penis. Two species of Dkronychus occur in India, of 
which D. cinnamomeus, Cand., is not uncommon in the plains, a small 
brown beetle with the typical facies of the Elatrrido'. 

Cebrionid^. 
A single species is described as Indian. Sandahis orientalis. Bourg. 

HE3TBROMBRA. 

A distinct series of beetles, whose classification into families is 
not clear. Four families are easily distinguishable as far as Indian 
forms are concerned. 



I'lONKl'.RIONIH.K. 



335 



Tenebrlonidce include a large number of the species, the tarsi not 
lobed, the claws smooth, the body compact with close fitting elytra. 

MordiUidu have the head peculiarly formed and intlexed. the hind 
coxa' with sharj) plates. 

i'(inlh<irid(e have the head with a neck, the tar.sal claws with ajipen- 
dages, and the elytia not fitting the abdomen closely. 

Tnrtenoloiiiidce are large, with long antenna- often seirate at the 
tip. long curved mandibles and resemble CeruDibycidce. 

The remaining eleven families are of less importance and less 
easily recognisable. For papers on this grouj), see P'airmaire's pajjers 
on the Kurseong and Ajidrewes' collections. (Ann. Soc. Ent., Bel^e, 
i.SSU, p. 17 : 18!i(j, p. (i). 



Texebrioniu.e. 

Antennce of eleven joints, under a projection of the side of the head. 

Tumi heteronierous, simpk. Abdomen of five se(jtnents. 

A large family of beetles generally of sombre colour, found nmst 

abundantly in deserts and dry places. They are of moderate size. 

many of some bulk and weight. The 
antennse are short and of varied form ; 
the trophi are of the biting herbivorous 
type. The body is hard, often flatten- 
ed, often globular, the elytra fitting 
closely and in the apterous forms 
soldered togethei'. Sexual differences 
oecur in a few. as in the erect hoi'ns 
on the head, the dilation of the tarsi, 
or the presence of the tuft of hair on 
the abdomen of the males. 

Little is known of the life-history 

and but few species have been reared 

in India. The larva; are elongate, 

-u,-..TKCM I.K.-KK..IM. t-ylindrical, the segments with brown 

[I. M. -N.J thickened integument; the hind end 

bears often two dorsal hooks and a 




336 COLEOPTERA. 

ventral retractile process ; the legs are present and functional in run- 
ning. The larvae are extremely difficult to find ; Opatrum is in some 
places found literally in millions but its larva never ; larvae have been 
obtained first in captivity and then in the field only after prolonged search- 
ing. The knowii larvae, like the known beetles, feed on dead vegetable mat- 
ter such as decaying leaves ; this also appears to be their food in desert 
places where there is a layer of leaves below each bush ; we have seen 
these desert forms come out in numbers and feed on locust hoppers. 
The function of the family essentially is that of scavenging the dead 
vegetable matter that falls in such abundance and, excluding the house- 
hold pests, none are injurious. The prevalence of deep black as a 
colour is to be expected since they are insects which shun Hght and 
which Hve in dark places where they are well hidden ; the colouring 
strikes one when one sees these beetles in sandy deserts as in North 
India, but the colouration is of use since the beetles rapidly recover 
from the torpidity due to the chill of the air at night by coming out 
into the sunliglit at simrise for a short time before going into the bushes 
to feed. These beetles are a striking feature of the sandy wastes of 
North India where insect life is so scanty and these species are very 
imperfectly known and probably peculiar to such locaKties. Not all 
Tenebrionids live on the soil in concealment, though most do so ; they 
really fall into two series, the light-seeking and the light-shunning 
species, the latter predominating. They are found among decaying 
vegetation, among fallen leaves, under bark, in thatched roofs, between 
the timbers of a house and generally in concealment. Practically 
nothing is known as to the length of their Hfe-histories or their seasons ; 
a yearly feature is the emergence of numbers of the very common beetle 
Mesomorpha viUiger, which breeds in dry leaves and wood and which 
emerges abundantly to fly in the warm evenings in March in the plains. 
In the warm winter of 1907, these beetles emerged on February 25th, 
an exceptionally early date. Opatrum appears to have no season, nor 
do most of those which we have found abundantly in the plains, though 
Blaps is found only in the coM weather and probably has a yearly 
period. 

The family is a very large one with a great number of species. The 
geographical distribution is wide, but the ground species appear to be 
most abundant in Africa, the Mediterranean and Caspian littoral, and 



PLATE XXI.- Hkteiiomera. 

Fig. ]. Blaps orientalis. k \\. 

2, Ceropiia induta. x 3. 

„ 3. Mesoraorpha villiger. x 4. 

„ 4. Cossyphus depressus, x 3. 

„ 5. Platynotus perforatus. x 1 1. 

„ 6. Formicomus sp. x 8. 

„ 7. Opatrum elongatum. x 4. 

,, 8, Doliema plana. x 4. 

„ 9. Eineuadia feiruginea. x 2^. 

JO „ male antenna. 

,,11, Ot-linius delusus. x 7. 

„ 12. Allecula sp. x 2. 

„ 13, Scleron orientale. x 4. 



PLATE XXI. 




TENKBRIONID^. 337 

in certain centres in t]ie New World. India possesses but a small 
number of the large total of species and but few come into our plains 
fauna. 

About :iO() Indian species are recorded, of which perhaps fifty are 
found in the plains. The individual species are difficult to discrimi- 
nate and no comprehensive work on the Indian species is in existence. 
The Cardon and Andrewes collections have been described (Ann. Soc. 
Ent., Beige, 1894. 1896) and a number of species added lately, but the 
literature is scattered and the family requires revision. We are not 
aware of any records of life-histories or habits. 

PnJposipus hcrculcanus. 8ol. is a large species covered with hair, 
whose characters are so odd that Lacordaire states that he thought 
the original dcscriber might have had before him a "faked '' insect 
the head, legs and body belonging to three distinct genera. Tenehrio 
contains T. molitor, whose larva is so common in meal and flour and 
which is bied in large numbers as food for cage birds. It is now 
cosmopolitan. Rhi/tinola. Pnchi/cera, Hyperops and Himatismus include 
rather elongate beetles of a dead black colour and small size, found 
sometimes in great abundance. The beetles have been collected at 
all times of the year and seem to have no distinct seasons. Blaps 
is the large "black beetle" of the plains, with B. orientaUs, Sol. 
(Plate XXI, fig. 1), common and B. indicola. Bot.. rarer. The former 
is very common and striking : the elytra are soldered together and, in 
the females, produced into a process behind, which varies much in 
length. This beetle on being handled exudes an unpleasant liquid 
which stains a permanent dull red. Nothing appears to be known as 
to its life-history and all our specimens were captured between Decem- 
ber and May. Plntynotus perforatus. Muls. (Plate XXI, fig. 5), is also 
very common, a flatter beetle, more distinctly punctured. Scleron 
deniicoUe, Fairm.. and .S'. orientale, F. (Plate XXI. fig. 13), are small 
retiring beetles, characterised by the curiously flattened and expanded 
fore femur and tibia, apparently for the purpose of digging. 

Opatriuii is perhaps the commonest of all the genera, occurring 
sometimes in enormous numbers. There are a variety of species, in- 
cluding 0. ehngatum, Guer. (Plate XXI, fig. 7). which is narrower 
and has the prothorax slightly tuberculate. 0. dorsogranosum, Fairm., 

iiL 22 



338 



COLEOPTERA. 



in wliicli the upper surface is somewhat granulose, and Opatrum. 
devressum, Fabr., which is figured here. These species occur sometimes 
in incredible numbers ; we have seen a field of six-foot-high indigo so 
infested that every stem was black ; the beetles always shun light and 
in the dense indigo crop they live in shade and feed on the abundant 
dry leaves that fall. When the crop is cut they are brought in with 
it to the vats and sometimes cover the surrounding masonry, etc. A 
number of beetles were confined in the insectary and fed on these 
leaves ; larvae were eventually found which were reared without diffi- 
culty but which lived wholly on the surface of the soil under the covei- 
ing of leaves. On first seeing the multitudes of these beetles that exist, 
one is tempted to wonder where their larva- could have been : we 
realise it after having reared them and it is possible then to dimly see 
how vast may be the fauna hidden away like this on the soil and how 
important their work of disposing of plant refuse is. Opatrum apparently 
like most of its family, is wholly a feeder on dead or decaying vegetable 
tissue and the beetles have been found to even eat planks laid on the soil. 



The genus Tuxkmn is marked by the erect horns of the males : 
these beetles are found under bark ; the function of the hoins is 
unknown. The two species 
of Tribolium occur widely 
spread, T. jerrwjineum, Fabr., 
T. confusus, Duv. Both are 
pests of stored produce and 
occur frequently in dried in- 
sect collections. The latter 
is stated to be abundant in 

America, but we have been 

unable to recognise it in our 

long series. We reproduce 

the figures illustrating the 

differences in the two species 

in Chittenden's paper (U. S . 

Dept. of Agri. Ento. Bull., 

N. S. 4). It is, however, re- 
corded from rice in Rangoon 




Fig. 215.— Tkibolu'M confusum, A. head 

OF T. CONFUSUS, li. FERRUGINKUM. 

(Aftn- Chittenden.) 



CISTELID.K. 339 

(Indian Mus. Notes V, l.'W). Tlie forram' is common and has been 
reared fiom wheat grains, wheat flour, and oat meal, as well as dried 
insects. 

One of the more striking insects of the plains is the curious flat- 
tened Cossi/phxs depressus , Fabr. (Plate XXI, fig. 4), in which the 
elytra and pronotum are produced into a curved thin lamella surromid- 
ing the body after the manner of a Cassid beetle. What object this 
serves is uncertain, but it may give it a resemblance to a seed which is 
of use as a protection. Derosphcerus nujricollis, Bot.. is a larger beetle, 
the elytra deeply punctate and shining, with long legs, which is found 
on the soil in the plains. Platijdema includes small oval brown beetles 
found eating the inner portions of the flakes of tree bark. Mesoniorpha 
ciUi(jer, Bl. (Plate XXI, fig, 3), is a cosmopolitan beetle found among 
decaying leaves, in thatched roofs, in old trees, wherever there is decay- 
ing vegetable matter. It is a small dull brown or black beetle, rarely 
seen or noticed, but probably to be found eveij^iere if searched for. 
Ceropria (Plate XXI, fig. 2) includes a few brightly coloured species 
with tints of shiny purple or blue. 

CoUeetimj, etc. — It is probable that only a small part of the Tene- 
brionid fauna of our area is actually recorded, and the collector will 
find much that is new. These beetles can be easily kept in captivity 
and breeding experiments are required to determine life-histories, etc., 
with much field observation. The beetles themselves are not difficult 
to find under bark, amongst fallen leaves, in thatched roofs, among cut 
timber and in similar situations. The Desert fauna of North India 
especially requires investigation and much interesting woik waits to 
be done on the life-histories and habits of these species. 



Cl.STELID.*; . 

Characters as in the previous famihj but the tarsal , 

claws pectinate, not simple. 
A small family of unimportant beetles, rarely found. They have 
long antennae ; the elytra do not fit the abdomen very closely ; the males 
have longer anteune and larger eyes than the females. In a few the 
head is prolonged into a distinct short blunt rostrum. The known 
species live in decaying trees or under bark, as do their larvie- 



340 



COLEOPTERA. 



About thirty species are Indian, including AUecula (Plate XXI, 
fig. 12). Cistehi and CistelomorpJia. 

Lagrubm. 
■Interior coxa projectiwj, conical and contiguous. Anterior coxal cavitieg 
closed behind ; claws simple, ventral seginents five, penultimate 
tarsal joint bilobed and pubescent. 
These are Tenebrionids with different coxa- and having anterior 
coxal cavities closed behind, and will not, by the close coleopterous stu 
dent, be confused with other Heteromera . 
About forty species are described from 
India alone ; Lagria is the most import- 
ant genus, widespread and with several 
common Indian species ; the body is 
hairy, the head has a thick neck, the 
tarsus has the penultimate joint expand- 
ed and pubescent as in the Cliri/somelidcp. 
Othniid-*:. 

This family is represented in India 
by a small species. Othnius delusus. 
Pasc. (Plate XXI, fig. 11), found in the 
hills of .South India. 

MONOMMID^. 

Represented in India by a single species, Monomm.u brunneum. 
Thoms. (fig. 21G), found under the bark of trees. This is a dark 





Fig. "217. — MoNOMiMA 

UBUNNEUM. 




Kig. 218.— Head op M. 

OICiANTEUM. 

(From Thomson.) 



PYROCHROID/K. 3H 

lii'own insect, with c-luhlicil aiitoiuiu' fitting' into grooves of the lower 
side of the prothorax. Tlie grouii is monographed by Tlionisoii (Ann. 
8()c. Ent., France, IHCiO). 

Yytuidje. 

.l)iteri(>r (■(uvl ctuutles open, heliind (c.f. Tenrbriomdw). 
Pnilhdni.r iKirrmvcr at the base than, the 
cli/tra. Ei/es entire. 
A small family of unimportant insects separated on minute 
characters from its allies. The family is small with few 7'epresenta- 
tives. None are common in the plains, and Doliema plana, Fabr. (Plate 
XXI, fig. f^), is the species most likely to be found. 

Melandryiu-e. 
A family distinct from all allies by a variety of characters ; the 
claws are not pectinate (Cistelidcp), the anteiior coxal cavities are open 
behind (Tenehrionids) ; they ai-e not hemispherical (N ilionidce) ; the 
prothorax is as broad as the elytra {Pi/thida) ; there is no neck [Mor- 
dellides) ; and finally the pronotum does not extend laterally on the 
prothorax (rest of Heteromera). 

80 far as our fauna is concerned they are of no importance what- 
ever. They are dull coloured insects found in decaying wood in tem- 
perate regions. Penthe riifopubens, Mors., has been described as 
Indian. 

Pyrochroid.^. 
Antennw faheUate or pectinate. Prothorax narroirer than, the 
elytra . Head with a neck. Elytra longer than the 
bodij. Penultimate tarsal joint broadened. 
Beetles of small to moderate size, found with their larvae under 
the bark of trees. Pyrochroa is the common genus, with the antenna^ 
toothed (or nearly pectinate in the males), the body finely pubescent. 
Three species have been described, P. dephinata, Pic, from Malabar, 
P. subcostulata, Fairm., from Cashmere, and P. carduni, Fairm., from 
the Himalayas (North Bengal). 



342 coleoptera. 

Anthicid^. 
Head with a neck. Antennce filiform. Pro thorax narrower at the 
base than the elytra. Claws simple. 

This family includes four sub-families recognised by many authors 
as families. Tlie Pedilince include less than ten species of Maerataria. 

Anthicince. — These are small s'ender beetles with a distinct resem- 
blance to ants , common in grass, and sometimes very abundant. 
They are to be found running actively on grass and plants just 
as ants do, and they appear to be predaceous on small insects and 
Aphides. Nothing is known of their life-history. 

Mons. Maindron obtained 19 species during his tour in India (Ann. 
Soc. Ent., France, HtOS, p. 348). Laferte monographed the Anthicinrr 
in 1848, listing 31 species of Anthicus. Cardon's collections are des- 
cribed by Fairmaire and Pic. (Ann. Soc. Ent., Beige, 1894). Formi- 
comus (19 species) and Anthicus (fi2 spefie.s) include the species found 
in the plains (Plate XXI, fig. (5). 

Hi/lophilince. — Small beetles, less than one-eighth of an inch long 
with the basal two abdominal segments united and four segments 
beyond free. Basal tarsal segment long, penultimate bilobed. These 
small beetles are but little known and their life-histories scarcely at all. 
They are stated to live in dead wood. None have been reared in India 
and only a few collected. 

The most recent monograph (M. Pic. Ann. Soc. Ent., France, 1906, 
p. 190) records Hylobcen^s indicus. Pic, and eight species of 
Hyhfhilus as Indian. 

ScraptiincE. — Scraptia pulicaria. Fairm , is the sole recorded species 

(Kdemerid^.. 
Head narrowed behind, produced in front into a short rnstrinn. Antennw 

usually fUiform, eleven or tirelve jointed. Prolhora.r narroirrr than 

the elytra. Penultimate tarsal joint bilobed. 

These are somewhat elongate beetles, of thin integument, found 
on flowers or decaying wood, some diurnal, some nocturnal. So far 
as known, the larva' are feeders in or on wood or decaying timber and 
are occasionally injurious. The beetles resemble Longicorns on the 
one h.ind, or Malacodermids on the other. Five species are described 



CANTHARID.^?. "U^ 

by Faiiniaiip with Asdrrn itidica. from Reiifjal, and (hironmrt (Diyops) 
indirn from Kanara. 

MoRDELLin.B. 

Head short, bent doirn over the lf'(/s. with n narroir neck, nntcnnrp 
filiform, dentate or, in the males, pectinate. 

Small thickset short beetles with, in our common species, a 
(•haracteT'istic facies. They fall into two series, partly regarded as 
distinct families {Rhipiphorinn and Mordellina'). Our common species 
belong to the former and, so far as known, are parasites in the nests 
of Aculeate Hymenoptera. Horne figures Emenadia ferrufiinea.F. ifla- 
hellata, ¥.), which he reared from the nests of EKmenes in India. This 
and other species are common on the wing in the plains and are readily 
recognisable : the elytra are pointed, the body very thickset, vertical 
in front, the colouring black and yellow brown (Plate XXI, figs. '.K 
10). This genus is practically world-wide. Rhipiphnriis peetinieornis. 
Thunb. (hinttarum, Saund.). is parasitic, the female wingless and lar- 
viform. lixnng on cockroaches. Of the two gene.a, nine are recorded 
as Indian. Of the Mordellince, none appeai- to be recorded ; we have 
reared one species from larvfe found boiing in the stems of Diehptrrn. 

CantharidvE. — Blister Beetles. 
The head is joined to the prothorax b;/ a distinct neck. The eh/tra are 
not eloseli/ applied to the abdomen ; the integxmnit is mak. 
The claws have appenda^/es. 
These beetles are easily recognisable from the above characters 
and have a dii3tinct facies. They are rarely over one inch long, usually 
about half an inch, moderately robustly 
built. The colours are varied, in some 
cases typically warning, in others blue, 
brown or dull coloured. The antennae 
are long and simple, rarelyof less joints 
than eleven in the Mylabrince : the head 
Fi.'. -iig.-MYLABRis ^■'^ "^ moderate size, the compound eyes 

pusTt'LATA. large, the biting mouth-parts not con- 

spicuous. The prothorax is narrower 
than the head and the two are not broadly united but joined by a neck 




344 COLEOl'TERA. 

The elytra neither meet accurately in the median line nor fit closely to 
the side of the abdomen and only loosely cover the upper surface of the 
body. The wings are ample and used in flight ; Melw is wingless with 
abbreviated elytra. The legs are long, the tarsi long, the claws with a 
closely fitting appendage below, which resembles a duplicate claw. 
Males are similar to females but smaller ; size is often very variable in 
both sexes. An acrid oil is excreted from openings in the apices of the 
femora in Mylabris, Cantharis and Melee : this oil contains an active 
principle, Cantharidin, which has ii'ritant pioperties rendering it com- 
mercially valuable. 

Almost nothing is known of the life-history of Indian species. 
Large masses of small yellow eggs are deposited on grass or soil, from 
which hatch small active larvae of the usual Coleopterous form. The 
further history of these larva? has not been traced. The student should 
consult the account of the life-history of the known species of Melce 
and Eficauta, details of which are given in Sharp's Insects. These 
insects are parasitic upon the larvae of Aculeate Hymenoptera or upon 
the egg masses of Acridiida. 

The beetles are diurnal, the winged species flying readily. They 
are herbivorous, feeding on leaves and flowers and, when abundant, form 
a conspicuous part of the diurnal fauna. Each species appears yearly 
and there is but one brood. They are often very abundant and occa- 
sionally appear in large numbers with great suddenness and in an appa- 
rently mysterious fashion. Owing to their herbivorous habits and 
frequent abundance, the beetles may be injurious to cultivated plants. 
The flower-eating species of Eficauta (Cantharis) destroy the anthers 
and pistils of cereals and thus cause serious damage to the crops. The 
latter form of damage is of frequent occurrence, Andropogon sorqhmn 
(juar, great millet) being specially affected. (Compare the habits of 
Chiloloba, the Cetoniid beetle.) Cantharis hirticornis, Haag., is destructive 
to Amaranthus and vegetables in Assam, the beetles being abundant 
in May and devouring the leaves. 

The family is a large one, found principally in the tropics. Over 
70 Indian species are described and less than ten are common in the 
plains, these being apparently widely spread over the Indian region. 
There are four principal genera, Cantharis (Epicauta), Mi/labris, Zonit/s, 



CANTHARID.E. 345 

wliifh are winged, and the wingless Mcla\ There is considerable con- 
fusion in the nomenclature of the i-ecorded species, and the specific 
names adopted here are liable to revision when the nomenclature of 
tlie family is revised. 

.l/e?omcE.- -Wingless. Metasternum very short, middle coxa^ covering 
the hind coxae. Mehe is the important genus, of which 2 Indian 
species are recorded. 

Mi/ldhniKi . — Mi/I(din's is winged but has the antenna- short, curved 
and thick. Marseul monographed the sub-family in 1873 (Mem. Soc, 
Liege (2) 111, pp. 3(j:3— ()(32). 

The common form is Mijlabris pustulata, Thunb., doubtfully dis- 
tinct from M. sida-. M. rouxi, Cast., is a similar but smaller, black 
and yellow species, while Ki other species are recoided. 

M. pustulata, Thunb., is a conspicuous beetle, measuring about 
one inch in length, coloured black with large orange marks on the wings 
and prothorax. The wings and body are softer than in many beetles, 
the tjrpical head and antennae are those characteristic of the Cantha- 
ridce, and the yellow fluid exuding from the joints of the legs further 
characterises this common insect. The life-history is luiknown, and 
the life-histories of those Cantharidw which have been studied are so 
various that there is no indication as to what the life-history of this 
insect is likely to be. The fluid exuded from the joints of the legs, with 
its blistering properties and probably unpleasant flavour, serves as a 
protection from birds and other enemies ; the colouration is that kno^vn 
as "warning," that is, it serves to plainly advertise the unpleasant 
nature of this insect, so that birds, etc., may not eat it. In its habits 
this insect is, as would be expected, conspicuous ; it may be seen 
on plants, fully exposed, so that its warning Hvery is clearly seen. It feeds 
upon the flowers of plants, notably Cucurbitacece such as the melon, 
pumpkin, cucumber, white gourd, etc. It is common in the plains 
and occms throughout India where vegetation is abundant. There 
is one brood in the year and these beetles appear sometimes in great 
numbers and are very destructive. 



346 



COLEOPTERA. 




Fig. 220.— Cantharis 

TBNUICOLLIS. 



Cnntbminw. — The antenna? longer, not curved, filiform. Can- 
tharis (Epicauta) contains a number of common species of which little 
is as yet known. C. violacea, Makl., is a 
•small deep-blue form found in Western India. 
C. nctceon, Cast., is the very common large 
blue species, found for a short time in the 
rains. C. tenuicoUis, Pall. (? C. riifi,(oIlis, 
Pall., C. ornata. Cast.), is a green form 
with a slender reddish prothorax, which, 
with the dull brown C. rouxi. Cast., is 
destructive to cereals by devouring the 
stigma and anthers, no grain being formed. 
When the flowering of rice, millets or juar 
coincides with the emergence of these 
beetles, widespread lofss may occur. C. 
Inrtiromis, Haag., is a black species with 
red head found abundantly in Assam in Ma}' 
where it feeds on Amaranthus and other vegetables. Illetica testacea, 
Fabr., is the more robust and densely chitinised red-brown species 
found in the rains. This has robust mandibles ; the shiny black thorax 
and lined el3rtra are hard and strong, giving the beetle more the appear- 
ance of a Cerambycid. 

Cissites Debyi. — Green has observed that the eggs of this species 
are laid in the galleries of Xylocopa tenuiscapa, Westw., in Ceylon : 
some of the larvse, he imagines, migrate on the bees to other colonies. 
(? via the flowers visited by the bees) and those that remain in the ori- 
ginal nest (and presumably attack the bee-larvte) pupate in side tunnels 
which they make off the main bee-tunnel (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1902, 232). 

Collecting. 
Collecting. — The beetles are readily captured with the hand and 
require to be carefully dried. They lay eggs freely in captivity, the eggs 
hatch and, in captivity, nothing further can happen. The further elucida- 
tion of the life-history requires either the extremely careful observation 
of the larv» when hatched in the open or prolonged investigation into 
the egg masses of Acridiids or the nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera in the 
hope of finding larva^. Any opportunity of doing either should be 



TRICTENOTOMID/E. 



347 



seized, as no ])ro<;vess can \w made till more is ioiowji and we can at 
present oniy estin^ate their directly injiuious effect as adults. 

TRICTENOTOMin.E. 

Antennce long, serrate inside at the apex. Tarsi heteromerons. 
These are large beetles, practically heteromerous Longicornia with 
slightl)^ serrate antenntr. They have long bodies, the dark colours 




Fif;. 221.— TRICTBNOrOMA eHILDUENI, X 1. 



l''i^. 222.— TRlCTENOTdMA 
CHILIlRENI LAUVA. 

(Afl,'i- Oiihtii). 



(except Autocrates opwea, Westw., which 
is metallic blue), the general facies of 
many Cerambycid beetles and are found 
in the same habitat. These insects 
are characteristic of the Indo- Malayan 
region, particularly of forest areas. 

Autocrates has the piothorax spined, the scutellum blunt. Tric- 
tenotoma has the prothorax only angulated, scutellum longer and sharper. 
Very little is knowni of the life-history of these insects : they are pro- 
bably predaceoiis in the adult stage. The larva of T. chUdreni has re- 
cently been described and figured by Gahan from Java specimens 
(Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1908. p. 275) ; we reproduce one figure in the 
hope that it may assist in the recogiiition of larvpe of this family in South 



348 COLEOPTERA. 

India where they must occur. The structure of the larvae is held to 
support the view that this family is more nearly related to the Pijthidw 
or Pyrochroidce than to any other Heteromera. Besides the metallic 
blue Autocrates anea, Westw., of the Himalayas, Trictenotoma 
Grai//, 8m., occurs in South India, T. childreni, Gray, in the Khasis, 
and T. nmiszechi, Deyr., in the Himalayas (Ann. Sec. Ent., France, 1S75, 
p. LIX). Westwood (Cab. Or. Entom., 1847) figures T. childreni, Gray, 
T. templetoniijWesiw. , und T.renea, Parry, and discusses the characters 
on which he separates these as a distinct family. 



PHYTOPHAGA. 

The tendency in classification at present is to a complexity of 
families, especially in Coleoptera, and while this is possibly justified 
from structural characters, it is certain that there is not as yet sufficient 
material available to define so many famiUes : to all but the student of 
systematic entomology, the old In'oad families embracing insects 
allied in structure and habits are still the most natural and the simplest 
in actual working. We have accordingly adhered to the three fami- 
lies composing this series, the plant-feeding beetles ; the Bruchids are 
seed-eating, the C'hrysomelids hve on green plants, the C'erambycids 
in the woody tissues of plants. This makes but three families and to 
place an insect in one of these three, places it as far as these habits go. 
Modern classification makes two or more of Bruchids, 13 or more of 
Chrysomelids, and two of Cerambycids, with a great tendency to make 
more. 

The series is distinguished by the apparently four-jointed tarsi 
usually with at least one joint expanded and pubescent beneath, and 
the absence of a prolongation of the head as a rostrum. It is, in prac- 
tice in the field, a peculiarly homogeneous series, the three families 
sharply distinct in all our commoir species. It is easy to put a Scelo- 
donta down as a weevil however, though it has no distinct beak, because 
it resembles the leaf-eating smaller weevils in which the rostrum is 
not much developed and actually the limits of these two series do, as 
they should, shade into each other. 



r.RUCHlU.K. 



3i'.) 



Bruch 1 VAi. — Pvisc Beetles. 
Small llncksct iMrtles, tlie liliid Icijs thickened, the prosternum vertical. 
Tar.si aiipareidli/ jour-jointed, pilose below, third joint bilobed. 

Aidennw eleven-jointed, often dentate or pectinate. 
These small beetles have a characteristic fades which distinguishes 
them from other Phytophac/a, but confuses them with Anthribid'je. 




Fig. •ii'S. — Hriichi's chinbnsis ; E<:c; on pea, 



They are small, rarely exceeding one-quarter of an inch in length. 
Their colours are sombre and inconspicuous, the body clothe 1 with hii?s. 
The head is small with a blunt rostrum, with short antennae, often 
pectinate or serrate. The prothorax is well developed and accurately 
adapted to the niesothora.x. The elytra are truncate, not covering the 
pvgidium. The legs are short, the hind femora thickened. The abdomen 
is peculiarly thickset, giving the beetles a characteristic appearance. 

These beetles are commonly reared from the seeds of leguminous 
plants. The beetle lays a number of small oval eggs, of a yellow colour ; 
they are apparently laid in a semi-liquid condition, so that they adhere 
to the seed or pod and then harden, (they have a curious resemblance 
to Scale insects of the genus Asterolecaniiini). In the field 
they are laid in the pod and in the case of Bruchus obteetiis. Say, tliey 
are often dropped loosely among the seeds (Chittenden). These eggs 
liatch, the larva eating through the inner wall of the egg-shell into the 



350 COLEOPTERA. 

seed-coat and so into the seed itself where it feeds upon the tissues. 
The larva is white, curved and with a close resemblance to larvae of 
weevils. Eiley showed that, in the first instar, the larva is provided 
with three pairs of incomplete but functional legs, as well as a series 
of thoracic spines and a pair of toothed thoracic plates which enable 
the larva to bore into the pod or seed and so establish itself. When 
it has reached the seed, it moults and appears without the legs and 
the thoracic plates. As a rule, one seed, if full grown, is sufficient 
for a larva (or for many), but in the case of growing seeds the larva 
may eat so fast that the seed cannot develop and it has to move into 
a fresh one. When full grown, the larva cuts a disc in the seed-coat 
almost through and pupates below. When the beetle is ready to 
emerge, the disc readily opens, letting out the perfect insect. In Curij- 
oborus gonagra the larva comes out of the seed and pupates outside 
in an excrementitious cocoon. The beetles are found in the field 
visiting flowers of leguminous plants or on the leaves of plants. They 
appear to take no food, as do the household species also. There is no 
information available on the question of the hibernation, etc., of the 
free-living species. None are pests to crops in India but the house- 
hold species are destructive to stored pulse. Bruchid larvas are the 
hosts of Chalcid parasites, which lay their eggs in the larvae in the 
seeds. These insects are sometimes found in abundance in infested 
pulse. 

The family is not a large one and, with the exception of the 
cosmopolitan household species, is principally fomid in the tropics. No 
list of Indian species exists and there is room for work on this family. 
Including cosmopolitan insects, 37 species are known from India and 
the number of species recorded from the plains is a very small propor- 
tion of those there are. The family is divided into two tribes : Urodon- 
lides with clubbed antennae represented by Urodon in Ceylon ; Bru- 
chides with dentate or pectinate flattened antennae. The following six 
species of Bruchus include the known or recorded species found in 
stored pulse in India ; — 

(1) B. chinensis, Linn., in Pisum sativum (peas), Dolicfios lab-lab 
(val), Dolichos bifforuft (moth), Cicer arietinwm (gram), Cajanus itidicus 
(pigeon i^ea), Ervitm lens (lentil), Vigna catjang (cow pea). 



CHRYSOMELIU.E. 351 

(2) B. affinis, Froll.. in imported beans. 

(3) B. emarginatiis. AH., in ])eas (Pisum sativian). 

(4) B. (iHtulrlninciddlKs. Fabr.. in jieas (Pisimi suliiuoit) and in 

■ " l)eans." " 

(5) B. iiiKonnn. Linn., in peas {Pisirm sativKiii) . 

(6) B (inalis. Fabv.. from cow pea {Vitina cdtjam/). 
Chittenden (Yearbook. Agric. Dept.. U. S. A.. l«tS. p. -J-tU) states 

that B. obtectus, Say, also occurs and it is likely to be found. The life- 
histories of B. pf'sorwx*, B. chinensis. B. ohtectus and B. (lumJrimuculalus, 
are fully described by Chittenden (loc. cit.). Short accounts occur in 
most general works on entomology. We are not aware that any of these 
species have been reared in India, except from harvested seed ; else- 
where the beetles lay eggs in the pods on the plant, as well as on the 
stored seeds, but we have seen no instance where Bruchids attacktd 
any cultivated pulse in the field, tliough many other insects are known 
which do .so. We may presume either that these cosmopolitan species 
oiiginated elsewhere or, if native to India, breed in wild plants; a very 
small number of species have been bred from wild leguminous pods in 
India, and these species do not occur among them. We believe all 
our destructive Bruchids to have originated elsewhere. 

Carijohurus (jonaijni. F.. is a larger grey-brown insect, found in 
tamarind seeds and is the commonest free-living species in India. The 
larva when full grown emerges from the 
seed and prepares a cocoon of very 
coarse and gummy white threads, with- 
in which it pupates ; this cocoon is oval 
and attached to some part of the seed or 

Fig. 2-24.-CAUYOBOKUS ^^jj rpj^g ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ j^^^^^ ^^ 

GONAGR.A, X 4. . 

the tamarind tree. The life-history was 

described in a Geimau paper by Elditt in 1<S(50, he having reared it 

from pods of Cassia obtained from India (Indian Mus. Notes. III. p. lo). 

Chrysomelid.e. Leaj-Eatlny Beetles. 

Antenna> moderately loiuj. their insertion distinct from 

the eyes. Upper surface bare. 

The t'/(/7/.yu«w7/t/ff' are readily distinguished as they are Phytophaija 

without long antenn* as in the <'enni)hi/vid)c. and without the 




352 COLEOPTERA. 



peculiar form and hind legs of the Bmckidce. They are also neither bred 
from pulse nor in trees and are on the whole a distinct and easily re- 





Fiji- -'-5. -AULACOPHOKA 
EXCAVATA, X :i. 

Fig. 226.— AULACOPHOKA 
EXCAVATA, X S. 



rognised family. Individual species approximate on the one hand to 
the Bruclndce and on the other to Ceramhycidw, and there is no really 
sharp Hne of distinction, but the very great majority are clearly recog- 
nisable. These beetles comprise a very large and varied assemblage, 
including a greater number and variety of forms than any other family 
of Coleoptera. All are herbivorous, the beetles are smooth, not being 
hairy as a rule or at least without the pubescent hairiness of Bruchids 
and Cerambycids. All are diurnal. It is impossible to discuss them 
as a whole and would serve no useful purpose ; they are divisible into 
a large number of divisions, some of which are extremely characteristic 
and without going deeply into the dry details of classification, we can 
readily distinguish the more important of these. 

There are first the Eiipoda, in which the prothorax is much narrower 
at the base than the elytra. The Camptosomes have one distinctive 
character, the lines of the abdominal segments not going straight 
across but curving, making the middle of each segment narrower than 
the sides, and leaving a large space in the middle for the fifth. 

The Cyclica have not the above characters, but the prothorax is 
often a little narrower than the elytra and usually has the edges distinct, 
not rounded off. 



PLATE XXII. — Mlerucella Ruoosa. 

Fig. 1. Eggs on leaf, x 3. 

2. Larva on leaf, x 3. 
3 ,, 48 hours after hatching, x 20. 

4. ,, full grown, x 6. 

rt. Pupa. X 8. 

G. Female, x 8. 

7. Malp. X h. 



CHRYSOMELin.E. 



353 



Finally the Cri/ptostoincs are very characteristic, the liead being 
bent down so that the mouth is below, the antennee inserted close to- 
gether at the front of the head. Tliey include the very distinct Cassi- 
dince in which the head is hidden, and the Hispince, which have a 
characteristic outline and are often spiny. Actually if a Chrysoinelid 
has not the naiTow prothorax, nor the curved ventral abdominal 
sutures, nor the defle.xed head and the contiguous antenna\ it must be 
one of the Ci/clira, the largest division of this large family. 

Prothorax narrowed, rounded. iSaf/rina;. 
Head constricted behii\d eyes, iDonariina!. 
])roduced anteriorly. AT/- [('rioccrinw. 

POD. I. 

(Megasceliiie). 
Megalnpin'P. 
( 'hftrina'. 
Crijptoa'pJiaJinw. 
Chlamynce. 
.(Sphaerocarinse). 
'(Lamprosomiiue). 
Antennie 
separate. 



Ventral abdominal sutures 
curved . ('. / MPTOSOMES. 



Prothorax a little narrowed but 
laterally acute. C YCLICA . 



Antennfe approxi- 
mate, elytra soft. 
Galcrucinw. 
(Trichostomes). 



(Feet bilobed. 
I Enmolpince. 
I Feet simple. 
\ Chrysomelince. 
Posterior coxse 

grooved. 

Halticini. 
Posterior coxa' 

not grooved. 

GaJerucini. 



Antenna^ approximate Head 
deflexed. CR YPTOSTOMES. 



THead exposed. 
I Hispince. 
I Head concealed. 
[ Cassidince. 

The following is a .synopsis of the larval habits as far as they are 
known : — 

Sagrinw. — Roots of trees. 

Donaciince. — In aquatic plants. 

Criocerincp. — Oir aquatic plants above water, or on land 

plants with excrement over, 
Camptosomes. — In cases, on plants or in ants' nests. 
Enmolpince. — In roots or in soil. 
II L 23 



354 



COLEOPTERA. 



Ohri/someh'ncF. — Free, leaf -feeding. 

Halticini. — Mining in leaf or plant, or tree. 

Galerucini. — Free, exposed, or in underground parts of plants. 

Hisfinw. — Mining. 

Cassidinrp. — Exposed, carrying excrement or having anal process. 

A great number of species have been described both in the older 
publications of Hope, Oliver, Illiger, Baly (Chenneirs Assam Collec- 
tion, etc.), and more recently by Jacoby, whose descriptions of the 
Cardon and Andrewes' collections add many new species (Ann. 8oc. Ent., 
Beige, 189.5, p. 252 ; 1897, p. 420 ; 1898, p. 185 ; 19(«, p. 80 : 1904, 
p. .380). The late Mr. Jacoby's volume of the Fauna of India deals 
with the family as far as Emnolfince. 

Eupoda. — The Sagriurt are the first sub-family, with five species 
of Sw/ra in India. These aie characteristic insects , of large size and 
brilliant colouring, of which the life-histoi}' is almost wholly unknown. 
The oval brown cocoons of <S'. hoisduvallii were found at Buitenzorg 
in the hollow root of a tree (Rhizophora) in 1862, (Nederl. Tijdschrift 
V, p. 97), and it is known that in Java, Sagra Buqueti lays eggs on the 
bark of a tree, the larvae living in the tree and causing gall-like hypertrophy 
of the wood. The beetles are found upon plants, Smjra femorata, Dy., a 
metallic green insect, being the common species in India, found in forests. 
Donaciinw are a small group, of which four species are Indian. 
The larvfe of Donacia live in aquatic plants, the beetles in water or 
in the air. None appear to have been 
leared in India. Donacia ceraria, By., 
is found in the plains, though not 
commonly. Hceiiimiia, though not 
recorded as Indian, is also known from 
the plains. 

Criocerinre. — A larger group with 105 
Indian species of which 80 are inclu- 
ded in Lema and 19 in Crioeeris. 
The Ceylon forms are distinct and 
are treated by Jacoby as Malayo- 
Australian, only one occurring appar- 
ently also in South India. 




Fig. 227. —Donacia liEOTicoi.Lis. 



CHRYSOMELID.E. 



355 



The life-history of none of these is definitely recorded Crioceris 
imprpssa. F., was reared by de Niceville on kham-alu (Diosroira ahita) 





•2'2S.- LF.MA SUiNATI- 
I'RXNIS. 



Fiy 229. — CKIOfERIS FASCIATI 
PENNIS. 



(Indian Mus. Notes, V, p. 134). In general the larva^ are either semi- 
aquatic, living on the leaves of aquatic plants in cases made of theii- 
own excrement, or live on plants on land in the same way. These 
larva' have the anus on the upper surface so that as their excrement 
is voided, it covers the body and makes a protective covering. They 
are extremely characteristic in appearance and are likely to be found 
on aquatic plants. The beetles are common in grass and on plants ; 
they are usually brightly coloured and warning ; several species arc 
common. Lema cnromandeliana. F,, and Vrioceritt impressa. F,, being 
widely spread in the plains. 

Camptosomes. — A large division divided into several sub-families, 
some of which are not represented in India. The Clytrinw, Ghlamijrue 
and Cryptocephalinw, are the most cf mmon, with many species of small 
cylindrical beetles, coloured often in orange or yellow and black. The 
larvfE of Cryptocephalus are of peculiar form and live in small cases 
formed of their excrement ; they are white larva?, with the abdomen 
tapering and doubled back under the body so that the apex reaches 
the thoracic legs ; the case made is a small oval one. in which the larva 
lives with the head and thorax at the opening, the anus in such a posi- 
tion that the excreta can be ejected. (In a Himalayan species H\'ing 



356 



COLEOPTERA. 




on Artemisia, the cases very closely resemble the excreta of the larger 
grasshoppers and this is possibly a protective device.) The cases of 
C. corrosicollis, Jac, are common on long grass and those of C. Pusaensis, 
Jac, on " Jhau" (Tmnarix gaUica), and the little larvse can be readily 
reared. Donnisthorpe has described the life- history of the European 
Clythra quadri-punctata, L., in Trans. Ent. Soc, London., 1902, p. 11. 
We reproduce his summary : — 

' ' To lecapitulate the 
foregoing facts : The life- 
history of Clythra quadri- 
punctata is briefly as fol- 
lows : — When the beetle 
has emerged from the 
pupa in the nest, it 
escapes mth caution 
' feigning death,' and 
holding on to twigs, when 
attacked by the ants. It 
then seeks its mate, 
and copulation takes 
place. The beetles are 
generally to be found on 
birch shrubs, the yoimg 
shoots and leaves of 
which they eat, biting the 
top shoots right through. 
The female then seeks 
a tree or shrub above 
or close to a nest of 
Formica rufa, and drops 
the eggs on to the ground 
beneath. The eggs are co- 
vered by a case, or capsule, 

which is placed aromrd it by the female, and consists of her own excre- 
ment. This covering is placed in position with the posterior tarsi, the 
egg being held in the depression of the abdomen. The covered egg 
looliB exactly like a small bract, and is exceedingly like the end of a 





Fis. -230.- 
IN AND ( 



-Ckyitocephalus pusaensis. Lakva, 
vt (if case, r>ia(^kam ok case, imago. 



f'HRYSOMELID.'E. 



.•557 



hircli fiitkiu. T]u> ants pick u[) the covered egg and cai'ry it into tlie 
nest. 'J'lie young larva, which hatches in about twenty-one days, uses 
the egg-case as a nucleus on which to build the larval case ; thus very 
young larval cases have the egg-case still attached to their posterior 
end. The egg-case has a thieefold raison d'etre — to protect the egg 
and newly hatched larva, to make the ants believe it is a bit of useful 
vegetable refuse, and to give the larva a foundation on which to 
start the larval case. When the larva case grows largei'. the egg-case 
bleaks off and the larva fills up the hole thus formed with the same 
material as that with which it builds the rest of the case. This 
material consists of its own excrement mixed with earth, which it pre- 
pares with its mandibles. To enlarge the case the laiva removes particles 
from the inside, and plasters them on to the outside. The larva feeds on 
vegetable refuse in the nest. When changiiig its skin it fastens the case 
to some object in the nest. When full-grown it fastens the case to a 
piece of wood or twig, and turning completely round, changes to a 
pupa, facing the broader end of the case. When hatched the beetle 
gets out of the case at this broader end. by biting a circle round inside 
it, thus forming a cap, which it forces off." 

The student should refer to this accou2\t and read the bibliographi- 
cal remarks especially. There is nothing to show that our species have 
this habit, but it is worth bearing in mind when searching ants' nests 
for insects. 

The Meijahpina include Teninaspis (i), and Colobaspis (4), rare 
insects found in the hills. The Clytrince are listed by Jacoby and 




231.— A. DlAl"lto:MOKl'H\ inXGUIS, B. Aspidolopha thokaik a, 

C. Gyna.mikophthalma subdivka. 

{A/Ur Jurohij.) 



358 



COLEOPTERA. 



Clavareau in Genera Insectorum, with !)(• species from tlv Indian 
region of which less than fifteen are found in India jiroper. Jacoby 
describes 125 species in the Fauna of India. Titubosa bimaculaia, Jac, 
elytra succincta, Lac, Clytra conformis, Lac, Coptocephala nair, Lac, 
and Diaproniorpha turcica, Fabr., appear to be common species of the 
Clytrides, and Cryptocephalus senarius, Suff., Crypf.ocephalus sehestedti, 
Fabr., Cryptocephalus corrosicoUis, Jac, among CryptocephaKdea. Of 
the latter genus nearly fifty Indian species were recorded forty years 
ago and a larger number have been since described. Exema, Chlamys 
and Hipnetes represent the Chlamynce, which are almost wholly 
American- 

Cyclica. — The largest division with the greatest number of species. 
There are three main sub-divisions of which two, Eumolpince and Chry- 
somelincB, have the base of the antennae separated widely, whilst the 
third, Galerucince, has the bases of the antennae drawn together though 
not touching. The latter are separated by Jacoby under the term 
Trichostomes. In all, the beetles are of small to moderate size, usually 
brightly coloured. They 
constitute the immense 
majority of the family, 
the typical leaf-eating 
beetles. Colours are 
usually warning, bright 
blue, bright red, a great 
variety of tints. 

Emnolpince. — Practic- 
ally nothing is on record 
as to the life-histories 
of our forms, but the 
larvae probably are 
miners in roots or live in 
the soil feeding on roots. 
Jacoby records 414 spe- 
cies from the Indian re- 
gion. Scelodonta includes 
small dull coloured beetles 




-SuKLODONTA STUlcItOLLlJS 



CHRYSOMELID.1!. 359 

i'>iuul aluuKlmtl y on grass and on plants. S. slri,/in,lli^, Mots., is conuuon 
on giai)c- vines and where tliis plant is cultivated, is a serious pest. The 
late Mr. Jacoby wrote in the Fauna tliat this species could no longer 
be recognised, but he labelled a series of specimens from the Pusa col- 
lection with this name and omitted to record the localities in the 
volume. (It will ],n>l)ahly be found to have a similar life-history to 
its ally the American grape vine rootworm, Fidia viticida, whose life- 
history has been described.) *'. vittatn is a larger form, found on Pan- 
chanjuria (Vitis trifoUa), which shams death extremely effectively and 
falls to the ground on its back, the brown lower surface and white 
patches making it very difficult to distinguish. 

Colasposoma is a large genus of moderate-sized metallic-coloured 

beetles, C. metdlicus, Clk. and C. ornatum, Jac. being common in 

the plains. Cori/nodes peregrinum, 

Fuesl., is a deep blue beetle, very 

abujulant feeding on Ak and other 

wild plants and found throughout 

the plains. Nodostoma, Nodina, 

,,, , Hdnraspis, Pseudomlaspis. Colasvis 

_ .„. a«.— Lakva of cghy.vodes J n 1 -j 

PERE(iRiNus. X fi. ^^^ tolaspoides, are the other com- 

moji genera. 

Pachnephon,, hretmgluuni, Jac, and P. impresms, Ros., take the 
place m India that M^jochrous takes in. America, as being destructive 
to the young shoots of cane and cereals : they are small dust-coloured 
beetles, with the appearance of weevils, found in numbers in the 
expandmg leaves of the young cane shoots which they destroy ■ hidden 
m the heart of the shoot, they are difficult to find and usually escape 
observation, the destruction of the young shoot being assigned to some 
other cause. 

ChrtjmmeUna'.-^lhoxxgh these beetles occur in all parts of India 
very little appears to be known beyond the mere description of such 
species as have reached European collecrions and been described. Nor 
IS there any complete list at present available and the recorded Indian 
species are buried in a voluminous and scattered literature. It is the 
least represented division with less than 70 recorded species. We are 
not aware of any species being of economic importance to agriculture 




360 



COLEOPTERA. 



in India and the larva' apparently feed wholly upon trees, uncultivated 
shrubs and herbs. The group is characteristic of the temperate regions 
and only a few come into our limits, the majority being Himalayan. 
A large number of larvae of exotic species have been described and these 
are known to feed openly upon the leaves of plants as do the Galerucini. 
Phmdon hrasicw, Baly., is a steel-blue beetle found feeding upon 
mustard in Golaghat (Indian Mus. Notes, Vol. HI, p. 44). Placjiodera 
is represented by several species and Lina is represented by the Euro- 
pean L. popuU, Linn., which occurs in the Himalayas. Chrysomela 
includes a variety of moderate-sized beetles, some of bright colours, 
the commonest plains species of a dull black colour ; two are abundant, 
the spotted Chrysomela, C. guttata, Geb., and the unspotted species C. 
PascoBi, Jac. Paropsides hieroglyphicus, Gebl., breeds freely on pear 
trees in the hills and is a pest in Shillong. 

Galerucinw. Halticini. — A large 
group with over 150 described 
Indian species and many more to 
be recorded. Podontia is common 
in the hills and moister plain areas, 
P. affinis, Grond., and P. 1-i-punc- 
tata, Linn., being the familiar spe- 
cies. The latter is recorded as 
breeding in Calcutta on Spondias 
mamjijercB ; the larva is covered in 
excrement and pupates in a rough 
cell of earth in the soil, the imago 
appearing yearly in August (Indian 
Mus. Notes, Vol. IV, p. ()8). Clitea 
picta, Baly., is a small oval brown 
and black species found feeding, as 
an imago, on the leaves of Bael 
{Aegle marnielos). The beetles jump 
freely as do most of this group. 
The larva is found boring in the 
shoots of this plant, the slender 
twigs being tunnelled down the cen- 
tre but Httle harm being done. The 




-PotiONTI.4 14-PUNCTATA. 

(I, M. N.) 



PLATE XXIII —Phidodonta Modesta. 
Sugar-cane Hispa. 

Fig. 1. Eggs .jt:}^'^'^y''^f*'"-'^y'"8- 

( C. Before liatching, 
2. Newly hatched larva, x 3. 
,, 3. Larva in mine in cane leaf. 
,. 4. Full-grown larva, x 3. 

("A. Ventral a.<?pect x 3. 
5. Pupa ... B. Dorsal aspect, x 3. 

I C. Just before emergence, x 3. 
(■A. Just after emergence, x 3. 
B. 15 minutes after emergence, x 3. 
„ 6. Imago ... - ^ 3Q __ „ . „ x 3. 

Id. 60 „ „ „ X 3. 

,, 7. Imago, to show di.sposition of spines. 



CHRYSOMELID/E. 361 

larva is soft, wliitisli with few very slioit haiis, tlie huad brown, 
the tiiiy round spiracles on the dorso-lateral line. Beliind the head 
is a dLstinct prothoracic shield, and over the anus is a fiat black 
plate with short hairs round ; this plate is at an angle to the long axis 
of the body, facing dorsally and posteiiorly and may be for the pur- 
pose of enabling the larva to exert pressure by placing this against the 
wall of the tiuinel. Chcetocnema basalis, Baly., is the flea beetle of 
rice, a small active beetle that leaps readily. This and other genera 
include the common flea beetles known as destructive to crop.s in all 
countries. Several species are fomid in Indian crops attacking wheat, 
sann hemp, mustard and brinjal. The larva^ of these small beetles are 
miners in the tissues of the plant. Luyeromorpha iveisi is recorded as 
attacking mango trees in Purulia (Indian Mus. Notes, Vol. X, ]>. 125). 
Haltica cyanea, Web., is a common steel-blue beetle of moderate 

size. It breeds freely in the rains 

and until December, the black larva' 

feeding on a very common weed, 

A mniannia rutmicli folia (Lyth racece) 

which conies up abundantly after 

Fig. -jr^o.— Halth A cyaxea ^^^ raius. This species is curiously 

LARVA. >: 4. plentiful in some years, but is very 

localised and swarms have been 

observed clustered in a patch in a single field ; they are gregarious when 

abundant, a patch of ground sometimes black with them. The winter 

is spent normally in pupation in the soil, the beetles emerging in March 

and Wi.iting tdl fo( d can be obtained. This is one of the perfectly 

harmless insects so often repoited as injuiious, oiving to its presence 

in large numbers in crops. Its ally, H. ccerulea. is the prey of the bug 

Zicrona canileu as is probably also this species (see Pentatomidif 

below). 

Gfilcnuhn.— Over 250 species are recorded and this number will 
probably be doubled when the Famia volume comes to be prepared. 

Oides occurs plentifully in forest localities and occasionally in the 
plains in the form of 0. bipunctata, F., an oval orange beetle with a 
black blotch of varied size on each elytron. The larva is yellow and 
feeds on the leaves of the common wild creeper Vitis trifolia : when 
full-grown it pupates on the leaf undei- a few coarse threads. 




362 



COLEOPTEBA. 



Aalacophora is the commonest beetle genus in tlie plains with three 
conxmon species. A. foveicollis, Kust. f= abdominalis, G. et H.), is 





Fig. 237.— MlMASTKA 

riYANRA. 



Fijr. ^SU.— AULACOeHOKA 

FOVEICOLLIS ri. .\I. N.| 



deep orange above, while A. excavata, Baly., has the elytra deep blue, 
A. atripenms, Fabr., the elytra black, and A. downesi, By., the elytra 
black with a yellow basal patch. The last is rarer tli^in the first three. 
There are a number of species of this genus and the whole classification of 
these beetles is in confusion. Though A. foveicollis, Kust., is extremely 
common, nothing is known of its life-history and all attempts to solve 
the problem hitherto have failed. It is a destructive insect to young 
cucurbitaceous plants, eating the leaves. (The larva of its ally Diabro- 
tica in America, mines in the stem a little below ground, while the 
beetle behaves as oui- species does.) HopJasuniu also includes several 
common species whose life-histories appear to be unknown. Mimastra 
cijanea, Ho., is principally a defoliator of forest trees and occasionally 
occurs in numbers. The beetle emits an acrid yellow fluid from the 
head. Several other species are common Lii jungle but ]iot in cultivated 
areas. We figure all stages of GaleruceUa rugosa, Jac. (Plate XXII), 
whose larva feeds on Polijcjonum ; this genus and Haplosoni/x are abun- 
dantly represented even in the plains. Another GaleruceUa is des- 
tructive (in its larval and imaginal stages) to the Waternut or 8inghara 
crop {Trupa hispinom), destroying the leaves of this valuable plant. 



CHRYSOMELID.E. 



363 



I lis pi ua.-VvYi^io^tome beetles, in whieli the autenu^' aie set 
ch.selv together on the f.-nt of the head, but without the produced 





Fig. -iHS.— GONOI'HOKA 

nK.NC ALE.NSIS. Kig. 'iSQ. — HiSPA -KNESIENS, X 7. 

prothorax covering the head, which characterises the next sub-family. 
These beetles have a characteristic facies of their owii, being 
usually flattened, the sides of the elytra parallel, the prothorax narrow, 
the integument either much pitted in lines or with regularly arranged 
spines. The antenna? project in front of the small head ; the legs are 
short, the elytra often have truncate ends. The colouring is varied, 
browns, metallic blacks and occasionally brighter metallic tints predo- 
minating. Some species are evidently cryptically formed and coloured, 
escaping notice when resting motionless on a young leaf tightly pressed 
to the surface. 

The life-history of several species in India has been worked out 
(Plate XXIII). The essential features are that the egg is laid 
in the tissues of a leaf or plant, the resulting grub mining in the tissues, 
and producing a ' ' blotch ' ' mine. Moults take place inside the mine 
and the larva is much flattened, though in some cases provided with 
legs. Pupation takes place in the leaf. The beetles are similar in 
appearance in both sexes. So far as known, all Hispince have such a Hfe- 
history and the larva lives concealed in the tissues of plants. Hibei- 
nation and other periods of rest take place in the imago state. 



364 



COLEOPTERA. 



One species, Hispa cenescens, By., is a serious major pest, and 
another Leptispa pygmwa, By., occasionally rivals it. Others are minoi' 
pests or live in imcultivated plants. 
Hymenopterous paiasites are the 
only known check on the increase 
of these insects. H. Donckier de 
Donceel's Catalogue (Ajin. Soc. 
Ent. France, 1889, LXVIII, p. .540), 
enumerates 111 Indian species, 
chiefly of the following genera : — 
Callispa 14, Anisodera 12. Gonophora 
9, Downesia 10, Plati/prial, Hispa ^'2. 
A few, including plains species, 
have been described since. Gestroi's 
papers (Aim. Mus. Civ. Genova). 
Baly's catalogue of Hispidre. and 
Weise's recent papers (Deutsche 
Entomologische Zeitschrift) describe 
the majority of our species. 




Fig. 240. — LEPTi.sr.\ pyom.ka. 
(f. M. N.) 



Leptispa pi/ymwa, Baly., is a narrow steel-blue species destructive to 
rice in Malabar and occasionally foimd elsewhere in the plains. Its life- 
liistory is unknown. Amhlispa keviyata, Guer., is a spineless black insect 
found on the leaves of the high grass in Canara and the Himalayas. 
Gonophora hemjalensi^, We., is a pretty yellow-brown species with 
black spots found abundantly during the rains in submontane local- 
ities. 

Plaiijpria includes P. Andreiresi, We., described from specimens 
reared from ber {Zi:i/phus jujuba) and common in widely spread local- 
ities in the plains. The larva does not remain in one mine but moves 
about, eating into the leaf, eating out a kind of pocket and then emerg- 
ing to commence a fresh pocket. The larva (fig. 241) is flat, the head 
large and hard, with short antennee and a lateral cluster of ocelli; the 
piothorax bears a dorsal and a ventral shield ; the segments are pro- 
duced laterally and bear a terminal backwardly-curved process ; the 
spiracles are on the doisum ; the legs are well developed and tlie larva 
runs actively; the abdomen terminates in a flat chitinous plate with 



chrysomeud.t:. 



365 



a lateral piocesi5. the anus being ventral. It ])U])ates in a special pocket 
in the leaf. The pujia is similar, hut the fourth ahdoniinal segment is 




Fi^. -Jil. — rr.ATVI'ltIA AMIRKWKSI. LARV.A ON liF.K I.KAF ; 
ol.n AMI IHTAL MINF.S, x 3. 



drawn out lateral 
dorsum. 



y into a strong haekwaidlv-directed ])r()cess on the 



P . rehifJna. Guer.. is a commoji 
form in the Western Ghauts and 
Nilgiris. Hispa(Phidodonia) modesta. 
We., has been bred in sugarcane: 
its life has been fully described 
(Mem. Agri. Dept. Ent.), as has also 
that of Hispa cenescens. By. This 
last is a very inipoi-tant pest in rice- 
growing tracts and may be distingui- 
shed by the form and position of the 
prothoracic spLties. the small tooth 
at the lower edge of the basal an- 
temial joLnts. the absence of spines 
on the antennae above and tlie me- 
tallic black-green colour. The dis- 
crimination of Hispids is not difficult if attention be paid to such ])oints, 
but the student may be cautioned against hasty identification without 
very careful exaniination. 




Fig. ■JPJ— Pr ATYl'RIA ANPREWESI. 



3()f) 



COLEOPTERA. 



Cassidince. — Tortoise Beetles. Tlie characteristic of these beetles is 
the flattening of the body and the extension of the pronotum over the 
head. The form is oval or rounded, 







^s: 



S?' 



^'^6 




Fig. •24:5— ASPIIIOMOKPHA MILIAKIS, 

A. Kgcj mass, B. Larva, 

C. Pi' PA, D. iMAIiO. 



the outline of the extended pro- 
thorax continuous with that of 
the elytra and giving the insect the 
appearance of a tortoise. The co- 
louring is either dull green or dry 
grass colour, or is peculiai'ly brilli- 
ant, the living insect having a glit- 
tering golden hue with a groimd tint 
of red, pink or green. In appear- 
ance these are perhaps the most 
striking of all insects, living jewels 
of the most delicate beauty. The 
object of this colouring is not clear, 
though the dull green ones are evidently cryptic, in conjunction with 
their form and immobile attitude on the plant. 

Few details are available as to the life-history. Eggs are of two 
types, single eggs laid on the leaf (Coftocyda), egg masses containing 

many eggs (Aspidomorpha) ; larvse 
are flattened, with processes bear- 
ing spines, with three pairs of legs 
and having an anal process which 
can be turned over the dorsum 
and bears the dried excreta. We 
figure such a larva (Plate XXIV). 
These larvae are found on the 
leaves of theij' foodplants and, in 
the moist tropical zones where 
they are of large size, they are 
extremely striking. Their food is 
the epidermis or tissues of the leaf 
and they are nocturnal inhabit as 
a rule. Pupation takes place on 
the leaf and the processes on the 

Fig. i44.-LAUVA (II- METHIONA , 1 r .L X .Ll 

niici'MiiATA. body are a marked feature of tliese 




PLi^TE XXIV.— CassidinvE. 

ig. 1. Calopepla hexagona, larva fi-om above, with its attached moult. 

2. Anal .segment with the moult removed. 

3. Pupa, from above. 

4. Beetle. 

5. ■ Coptocyda sexpunclaia. 

6. FrioptcrallO maailaCa. 




CASSIDINAE. 



COLLECTING. 367 

insects. Nono caii Iw reckonod as pests since none occur abundantly ; 
Vonvohxdarcw arc tlicir food especially, several feeding on sweet 
potato {Ipovia'fi hdldlds) and on garden creepers. The majority breed 
only in the rains since there is tlien ojily a sufficiency of food. Appar- 
ently the imago goes into hiding for the intervening seasons, but 
accurate data on this and other points in the life history arc not 
available. 

Th'> species aie described by Rohemanu in his Monograph, dated 
18.'iO-18G2. and a number of species have been described since. Hop- 
Uonota (fi). I'tiopin-d (8). Culojirph, (4), Epistirtia (.'5). Cliin'ila (4). 
Aspidonwrplid (14). Cdssidd (2(1). Laccoptera (4). (\ijtt'i(i/cld {V.'>). 
are the genera. The larger and more brilliant s])ecies of Cdhpi'pld. 
Aspidomorpha. etc., arc wholly hill or forest forms, and onlv the 
duller green Metrionn and Coptori/dn and the smallei' Aspidomorphd 
occur in the plains. Aspidoinorphn miliaris, Fabr., was reared in 
Calcutta on Convolvulus ; it commonly attacks sweet potato also. The 
life-history has been worked out in the Philip])ines by W. Schultze, 
who figures all stages. (Philippine .Tournal of Science. III. p. 261.) 
The duration from the egg to the emergence of the adult was .'^8 days, there 
being four larval moults before the pupal moult. He remarks that the 
larva? feed and pupate in groups. The student should consult this 
paper, as also Muir and Sharp's (Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1904. p. 1), 
and Muir and Kershaw's (Loc. C'it., ]!i()7, p. 24!)), for interesting notes 
on the eggs and transformations of this group. 

Metriona cirnimdatd , Hbst., is the commouei- green foini breeding 
on the same plant, as also does the common six-spotted Chirida 
sexnotatn, F., both of these laying eggs singly on the leaf. Cassida 
dorsonotata, Boh., is common in the moister areas, while Coptocycla 
varians, Hbst., is found in abundance breeding on the wild Iporaoea 
on sand dunes [Ipomoea pes-caprce) ; the single oval egg is laid on the 
leaf and is fastened with short brown filaments from the side of the egg 
on to the leaf ; the green larva is flattened and very difficult to see, 
resting by day motionless on the plant. 

Collecting. — The beetles are easily collected and preserved ; their food- 
plants should in all cases be noted. Whenever possible they should be 
kept olive with food till eggs are obtained and the larva' studied. This 



.368 



COLEOPTERA. 



is not always possible and the life-histories of some of our commonest 
species still remain unknown. For this reason every larva found de- 
serves careful rearing ; larvae are preserved in formalin. The student 
may be cautioned against hasty identification of specimens that look ex- 
tremely alike, more especially in the Htspides. There is no group that re- 
quires moi'e careful scrutiny before pronouncing two specimens to belong 
to the same species, and this is of great importance in the economic 
species. There is also no group that offers such scope to the inquirer, 
especially in the bionnmic aspect. To the naturalist living in a forest 
or hill district there is immense scope and the fauna of any one place 
■will take years to procure and work out properly. 

Cer.-vmbycid.^. — (Longicornia). 

AnUnncp long, tlieir bases fartly encircled hi/ tJic eyes. 
Upper surface pubescent. 

This large family of large insects is readily recognisable from tlieir 
general foim and tlieir long antenna\ They range from imder half an 




Fig. i-lii.— B.^TOl'RRA KUBRA. 



OERAMBYCID.E. 



369 



inch to over one ijicli in length, tlie body robustly built and the inte- 
gument hard. The colours are sombre oi- bright, many being cryp- 
tically coloured, otheis exhibiting Mullerian mimicry, imitating the 
colouring of wamingly coloured insects. 

The head is distinct and well developed, with large eyes and power 
ful trophi. the heavy biting mandibles being proniijient. Antenna^ 
are long, dentate in some forms, in others with tufts of hair. The pro- 
thorax is powerful, accurately adapted to the body. The elytra cover 
a pair of ample wings and are closely applied to the abdomen. In .some 
cases they are abbreviated or narrowed and do Jiot wholly covei' the 
abdomen. The legs are long, the tarsi pubescent. Males are similar 
to the females, the former having larger mandibles and distinctions in 
the antenniB and forelegs and, as a rule, the antenna' are longer. They 
stiidulate by moving the prothorax agamst the body, the posterior 
edge of the prothorax rubbing on a corrugated surface on the meso- 
thorax and .so pi-oducing an audible squeak. 




246. -OKLOMF.KXA Sl'AUltATA f.AKVA. 



The life-history, so far as known, is uniform throughout the group. 
The females lay large eggs singly in cracks of the bark of trees or on 
bamboos. These eggs hatch to legless larvae wliich tmrnel in the hard 
woody tissues, eating out large galleries in which they live. The larva 
is characteiistic in form, generally similar to that of Buprestidse but 
with the abdomen more developed and the swollen prothorax less 
marked. The head is small, with powerful biting mandibles. The 
thorax is slightly swollen, with a broad dorsal plate, without legs ; the 
abdomen often has dorsal plates on each segment. The pupa is found 



370 



COLEOPTERA. 



in the tunnel, in a chamber formed by closing up the tunnel at its head 
and tail, or in a cocoon of white hard material derived from the excre- 
ment. The length of the life-history is known in few cases but in species 
investigated elsewhere, has been fomid to be very long, as much as three 
years being spent in the larval stage. This is due possibly to the lack 
of nutrition in the food of the larva, the dry woody material not con- 
taining much nutriment ; a great amount of it must pass through the 
alimentary canal in order to supply the necessary food and a long 
period is apparently consumed in obtaining this. The larval galleries 
are often very large and extend to a great length tlirough the trunks 
of trees. 

The family is a very large one, principally confined to forest areas 
and of no importance in Agriculture except in special cases. Few are 
found in the cultivated plains and the 
bulk of the species are purely forest 
haunting insects. The Indian .species are 
being described by Gahan in the Fauna 
of India. 

The family is divided into two sub- 
families : — 

Cerambyc'nce. — Head in front oblique 
or sub-vertical, last joint of palpi not 
pointed in tiont. Fore tibiee not grooved 
beneath . 

LamiincB. — Head in front vertical or 
bent inwards well below the thorax. 
Last joint of the palpi pointed at the end. 
Fore tibise generally with a groove beneath. (Gahan). 




B.\T0LR1;A KUl-.KA 

purA. 



Cemmbycmw. — Oahaii makes four sub-families : — 



Prionini. — Distinguishable as a rule by the sharp lateral maigins 
of the prothorax. Disteniini. Ten hill forms. Lepturini. Twenty- 
three hill forms. Cerambycini . Embraces most of our forms but is 
not readily distinguishable iii the case of hill forms, except from 
Prionini, 



CERAMBYCID..T5. 



371 



Prionini. — An assemblage of 53 Indian species, of which two only 
are common in the plains. They are large dark brown insects, the an 




Fi;;. IMS. — PuiOTYRAXNTS MOIlli 



tennsr long, the prothorax u.sually spined, the mandibles often very 
long, curved and powerful. Dorijsthenes nmntanus, Guer., is stated to 
come out of the soil in the Nilgiris in 
such numbers as to cover the soil ; 
this occurs in April, May and June, 
the observer (Mr. Perrotet) further 
remarking that the bears eat these 
beetles. (?) (Guer. Men., Rev. Zool., 
1840, p. -10.) The large l)rown 
beetle that flies into lights in South- 
ern India and bites so fieely is 
Prioti/ranniis monlax, Wh. The less 
formidable Paruphrus (/ranulosus 
Tlioms. comes into houses at night 
in Behar. Macrotoma crenata,¥a,hr., 
is a common plains species, wide- 
spread over India, fomid mider 
fallen leaves and at light. Aegosoma, 
costipenne. Wh., is recorded as 
boring into teak trees in Assam. 
(I. M. N. II, p. 12.) Acanthophorus 




249.— Hyporschrus inpicus. 



372 COLEOPTERA. 

serraticorm s , Oliv., occurs iii South India where it bores in mango and 
has been foimd as far North as Amballa, and A. modicus, Gah , is 
known only from Lahore. 




Fig. 2-tO,— A(^ANTHOPH(>p.rs sfkratkornis. 

Geramhycim. — Gahan lists 309 species from the Indian legion. 
divided into 20 groups. It is impossible to discuss so laige a 
number of forms here : about 12 may be considered as common 
in the plains. We figure Hyporschrus indiriis. Gah., which bores in 
the Sal tree. 

Xystrocera glohosa is a reddish brown beetle, of about one incli 
length, with a conspicuous longitudinal band of metallic gieen along 
the elytra, found very widely. It represents the third groiip (Emini. 
Mr. Willcocks states that it is, in Egypt, a seiious enemy of the Siria 
tree [Alhizzia. lebek). 



("ERAMBYCID.E. 



373 



Slromutiim. barbahtm. Fahi'. (Hes/)('rophani). is perhaps the most 
abiuidant Cerambycid beetle in the i)iams. and is i<nown to breed in 
Khair (Acrwia catechu), teak, sissu and otliei- 
dry timber ; it is a dull brown insect, whose 
most interesting feature is the patches of 
silky hair on each side of the prothoia.x of 
the males : these are so placed and set that 
they catch the light in a very marked way, 
reflecting it towards the front, so that 
looked at from in front the insect appears 
to have two large shining eyes ; this may 
be mere fancy or may seive a useful pur- 
pose in courtship or defence. This beetle is 
knowii to emerge yearly in early June. 

The ( 'erambycines contain a large number 
of forms common or injurious. Plocedcrug 
obesuii, Gah., is the insect recorded as des- 
troying sal (I. M. N. I, p. 91); its cocoons, 
which are large, hard and formed apparently 
wholly of calcium carbonate, are striking 
objects. Molesthes hohsericea, Fabr., is 
recorded (I. M. N. I. p. 89) as breeding in 

tiff. -J.)!. — S.\L WOOD ATTACKED ' . 

Kv HVFOESLHKrs iNDiccs. sal wood {SJioreo, robusta). It is an extremely 
handsome beetle of rather over an incli 
length, covered with fuie pubescence that 
gives beautiful silky reflections. It is one 
of the common plains species. Diorthus 
simplex, Wh., is another common and wide- 
spread species, of a dull brown colour, 
resembling the preceding generally but with 
a distinct scar at the apex of the basal 
antennal joint boimded by a little ridge. 
Derolus detnissus, Pasc, is a smaller brown 
species without the antennal scar and with 

a fine ridge along the ventral face of each 

■^ " Fig. 252.— Aeolesthes 

femur. HOLOSEKICEA. 





374 



COLEOPTERA. 



With the CaUichromini, we leave the dull blown species and come 
to metallic blue and green species of larger size and more slender build. 

CMoridolum alcmene, Thorns., 
is the species found boring in 
the trunks of orange trees in 
Coorg (see Agri. Journ., India, 
Vol. 1, p. 129). It is a deep 
blue insect, the legs dark 
coloured ; it is recorded also 
from Assam. Andaman Isles, 
and Burmah. while Mr. 
Andrewes found it in the 
Nilgiris. No other species is 
notable and none occur in the 
cultivated plains ; some are 
known to emit an odour which 
is pleasant and possibly con- 
nected with sex. 

The Cli/tini include a large 
numljer of hill forms, chiefly 
.slender in.sects with a cylindri- 
cal or globose prothorax and 
marked in bright colours. 




253.— Chlokidolum ali menk. 



Xylol rechu has the antennae wide 
apart and the front with ridges ; it 
includes the White Borer of Coffee, 
X. quadripes, Chevr., whose larva 
lives in the stems of the coffee plants. 
Much has been written about this pest 
which occurs in the coffee districts 
of South India and is most destructive 
to coffee gro^vn under too dense shade. 
It is found also in Assam. Sylhet and 
Burmah and is an example of an ordi- 
nary indigenous insect which finds 
abundance of a cultivated plant in 
which it can breed and thus becomes 




Fig. 2.34.--XYL()TRECHUS quadbipes. 

The White Boker of Coffee. 



CEKAMnYC'ID.K. 



:i75 




i")n. -(.'(KLDSTEHNA suAl;liATA. 



;i pi'st. Tl'e leacK'r should consult tlic account of Dujuiiug (Tr. Ent. 
Soc. London, 1S()S, j). 105), of Bidie (Report on tlie llavaf^es of tlic 
Uoici-, lS(;il, Madras), and that of Taylor (The White Borer. I,^(),'^. 
Madras). 

Calocli/liis is a large ifenus of yellow handed beetles, one of which is 
occasionally extremely abundant in the plains. Tiiis is ( '. annularis. 

Fab., a slender beetle clothed 
in yellow pubescence, witli 
dark- bands on the thorax and 
elytra ; it lays its eggs on 
bamboos, the larva living in 
the bamboo and gradually 
destroying it ; the life-history 
occupies one year, the beetle 
being easily reared in capti- 
vity ; large numbers have been 
found to emerge from a that- 
ched roof in which new bam- 
boos were used, their emergence 
taking place in May. Other species are extremely common in the hills, 
as are also some species of Clytus and Demonax. 

Lamiina. — The re\'ision of this sub-family is not yet complete 
and we can only mention the common species of the plains, \vith the 
caution that the publication of the revision in the Fauna Volume will 
inevitably alter the nomenclature of the species named. Batocera 
rubra, Linn. (figs. 245 and 2i7), is the large beetle found throughout the 
plains, whose larva is common under the bark of trees ; it appears to 
occur chiefly in decaying bark and the trees felled in Pusa contained 
abundance of the large larva' and pupae. It is an extremely handsome 
insect, the largest of the common plains species. It is common also 
in mango, and E. P. Stebbing has described its occurrence in the Duki 
fig (Ind. For. Bull. 10). Ccelosterna sphiator, F., is a common beetle, 
lireeding in babul {Acacia arabica) ; the beetle has been found to eat 
the bark of cotton plants and, when abundant, as it occa.sionally is to 
do harm in this way. C. scabrata, F. (figs. 2-i6 and 255), has been 
reared from Casuarina equisetifoUa in South India, where it is very 
destructive to young trees, and also from mulberry. Sthenias grisator, 



376 



COLEOPTERA. 



F., is a smalJer beetle reported to girdle TaboHTmontuna alba blanches 
111 South India, as well as to cut down rose bushes (Ind. Mus. Notes 
III, p. 40). Olenecamptus bilobiis, F., is common in the plains on pakur, 
gixlar and other fig trees ; it is conspicuous by the round white spots 
on the smooth brown elytra and is likely to be found everywhere in the 
plains. Apomecyna histrio, F., and A. pert iger a, Thonis., are common 
among cultivated crops ; both are of small size, dull brown in colour, 
with many small white spots disposed over the elytia. The latter have 
been reared from the stems of the common immpkin {Ciicurbila pcpo) 
in which it occurs abimdantly (Plate XXV). 



Amongst the many species of Glenea, G. apilola, Thoms.,is known 
to breed in the trunk of the silk cotton tree {Boinbax inulabarkurn). the 
larva being found abimdantly 
in the decaying trunk after the 
plant has dried, in common with 
a host of other insects. Mono- 
liammun nivosus, Wh., is the 
commonest representative of this 
immense genus, an insect found 
on the Ak plant {Calotropis spp.) 
in the plains. Its larva is found 
in the stem of the plant, §uiiiauun:> 
up the centre and the beetle is to 
be found practically wherever 
this plant grows. 



The following list of plants 
bored by Cerambycidie is com- 
piled from Indian Museum Notes 
(I.M.N.), the reports of the Forest 
Zoologist (E.P.S.), of the Ento- 
mologist, Indian Tea Association 

(C.B.A.), and our own records. We have included borers of other groups 
such as the Arbelid*, Cossid*. Buprestidae, etc., but the records 
are extremely meagre and show how little this subject has been 
investigated. The boreis in dry wood, etc., of the Bostrichidfe, 




•256. — MONOH A M MUS \ EKSTEEGI 



PLATE XXY.— AroMECTNA Pertigera. 

Fig. 1, 



Egg. 
Full-giown larva. 



\- Pupa, venliiil and dorsal 

Beetle. 

Beetle feeding on growing plant. 

Larv;e and pupa^ in t'le stem. 






APOMECYNA PERTIGERA. 



CERAMBYCIU^. 



377 



utc, ami the laiva' living iai the l)raiK-hes, etc. (as the Cuiculiomdffi), 
are omitted. ■ ' 




Fig. '257.— Neoubkambyx Paris. 



Plant. 



Akh. 


Calotrofis (jiyantea. 


Asau. 


Terminalia tomentusa . 


Babul. 


Acacia arabica. 


Ber. 


Zizypkus jujuba. 


Bamboo. 


Dendrocalamus .stn'cti) 




Bnmhiisn sp. (dry). 



Boied \i\. 
Monoliammus nivosus. 
Molesthes holosericea (I. M. N.). 
Molesthes holosericea (I.M. N.). 
Ccehsterna spinator (I. M. N.). 
{Arbeln tetraonis.) 
Stromatium barbatuni (E. P. S.). 
Calnchftiix annularis. 



378 



COLEOPTEKA. 



Casuaiina. Casuarina ccjuisetifolia. 

Coffee. Coffea arabica. 

Gular. Ficus glomerahis. 

Guava. Psidium guava. 



Khair. 


Acacia catechu. 


Lime. 


Citrus medica. 


Orange. 


,, aurantium. 


Litchi. 


Nephelium litchi. 


Mango. 


Mangifera indica. 



Pumpkin. Cucumin melo. 

i^al. Shoren rohusta. 



Sandal. 


Santakrm nlhum. 


Simul. 


Bomhux malabarictmi 


Sissu. 


DaJbergia sissu. 


Tea. 


Camellia theifera. 



{Arbela tetraonis). 
Coelosterna scabrata. 
Xylotrechus quadrifes (I. M. N.) 
(Zeuzera coffew) (I. M. N.). 
Batocera rubra. 
{Arbela tetraonis). 
Molesthes holosericea. 
[Belionota prasina). 
Stromatium barbatum (I. M. N ). 
Chloridolum alcmene. 
(Agrilus grisator). 
(Arbela tetraonis). 
Acanthophorus serraticornis. 
Stromatium barbcdtmi. 
Batocera rubra. 
(Arbela tetraonis). 
Apomecyna pertigera. 
Plocederus obesus (I. M. N.). 
Hoplocerambyx spinicornis 

(I. M. N.). 
Ccelosterna scabrata (I. M. N.). 
(Chrysobothrys sexnotata ) 

(1. M. N.). 
Molesthes holosericea 

(E. P. S.). 
Acanthophorus 

(E. P. S.). 

Dialages pauper 
Hypceschrus indicus (I. M. N.). 
{Zeuzera coffecB). 
Plocederus obesus (I. M. N.). 
Glenea spilota. 
Stromatium barbatum. 
{Arbela dea). (C. B. A.). 
{ „ quadrinotata). (C. B. A). 
(Phas.'fus mahibnricus). 



serraticornis 



(E. P. 8. 



KHYN'tHOPnOKA. 379 

Teak. TcdotM ;//«;«//*•. Batoccra rubra (I. M. N.). 

,j jj ,j StrdinatiuiH burhatuin (I.M.N.). 

,, „ „ Stroi>mtiuinlo7i,(jicom('(\.M.N.). 

., „ „ Aegosoma co.stipenne (I. M. N.). 

„ „ „ Molesthes holosericea {I. M.'N.). 

„ „ „ {Psiloptera fastuosa) (I.M.N.) 

(C(mi(.'^ mdamba-) (1. M. N.) 



RHYNCHOPHORA. 

A series of beetles recognised by the tarsi, which are similar to 
those of the Phytophaga (fig. 183), by the antennae, usually clubbed and 
often elbowed, and by the rostrum, the head being drawn out more or 
less distinctly, so that the mouth, instead of being ventral, is anterioi' 
to the eyes, and often at the apex of a distinct beak-like prolongation 
of the head. It is difficult to place a few forms and to distinguish 
exactly between this series and some of the Phytophaga, but such 
cases occur very rarely. The Rhynchophora are on the whole a 
distmct series, all phytophagous, with leg-less larvfe usually living 
concealed (pace Cionus) and including a large number of boring insects 
foimd as larvii? in plants. 

Anthribid.e. 

Rostrum sliurt ami blunt. Antennw straujht, usuallij dubbed, deven 
joints. Tarsi of four joints, third small and hidden. 

Dull coloured beetles of small size and not often found, the bodv 
clothed in pubescence. These beetles are found on tree trunks, on 
mushrooms, on dead wood ; few are very active, though a few can leap 
(Arwcerus). The larvge are white grubs similar to those of Citrculionida' 
but sometimes with legs. They are found in seeds and in wood. 
Though few Indian species are known, many probably occur and their 
identification is not easy. Malaya is the head-quarters of the family. 
The student who specialises in this family will find a list of the known 
species with bibliographical references in Ann. 8oc. Ent., Beige, XLIX. 
p. 218 (I'JO.j). Bovie here lists 91 species as occurring in India, 



380 



COLEOPTERA. 



Burma and Ceylon. Jordan has described the majority of the forms 
from our limits. 

Eucorijnus crassicornis, Fabr., is a dark coloured insect found 
not uncommonly in tree bark in the plains, while Phlwobius alternans, 
AVied., has been found on plants. Arwcvrm jasciculatus, de G., is 
cosmopolitan and has been recorded as breeding in Areca nut in India. 
It is stated to have been distributed in coffee beans in which it 
breeds freely. This, or a very closely allied species, breeds freely in 
old dried cotton seeds (Plate XXVII) that remain on the plant after 
picking, and we have reared very large numbers from such seeds. 
Another has been reared in dry chilli pods and a third from the stem of 
parwar [Trichosanthes anguina). The cosmopolitan species feeds 
on a great variety of .substances and is variable in appearance ; the 
discrimination of species is not ea.sy in this nenus. 

CuRCULioNiD.-E. — Weevih. 
Labium absent. Antemue clubbed and elbowed. Head produced 

into a rostrum. Fourth tarsal joint reduced. , 

Weevils are recognisable by the rostrum and elbowed antenna' 

in almost all cases. They vary in size from one-eighth of an inch in 





Fig. 259.— BKiCHYASPISTKS 

X 5. [I. M. N.] 



TIBIALIS. 



length to nearly two inches, and in- 
clude a large number of forms a 
little more than a quarter of an inch 
long. The colours are commonly dull, 
browns and greys predominating, 
many black, a few a rich red brown 
and some green. In many species the body is clothed in scales, the 
actual integument being dark coloured, the delicate scales grey, buff. 



Fig. lioS.— Bkauhvaspistes tibialis 
X 5. [I. M. N.] 



PLA.TE XXVI.— Cylas Formicarius. 

Saveet Potato weevil. 

Fij;. 1, Egg. X 10 * . 

"2 Small pot.ato showing eggs laid on \t. x 2. 

3 Larva. 

4. Attacked potato. 
5. 
6. 

7. Imago. 

8. Antenna of female above male below. 



> Pupa, magnified. 







^nmnmoofei, 




itiiil'iUMMs.^ 



SWEET POTATO WEEVIL. 



OURCrLIONID.E. 381 

green or other light tints. When magnltied these scales give the 
insects a very beautiful appearance, one that cannot be appreciated 
by the naked eye. In some species the body is not clothed with scales 
but with an "efflorescence." a delicate mealy covering produced by 
the insect itself, and suggesting that a strong alkaline solution has been 
excreted and evaporated, leaving a white floury coating. The body is 
often short and thickset, the head drawn out into a beak of very 
varied form. Small compound eyes are placed at the base, the antenna' 
projecting from the side of the rostrum. The antenna consists of a 
slender elongate basal segment, the scape, seven or six .short slender 
segments forming the funicle and a club composed of three or four ex- 
panded segments (Fig. 137). The minute biting mouth-parts are situat- 
ed at the apex of the rostrum ; the latter may be short and thickset or 
long,_slender and either curved or nearly straight. In a majority, there 
are the scars of the bases of temporary mandibles found in the newly 
hatched weevil, on the mandibles : these were used in emergence from 
the cocoon or ground and shed. The prothorax is well developed, 
the ab(]omen large and completely covered by the elytra which fit 
closely to the body and cover the folded wings. The legs are 
moderately long, the femur often swollen at the apex, the tarsi of 
four apparent joints, of which the basal three are usually flattened and 
densely pilose. Males and females are similar in appearance, the 
former often smaller and in some species readily distinguished by the 
form of the rostrum, fore-legs or antennae. 

Though the family is a very large one, the life-histories of only a 
very few are known. So far as known, the eggs are of two types ; eggs 
laid in exposed positions on the outside of a plant are small oval objects, 
smooth, with a hard shell ; those which are deposited in the tissues are 
soft, elongate and white. They are laid singly, and usually in consi- 
derable number spread over a number of plants. LarvEe are, as a rule, 
internal feeders and are white soft legless grubs (Plates XXVI, XXVII), 
with a distinct brown head and a much wrinkled body, which is fleshv 
and slightly curved. The majority of the known larva^ are found in 
the tissues of plants, in roots, stems, fruits, twigs and other parts. 
None are known to be other than herbivorous. Pupation occurs in the 
plant, and there is great variety in this re.spect. A few make cocoons 
of fibres ; many pupate in the tunnel without covering, though in a 



382 



COLEOPTERA. 



distinct closed chamber. The larvae which live exposed make a case 
of excrement or of gummy material derived from the anus. 

The weevils which emerge are 
active insects, diurnal or noctur- 
nal, feeding on leaves and other 
parts of plants or on plant sap. 
None are known to be predaceous, 
though at least one is probably 
so. The duration of each stage 
varies with the species. Some are 
one-brooded, hibernating as the 
imago and passing long periods 
in the imago form, until they 
are able to lay eggs in the tissues 
in which the larvae can live. 
Others are many-brooded, and 
one brood succeeds another so 
long as food is available. In 
these cases hibernation appears 
to be passed in the larval or 
pupal form. 

Weevils have the habit of 
"shamming dead;" when ap- 
proached the legs and antennte 
are folded close to the body and 
the insect drops to the ground. 

This is a valuable defence, especially in thick vegetation, the 
insect falling to the soil and being extremely hard to find. Since 
all are herbivorous and some abundant, the family includes many 
destructive species, whose ravages, especially in the larval stage, are 
of importance in Agriculture. Our knowledge of these insects is slowly 
growing and many yet remain to be worked out. Owing to their con- 
cealed lives and to the often nocturnal habits of the imago, they are 
difficult to check, no stage being exposed to any particular measures 
that can be adopted. A few are destructive, not in the larval but in 
the imaginal stage, the weevil living for long periods and destroying 
leaves. The mango weevil, the melon weevil and apple weevil attack 




-OliOIPORU.S LONGICOLLIS, IMAC 
ANIl rOCOON. 



CURCULIONID^E. 



383 



fruits, the sweet potato weevil, tubers, the cane weevil the roots, the 
cotton stem weevil, palm weevil and jute weevil the stems, while the 
white and green weevil eat the leaves, and the rice and wheat weevils 
stored grains. The enemies and checks of these insects are little known ; 
parasitic insects check the larva> and the weevils are probably des- 
troyed bv birds and by predaceous insects. 

The family is one of tiie largest, and though many species are 
known, no thorough account of the group is in existence. They occur 




Pi;;. £01 .—A. Hypeka vakiabilis, B. Myllocekus discolor, C. auipes 

l.EOPARDUS, D, BaLANINUS C, ALBUAJ, 



384 COLEOPTERA. 

in all parts of the tropical and temperate regions. In India, the plains 
fauna is rich in species, though more are to be found in the submontane 
forest and jungle areas. The family as it occurs in India is being 
described in the Fauna of India by G. A. K. Marshall. 

The classification of the Curculionidoe is too vast to be entered 
into here. One has but to glance at the vast array of groups, divi- 
sions, legions, cohorts, tribes, etc.. into which the family has been 
divided to realise its complexity. A complete revision of the family in 
the light of new knowledge will have to be done when the monographs 
on the regional faunae are more complete. As in other complex groups 
of Coleoptera, there seems to be no immediate prospect of any thorough 
revision owing to the complexity of the family and its vast number 
of species. About 1,500 Indian species are probably already described 
or recorded, but an equal number at least will probably be added now 
and new forms are found constantly. 

Brnchyderince. — Blosyrus asellus, Oliv., is a grey weevil, with 
thickset abdomen and elytra, found commonly feeding on leaves from 
August to December. Astycus lateralis, F., is the common green weevil 
of the plains of India, found feeding in abundance upon cultivated plants. 
A. chrysochloris, Wied., is the larger metallic green species common in 
Assam. Tani/mecus indicus, Fst., is one of the many weevils wliich 
are .so abundant on soil and eat young plants. It is extremely 
common in the Gangetic plain and appears regularly twice in the year 
at the commencement of the kharif and rabi seasons. Tan//)iiecus 
eirrumdatus, Wied., is common on plants, a delicate green form with 
longitudinal stripes, and T. chloroleucus, Wied., is also abundant, uni- 
formly clothed in almost white scales. The genus is a very large one, 
with many species in the plains. Their larvae will probably be found 
in the roots or underground stems of plants. Atmetonf/chus peregrinus, 
Oliv., is also found, a grey much roughened weevil found on young 
plants (Plate XXVII, fig. 10). 

Otiorhi/nchina'. — Episonms larerta. F., is a comparatively large grey 
weevil that has been found in numbers on cotton plants, feeding on 
the bark (Plate XXVII. fig. (\). 



PJ.ATE XXVII- CvRcvunmvM. 
Weevils. 



Pupa 



Vi'^. 1. Laiva of AiiBcerus .sp. (Cotton seerl weevil.) 

::.;:)■ 

„ +. Imago ,, ,, X 6. 

„ 5. Phytoscaplms liianguiaris x .3. 

„ 6. Episonius lacerta. x 2. 

,, 7. Apodeius scutellaiis. x 4. 

,, S. ,, tranquebaricus, x i. 

„ ;). Xauthochelus superciliosus. x 2. 

,. 10. Atmetonychus peregrinu.s. x 2. 



„ 12. 



Phylaitis .sp. (Cotton .stem weevil), lai'va, pupa, ima^o. 



„ U 

„ 15 

„ 16. ) 

,, 1 7. Balaiiinus Bomfoidi. x 6 



PLATE XXVII 




CURfUTLIONin.E. 



385 




Fig. Sti'i.— Mylloceri's 

SETULIFER. [I. M. N.] 



M/jllocerus is an important genus of weevils in India with several 
common species. The commonest is the "White weevil," M. macii- 
losus, Desb., described from Cawnpore 
specimens (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. IV, p. 
111). This is abundannt everywhere in the 
plains but its life-history is still unknown 
M. setuli/er, Desb. (Fig. 2()2), described in 
the same publication, is found attacking 
flowers and is not strictly a plains species. 
M. discolor, Boh. (Fig. 261), has been reared 
from grubs found at the roots of cane 
plants, the grub and jiupa in the soil, the 
former feeding on the cane roots. The adult 
feeds upon young mango leaves. It may be 
found sometimes in abundance hiding away 
for the winter under bark or in any sheltered 
crevices, and it emerges again in March. M. 
blandus, Fst., is a small dull grey species 
which feeds upon the young leaves of cane and maize and is very des- 
tructive to young plants (cf. Pachnephorus). 

EremninfF. — Phytoscaphus triangularis, Oliv. (Plate XXVII, fig. 5), 
is a small brown weevil, with lighter markings found commonly feeding 
on leaves. Ambhjrrhinus poricollis. Boh., is a similar and smaller insect, 
frequently found feeding upon the small leaves of mango, litchi and 
other fruit trees. 

Hi/perince. — Hijpcra includes two common species found breeding 
upon lucerne {Medicago sativa) and Senji (Melilotus indica). The green 
grub feeds exposed upon the leaf ; a parchment-like cocoon is made on 
any part of the plant and from this the imago emerges. The weevil is 
far more destructive than the grub, eating into the shoots and causing 
them to wither. The species concerned are H. varians, Hbst. (Via. 261). 
and H. mediraginis, Mshll. ; they have an active season in the cold 
weather only, disappearing into hiding in March or April, the weevils 
living over until the next cold weather in concealment. 

Cleoninrp. — Lixus brarhyrrhinus. Boh., breeds freely in the cultivated 
Amaranths grown as vegetables, the grubs being found in the stems. The 
11 L 25 



386 



COLEOPTERA. 




weevils can be found on the plants in the rains. Atactogaster fimtimus. 
Fst. {Leucomigus aniennalis, Fst.), is stated to be injurious to cotton 
and gram in South India (Ind. Mus. 
Notes, Vol. IV, p. 112), and is a 
common insect in Madras. 

Xanthochelus superciliosus, Gylh. 
(Plate XXVII, fig. 9), is the large 
grey weevil found feeding abun- 
dantly upon the leaves of ber [Zizij- 
plius jujiiba). 

Hi/lobi.in(e. — Paramecops farinosa. 
Wied., is the weevil so commonly 
found on the Ak {Calotropis spp.). 
It is greyish in colour but is covered 
in a white mealy efflorescence. The 
eggs are laid in the rind of the Ak 
fruit, the little grubs boring into 
the soft tissues and feeding on 
the developing fibre and young 
seeds. The full grown grub reaches 

a length of half an inch, and pupates in a compact cocoon formed of the 
delicate fibre (known in commerce as " kapok "). Ten days after, 
the adult emerges, and feeds on the leaves of the Ak plant. The 
weevils are very common and widely spread where this plant grows. 
Ci/ladin(r. — Cylas fonnicarius, F. — The best account of this insect 
is found in the Queensland Agricultural Journal for August 1900 (page 
176). Mr. Tryon there gives a thorough account of the species, with a 
complete bibliography. He discussed its origin, a matter still of 
doubt, but as the two first describers, Fabricius and Bohemann, both 
obtained it from India, there is some ground for believing it to be a 
native of South India, spread gradually over the tropics. A short 
account of this insect will be found in Indian Insect Pests. Eggs are 
laid on the sweet potato tuber or rootstock, the larvae tunnelling into 
the tissues and boring through them ; pupation takes place inside and 
the weevil feeds also on or in the tuber. The stages are well 
shown in Plate X XVI, and the weevils may be found throughout 
India, being often destructively abundant. 



Fi<:. 263.- Atactogastek 

FINITIMIIS. [I. M. N.] 



CX^RCULIONID.^. 387 

Apionina'. — The genus Apion includes a vast number of tiny 
beetles with straight antennaj and marked sexual differences, found 
almost over the globe. The colours are black, brown, blue, red or 
metallic. A number of Indian species are known, but the discrimina- 
tion of species is very difficult. Apion (/agntinirni, Mots., is a common 
plains species on grass. A. strohilanthi , Desb., is described from seeds 
of Strobilanthus in Sikkim, an unu.sual habit for a member of this 
genus (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. II. p. '.>2). Another species lives in 
the stems of jute in India. 

Attelabinw. — The genus Apodenis contains the weevils in which 

the head and sometimes the prothorax is drawn out into a long neck 

(Plate XXVII, figs. 7, 8). These weevils 

prepare cases of green leaf ; the leaf is cut 

across near the base, the cut reaching from 

each margin to the midrib or crossino- the 

midrib from one margin only ; the leaf 

is then folded longitudinally, and the tip 

rolled in ; an egg is laid and the rolling 

process continued till the leaf, up to the 

cut, forms a compact cylindrical mass, 

consisting of tightly rolled and folded leaf 
Fig. 264. -Leaf case of ^ ? , , ''. , 

Apoderus blandus, blade, with the egg in the centre ; no silk or 

MAGNIFIED. gum is used and the insect works with legs 

and jaws in folding and packing the leaf ; 

the roll is left adhering to the remainder of the leaf, the egg hatches 

and the grub feeds on the leaf inside the roll. The roll subsequently 

dries and falls off with the pupa inside. We figure the case of 

Apodenis bhindtts, Schonh., madeonSissu. Eggs laid on 25th June, 

hatched on the 28th, the larvse pupated by the 30th and weevils emerged 

from the 3rd to the 7th July : the life-history is thus a verv brief one 

and there are apparently two broods during the rains, the second 

being a hibernation brood in which the larva remains for the winter in 

the case. A. tranijuebaricus , Fabr., in South India rolls the leaf of the 

country almond (Terminalia catappa) and the habit has been observed 

in a number of species in the sub-tropical zone of India. Over 30 

species are known in India, in the genera Apodems, Attelabus, and 

RJu/nchites. 




388 COLEOPTERA. 

Balanince. — Balanimis Bomfordi, Fst., eats into the unopened buds 
of the banyan tree and feeds on the inside ; with their very slender 
curved beaks they make neat punctures and many buds wither. The larv» 
are found in the fleshy receptacles of the fig, which they destroy so 
that the fig falls off. We figure this species, which represents the 
group in the plains, and B. C. album, Fabr., found in Eastern 
Bengal (Plate XXVII, fig. 17). 

Cionina. — C'iomis Jwrtulanus, Fourc, Nat. major is a "cold weather" 
species in the plains, breeding only on Celsia coromandelinna ; the shiny 
grubs feed openly on the buds and look like caterpillars ; they pupate 
in a delicate horny cocoon, made of anal secretion, on the plant. There 
are, as a rule, about three broods yearly in Pusa, from February to 
April, the weevils then seeking shelter. They are usually very abun- 
dant, one of the most noticeable of the cold weather forms. In the 
Himalayas at 7,000 feet this weevil breeds on Celsia from May to 
October. C. albosparsus, Fst., has been found in Bombay and others 
occur in the sub-tropical zone. 

AlcidincB.—k sub-family confined to the Old World and mainly 
occurring in the tropics. It consists of Alcides with 242 species recorded 
up to 190(5 and Acwrus with one. The group has been listed by Bovie 
(Genera Insectorum 1907). Of the former 26 species are Indian. 
The species of which anything is known have been reared from larvae 
boring in the shoots of plants. Alcides leopardus, 01. (Fig. 261), is the 
species most commonly found, known throughout the plains ; its larva 
bores in the shoots of cotton, destroying them, and pupating in the 
tunnel near the bark. The pupal period is short (4 days) and the weevil 
rests within the tunnel for some days after. 

^J. collaris, Pasc, is a larger species, the prothorax red-brown, the 
elytra black with white spots, which is found in sweet-potato fields in 
the plains. A. fabricii, F., has reddish-brown elytra with cream stripes, 
and a black and cream coloured prothorax ; it has been found in widely 
scattered localities. A. bubo, F., is the weevil whose larva breeds in 
Agathi (Sesbania) in South India and is a serious pest. Its eggs are 
greenish white, flattened and of nearly round outline, laid in holes in 
the stems of the young plants and covered with gelatinous material 




CURCULIONID/E. 1^89 

The liff-historv occupies .si\ weeks ; luanv hirvaj are found in the same 
jilant, which dies, and the loss in young plants is extensive. 

Cn/plurlii/HcIiina'. — Parln/uni/x '/twdridem, ("hevr., is found breeding 
in the dhak plant (fiutca jrondosa) in Northern India. Criiptorhijnchus 

contains the mango weevils of India, 
of which C. f/mris. Fabr., is the com- 
mon form in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, ('. iimngijerw, F.. hi South 
India and Ceylon. Both breed in the 
stone of the mango, the eggs being laid 
in the young fruit, the larva on 
maturity eating through the pulp 
and emerging to pupate in the soil. 
There is but (jne brood yearly of 
the former and the weevils remain 
dormant from July or August to the 
Fig. •265.-CuYi'TOKHY.\cHus following March— April in concealment 

in the ground and in or on the bark 
of trees. 

Desmidophorus contains several sub-tropical species, D. hebes, Fabr., 
also occurring in Behar, where it is occasionally found in abundance 
on garden Hibiscus. 

Zygopinci'. — Phcenoinerus sundevalU, Bch., is a small linear beetle, 
resembling an elongate rice weevil, found in the plains. Metialma 
includes two species, M. scenica, Pasc, and M. balsaniince Pasc, the 
latter having been reared from larvae found boring in the stems of 
balsams ; the larva tunnels in the soft tissues and pupates in a cocoon 
formed of fibres twisted into an oval shape. 

We figure a P/*//fe;'<w (Plate XXVII), common in the stems of mal- 
vaceous plants, which attacks cotton severely and specially tree cottons. 
It was a serious enemy to tree cottons in Behar and is destructive in 
South India, the larva? boring in the stems, forming a thick swelling 
and eventually so weakening the plants that they break off or die. Its 
distribution appears to be a limited one, as it is not a widespread pest 
of cotton. 



390 



COLEOPTERA. 



Calandrina'. — Rhynchophorus includes the common Palm Weevil of 
India R. ferrugineus, F. {B. signaticollis, Chevr.), which breeds in the 
toddy palm {Phwnix sijlvestris) and in the cocoanut palm (Cocos nucifera). 
The eggs are laid in the soft tissues at the base of the leaf sheath, at a 
wound or at the cut made by the toddy drawer ; the larvaj tunnel 
through the tissues in all directions and, when mature, make a cocoon 
of twisted fibres. This insect is one of the more important pests of 
India and much has been written of it in C!eylon where it is of still 
greater importance. (Figs. 2()8, 2<i9.) 





Ki;;. :iti6. — C'alandua oryz.e. 
>: 10. 



Fig. 'JUT.— Calaxdka okyzk. 

Calandra (Sitophilus) is a genus of 
two species of world-wide occurrence. 
C. fjranaria, L., is of a uniform deep 
redbrown colour, the prothorax with 
oblong punctures ; the metathoracic 
episternum is very narrow with a 
single row of punctures. It is wingless. 
C. ori/zcB, Linn., has two fulvous 
patches on each elytron, the punctures 
on the prothorax are rounded and 
closer together, the metathoracic episternum is wider and has two 
rows of punctures. It is winged, the weevils flying readily. The 
latter is the common Indian species, of which much has been written, 
but little is known. 

Odoiporm glabricolUs, Gyll., is the common weevil whose larva 
breeds in the stems of the plantain (Musa sapientum)^ The black 
weevil is to be found on or in the plant and is quite common. (Fig. 260.) 

Poh/tus mellerhorgii, Bh., is a tiny dark coloured weevil found breed- 
ing in decaying plantain stems. 



CURCULIONn>/E. 



;5«)i 



Cciridorcnis hiitutcuJuinn, Boli., isa black s])ecie,s in whicli thr antemuv 
havo a very t'x))an(k'cl truncate cluli : it is found rarely in tropical India. 

This family also includes the 
large forms such as Cijrtotracfie- 
his dux, Boh., & ('. lon(ji pes 
found in sub-tropical India, 
which are the most striking 
Curculionids of the Indian 
fauna. In the latter the 
male has very long forelegs ; 
they feed on the juice of 
Itamboo shoots and the eggs 
are also laid there, the larva" 
tunnelling in the shoots and 
the usual fibrous cocoon of this group. 





Fi;;. ilii). — Rhynchophoiu's KKKRr<aNEi> 



Collecting. — Weevils are simply collected on their foodplants and re- 
quire no special methods. The rarer species are obtained by "beating"' 



392 



COLEOPTERA. 



bushes, and it is advisable to remember that they often sham dead 
and fall to the ground when the plant is shaken. Larvae are to be 
found in every possible part of the plant and practice enables the col- 
lector to discern swollen twigs or branches in which larvae are found. 
They are not difficult to rear and almost any part of a plant is worth 
investigating for weevil grubs. The rarer S])ecies are obtained in this 
way and there is no better collecting method than to search systema- 
tically among wild plants. Benzene is the best killing agent and the 
weevils keep well until required to be set. 



BrENTHID/E. 

Antenna' straight, nine or eleven-jomted . A horizuntal rostrum, 
usualhj long. Tarsi pilose beloii). Body elongate. 
A family closely allied to the Curculionids but usually of more 
elongate and linear form. They are usually bare, shining, of dull 
browns and ferruginous tints. The 
males in some cases have large curved 
mandibles or expanded and toothed 
fore femur and tibia. The habits of 
but few are known and none of these 
appear to be Indian. In general, they 
are wood-boring or found in decaying 
wood. They are chiefly tropical and 
well represented in the forests of the 
East. There are two sub-divisions : 

Antenn* eleven-jointed. Brenthince. 
nine ,, UlocerinrB. 

There are about twenty recorded 
Indian species, but the family has been 
greatly neglected. Several species 
are common in the plains, in some 
of which there appears to be a consi- 
derable amount of sexual differentia- 
tion in respect of the head and rostrum. 
Von Schonfeldt in Genera Insectorum (1908), who enumerates 
]0 s]iecies from India cxclu.sive of Burniah and Ceylon, the small 




P'ifr. 270. -Orychodes sp. 



The family is listed by 



Sr-OLYTID.S. 



sa-^ 



number of species recorded being apparently due to errors of geog- 
raphy in the earliest describers of species. 

Calodromus Mellyi Guer., CalUparekis foveatus Senna, Cemhalcs 
ranaliculatns Mo., Symmorphncerus cardoni Senna, Prophthalmus 
delesserti Pow., P. obscurus Pow., P. potens Lac., Bari/rhi/nclins miles 
Boh.. Ei(i).saUs fnmcatus Boh., Orychodes pusillns Oliv., are the known 
Indian species. 

SCOLYTID.E. 

Rostrum short or absent. Antenncv short, elbowed, clubbed. Tarsi 

apparenthj fonr-jointed, filiform, third joint entire or 

bilobed, not elomjated. 

.\ family closely allied to some of the t'urculioiiida^ in structure 

but distinct in the almost total absence of the rostrum and in their 




Fin^. -271.— Xyleborcs fornii.'atus [I. M. N.]. 



habits. Most are elongated and cylindrical, of small size and of the 
dull brown or black colour common to beetles which live in darkness. 
The antennae are short, sometimes with twelve joints (funicle 1, scape 7 
club, 4), sometimes with as few as three. (Fig. 19.3.) 



304 COLEOPTERA. 

Owing to their peculiar habits a great deal has been learnt of these 
insects since they are of extreme importance in forestry. Nearly all 
are borers in woody tissues, but few living in green tissues (the Sco- 
lytid that bores in the shoots of the common plant Vinca rosea, in the 
Western Hemisphere does not seem to occur in India though the plant 
does). Owing to the destruction they cause in forestry, the group has 
been extremely carefully studied elsewhere and the student will find 
full details in works on the forest insects of America and Europe. 
Their peculiar habits, especially in regard to sex, some being pol}-- 
gamous, some monogamous, the extreme ingenuity of their system of 
tunnelling and the fact that in some their food consists not of wood but 
of the fruiting bodies of certain fungi, which they themselves (hence 
called ambrosia beetles) cultivate with care, makes them a group of 
especial interest. They are, however, practically wholly forest insects, 
and occur almost entirely in the sub-tropical hill forest areas of India. 
No species are of agricultural importance, and the typical wood and 
bamboo borers of the plains are Bostrichido' and not Scolytidw. 

The family include monogamous species and species which are 
polygamous ; in the first, the female prepares a bore, then goes out 
and returns with a mate and subsequently makes tunnels at right angles 
to her original bore ; each tunnel contains an egg and the male remains 
in the original tunnel. Such tunnels may be in one plane, since there 
is only one branching, and they may be contained in the bark only. In 
polygamous species, the male makes the first burrow, the females 
gathering in it and each making a tunnel from it ; from these they make 
other tunnels, in each of which eggs are laid. Of these tunnels, some 
must be horizontal and some vertical and they extend into the wood since 
the narrow bark will not accommodate them. Thus in the first case, 
the borings are simple, only a coupling burrow (made by the female) 
and larval burrows at right angles (the larvae on becoming beetles bur- 
rowing straight out to the bark) ; in the second, they are complex and 
consist of the coupling tunnel, the mother tunnels at right angles each 
made by one female, and at right angles in another plane the egg- 
tunnels ; the system become so complex that air holes may be made 
to the bark by the mothers. In the different species the tunnels vary 
and the individual kinds are too complex to be noticed here. 



STYLOPID.E. 395 

TIk' lilV-liistories of many species are known and something is known 
of Indian species. Works on forest insects must be consulted for 
details. The chapter on Scolytidae in Gillander's " Forest Entomo- 
logy " (1908) should be consulted as giving an excellent resume of the 
family. Over 50 ' Indian ' species have been described b}' Motschulsky, 
i^iandfonl. Kichliott' anil others. 

The family is divided into two according to the tarsi : — 

First tarsal joint shorter than the remainder together .. SroIi/lin<r. 
First tarsal joint — the remainder . . . . Plnti/pivw. 

The SroIj/ti)ia- are divided into three sulj-families, Scoli/lini. Hi/Ie- 
sitii, Tomicini ; all are represented in Indian forests. We mav mention 
Xyleboras perforans, Woll., reported some years ago as attacking beer 
casks in India and which is known to live in sugar-cane in the West 
Indies, where it however attacks only diseased cane. The mother 
beetle makes a tunnel in which she lays eggs, the larvae feeding 
on fungus hypha? in the cane and not boring themselves. (See Bland- 
ford, Kew Bulletin, September, 1890, April, 1892.) X. jornicatus, Eichh., 
attacks tea in Ceylon (Indian Museum Notes, III, 57), and As.sam ; its 
presence is associated with a fungus and there is reason to believe it is 
also an '" ambrosia " beetle, cultivating the fungus for its own food 
and for that of its larva?. Of the Platijpinw, Plati/dacti/chis (Eccotop- 
terus) sexspinosus, Motsch., was reported as burrowing in the stalk of 
rice in Burmah. This observation has not been confirmed. The 
species is described b)' Blandford in Indian Museum Notes (III, p. (i^). 
Platjipus pilifrons, Chap., and P. sordidus, Wlk., occur in the plains. The 
PhitijpincF are in some cases known to be ambrosia beetles. 



Stylopid.^. 
These aberrant Coleoptera are of uncertain position. We are not 
aware that a!iy are definitely recorded, but Home, in his notes on 
the habits of Indian Aculeate Hymenoptera. states that many females 
of Polistes hehrwus contain Stijlops in the second abdominal seg- 
ment It is recorded that the genus Polistes is the host of Xenos, a 
genus in which the female is wingless and larviform, the male winged 
and active ; that Xenos occurs in Polistes hehrceus in India has been 



396 



COLEOPTERA. 



ascertained recently, the male wasp showing the pupal cocoon project- 
ing from its abdomen, as a brown body which on dissection proved to 
contain a dead male of Xenos. The hibernating females are also in- 
fested and in March, the female Xenos, in the body, yields abundant 
small active larvae which apparently pass from the queens to their 
young in the new nests. The first brood of wasps is thus infected and 
from them males have been reared. The female is a mere egg-pro- 
ducing sac which lives always in the wasp and is fertilised there by 
the male, which is winged. Infection occurring thus in the nest, 
there is apparently a constant succession of broods ; some wasps con- 
tain as many as three Xenos, which in their mature or pupal condition 
are readily visible as brown bodies attached at the junction of two 
abdominal segments. This Xenos appears to be a marked check on 
PoUstes hebrceus. a large percentage being infested in some cases. 




Fin. -7'2.— Malk of xenos from polistes 

HEBKyKUS. X 12. 




CATERPILLARS. 



PLATE XXVIII— CATERniXARS. 
Fir; ]. -lunonia oritli)'ia. (NymplialidjcV 



2 1 
3. ! 

■ C.Uephia imjuieta (Noctuid.e) 



Cliloridea obsoleta (NocluidiF). 

3 1 



6. Spliingid. 

7. Glyphodes psittacalis (Pyralid;B). 

8. Porthesia xantlioilioea (Lyrnantriida^). 

9. Bombyx inoii, '2nd iiistar (Bombycidrp). 
10. Setomorpha tineoides (Tiiieid»'). 

> Cryptoplilebia caipophaga (Tortiicidpc-), 

13. Plusia agramma. (Noctuidie). 

14. Belippa laleana. (Limacodidse). 

]o. Bombyx moii, full grown (Bombycida^) 



LEPIDOPTERA. 
(Butterflies and Moths.) 

Two pairs of large wings, of nearly equal size ; the body and wings densely 
clothed in hairs and scales. Antennae of varied form, usually simple, 
with a varying arrangement of cilia, never serrate or lamellate or 
bristle shaped Mandibles absent (except Mioropterygidae). mouth 
parts in the form of a tubular proboscis and palpi 

Metamorphosis complete, the larva with short biting mouthparts, with 
two to five pairs of suckerfeet, adapted to living openly on plants or, 
more rareiy, in them. The imago obtains its food from flowers or 
plant sap, the larva is herbivorous on or in plants, very rarely pre- 
daceous In a large number the imaginal life is brief and no food is 
taken: in others it is longer : in all, the larval life is comparatively 
long and active. 

Lepidoptera are recognisable readily in practically all .stages and 
the characters are sufficiently distinct. They include insects of small 
size as well as insects with an enormous wing span, though of no 
great weight. The immense weight of chitin which characterises 
the giants among the beetles is here replaced by an extensive win" 
area, so large that some of the largest moths measure as much as 
eight to twelve inches across the wings. 

There is a far greater uniformity of structure, facies and appearance 
in this order than in any other and, except in cases where members of 
other orders are deliberately mimicked, there can be no doubt as to the 
immediate recognition in the field of a butterfly or moth both in the lar- 
val, pupal and imaginal stage. Eggs are of three main types, the upright 
domeshaped butterfly egg, the rounded moth egg, the flat scale-like egg 
of the Microlepidopteron, the first two being often sculptured, the last 
reticulate. Larvse are of one type, with a distinct head, with three 
pairs of legs and from two to five pairs of suckerfeet, with a chitinous 
plate behind the head, with a number of chitinous tubercles on 
each segment, which bear hairs. It is impossible to give characters by 



398 LEPinOPTKRA. 

which one may recognise every form of larva, but it will assist if we 
mention some of the more prominent. Caterpillars with rows of spiny 
processes (Plate XXVIII, fig. 1) are NympMidcB ; rather flattened 
" onisciform " larvae, densely clothed in short hair are Lyccenidce (Plate 
XXXII), smooth caterpillars with a distinct neck are Hesperiidce (Plate 
XXXIII), smooth caterpillars with smooth processes on the head or body 
are Pa pih'onidce : uniformly hairy caterpillars are Arctiidw OTEupterntidcp, 
smooth caterpillars with few short hairs are Noctuidce (Plate XXVII 1. 
figs. 2 — 5) ; semi-loopers are also of this family (Plate XXVIII, fig. 1.3), 
whilst true loopers with two pairs of suckerfeet are Geometridcp : large 
caterpillars with an anal horn or a bulbous prothorax (Plate XXVIII, 
fig. fi) are SphingidcR ; hairy caterpillars with erect tufts are 
LymantriidcE (Plate XXVIII, fig. 8), with lateral tufts are Lasiocampido' 
(Plate XLVI). Caterpillars, smooth or spiny, in which the lower 
surface is a gliding surface are Limacodidce (Plate XXVIII, fig. 10). 
Smaller caterpillars with few short hairs and hooks on the suckerfeet in 
a circle are Pyralidw (Plate XXVIII. fig. 7), Tineido' (Plate XXVIII, 
fig. 10) or Torfnnrfff (Plate XXVIII, figs. II, 12). Large caterpillars 
with hair-bearing processes are Saturniidw (Plate XLII). Figures of 
all these types are given below, and a glance through the figures will 
show that there are distinct types but that they do not clearly delimit 
the families as other characters do, and vary very greatly in the Jimits 
of a large family like Noctuidcp in accordance with habits. 

The pupa is brown, the appendages usually firmly fastened to the 
body and not free, the parts not movable with the exception of some of 
the abdominal segments ; an important character is the nature of the 
hooks at the apex of the abdomen which secure the pupa in the cocoon 
and enable the moth to emerge. Resistance to weather is the object of 
the Lepidopterous pupa and it is of a firmly chitinised and well protected 
kind. As a rule, a cocoon of silk, alone or with extraneous matter, or of 
agglutinated soil, is formed before pupation. 

There are three devices in the imago for locking the wings, both pairs 
being functional in flight. (1) The frenulum, a stiff bristle or group of 
hairs on the base of the anterior margin of the hind wing which engage 
in a catch or group of bristles (retinaculum) on the lower surface of the 
forewing ; this is found in most Lepidoptera. (2) Expanded basal area 
of anterior edge of hindwing ; found in RJwpaJocera ; Lasiocampid w, 



CLASSIFICATION. 



399 



Pfeiotlni/snuKhr, Eiidmmidce, Chri/sopolnmidcp, ArbeJida\ Perophoridce, 
Eiitardidrp. etc. (3) The Jugum, a membranous or spine-like process from 
the base of the hind edge of the forewing, passing under the hindwing 
and holding it between the jugum and forewing; found in Hepialidw and 
M icropterygid w. 

Classification. — It is unfortunate that no uniform system of classi- 
fication has yet been universally adopted which can be readily followed 
in all systematic works and text books. For the Indian student, it is 
necessary to remark that we are unable to follow the classification 
and order of the Moth Volumes of the Fauna of India, since the author 
is !iow producing a revised classification which must sooner or later be 
adopted in the Fauna of India Volumes. For the present time, it would 
be more convenient to follow the Fauna ; a year hence the later cla.ssifi- 
cation may have replaced it and, in this dilemma, we have followed the 
order of the new classification. (Hampson, Catalogue of Lepidoptera 
Phal-enae, Vol. I.) This is also confusing as it is not the order followed 
in Sharp's Insects : but we have tried to reduce the inconvenience by 
listing the new order with page references to the Fauna of India Volumes. 
It is, however, desirable to retain the old division of Butterflies and 
Moths and w^e have done so. (In the list, families named in italics are 
not known in India.) 



Syntomidii'. 

Aictiiilie. 

Agaiistidip. 

NoctukUr. 

Pteiothysanidii'. 

Lyniantriid;r. 

Hypsidse 

.Sphingida". 

Cyniatophoridu'. 

Eupterotida?. 

Notodontida;. 

Georaetrida'. 

Saturniida;. 

BombycidiP. 

Brail inxidx. 

Ceratnrampiila: 



Vol. 

, p. -im. 

p. 1. 
. p. 148. 

p. 160. 
, p. 4.30. 
, p. 4.32. 
, p. 495. 

p. 65. 
, P 177. 

p. 41. 

p. 124. 

p. 138. 

p. 12. 

p. 31. 

p. 29. 



17. Uianiidic. 



27-2S-29 III. p. 107 137. 



PsychHa'. 

Ifelerof/yiiiil" . 

Arbelida'. 

Argt/rotyinilii'. 

RataididiP. 

Cossidffi. 

Lasiocanipida'. 

Endrnmhta. 

Chrysopolomidit. 

Perop/^orid(^. 

Merjalopyr/iild. 

Liinacodida-. 

Dalcerida. 

Neoeastniid;r. 

Casin^idl^. 

Nyniphalidii 



Vol. 
I. p. 2S9. 

I, p. 314. 

I. p. 493. 
I, p. 304. 
I, p. 402. 



, P, 371 
p. 471. 



Buttei- 
flies. 



34. Satyiifia'. 



40 







LKPIDOPTKKA. 






No 


Vol. 




35. 


Piei'idsr. 


Butter 












flies. 


II. 




44. ThyrididiE. 


36. 


Lycienid;!?. 


,, 


II,III. 




45. Pyralidic. 


37. 


Ericinicta'. 


,, 


I. 




46. < )riieodida'. 


3S. 


Papilioniiiii'. 


^, 


II. 




47. Pterophoi'ida'. 


39. 


Hespeiiidip. 




III. 




48. Sesiida'. 


40. 


Eiisrlinnwniilic 








49. Toitricida'. 


41. 


Zygii'iiidie. 


11 


I, p. 


•228. 


50. Tineida;. 


42. 


Callidulida;. 


16 


I, p. 


322. 


51. Hepialidie. 


43. 


Di-epanidic. 


17 


I, p. 


326 


52. Micropteryidd 



I, p. 352, 



I, p. 187. 



15 I, p. 31(5 



We give the diagnosis of each family in terms of the venation as in 
Hampson ; but it is not jDossible, unless one already knows the venation 
well, to simply use this diagnosis ; to the systematist familiar with the terms 
used, the diagnosis is useful for reference ; to the general student nothing 
but careful study with the Fauna and Catalogue of Lepidoptera 
PhalEenee will make this diagnosis of any use and we refer the worker who 
wishes to identify specimens to these volumes. For this reason also 
we give no explanation of the venation or terms, since the whole art of 
using them depends on a knowledge of the interpretation put on them by 
systematists, which is quite different from that of ordinary people. 




IC 2 

Kitr. 273.- Vknation of ("ossid fokf.wino 

HKPIA1.iI) HlNIiWINC. 
(After Hni)i/>sni,.) 



"• ifi 'ft 3 
Fig. 274. -Vknation ok LErinoi'TEKA. 
(Afhr Hamj/nuit.) 



KHOI'ALOCBRA. J:01 

hhopaIjOC'eb.a n>iti,rf/i,s 

Da// ffi/imi insects, the antenna' knobbed at the tip. No freniihim, 
the costal nermtre arched at the base. 

The butterttios are familiar to everyone from their large size, their 
bright colours, their sunshine-loving habits. Whilst most are clearly 
distinct from the moths, these distinctions are not easily defined, and the 
fundamental distinction lies in the wings. In Rhopalocera, the hindwing 
has a projecting shoulder at the base, which fits vmder the forewing, thereby 
securing the rigidity of both wings together. This fact can be 
expressed by saying that the costal nervure is arched, as it is to support this 
shoulder. In Heterocera, the wings are held together by the frenulum, 
a bristle or tuft which projects forward from the hindwing and fits into 
a pocket on the under surface of the forewing, or the jugum, a projection 
from the posterior edge of the forewin'j;. The costal vein is not arched 
and moths are said to be frenulate or jugate. The distinction between 
moths and butterflies is a useful one but hardly an accurate one and 
there is little need to discuss its value. 

The butterflies are eminently a group that love the densely forested 
hills where vegetation is abundant and varied, where rain falls abundantly, 
producing a continual greenness. Few are found in the dry cultivated 
plains, where foodplants are scarce, where there are long periods of drought 
and little shelter. Those that are of wide distribution are grass-feeding 
species, species that have widely scattered foodplants among the wild 
shrubs or flowering plants, or which feed on a cultivated plant. The 
ideal place for butterflies is the lower slopes of the hills well clothed with 
forest, with a sub-tropical climate and an elevation not over three to 
four thousand feet. Here butterflies attain their greatest development 
and few places are richer than such localities in India. Fortunately 
these insects may be omitted in this place. Our concern is only with 
the few very common ones likely to be found generally distributed 
over the plains and which are abundant in the bare cultivated areas. 

Almost all butterflies have a similar life-history. The eggs are laid 
on the foodplant, singly or in clu.sters. The larvse have five pairs of 
suckerfeet. and feed openly on the leaf on plant tissue. Pupation takes 
place on the plant, openly, with no cocoon. The eggs are rounded, up- 
right, with the micropyle at the top as in the greater number of the moths. 
IIL 26 



402 LEPIDOPTBRA. 

They are laid singly as a rule, a few (e.g., Delias eucharis) laying them in 
rows. The egg hatches, the larva eats the egg shell and commences to 
feed on the living plant tissue. Most are solitary, a few (Pierids) grega- 
rious. Nearly all have the usual cylindrical form, tapering a little at head 
and tail ; some are fusi-form, short, robustly built and unlike a caterpil- 
lar {Lyccenid(T) ; others have a conspicuous neck (Hes peri idee) and in 
some the head is noticeably small (Pierid(v). The body is clothed 
with erect spiny processes in many, in others with long procumbent 
appendages, or with long processes on head or anal segment. 

When full-fed the larva pupates openly on the plant ; it may simply 
hang by the tail (Nymfhalidce), or be fixed by the tail with a thread 
round it ; in the latter case, it may be horizontal or with the head upwards 
(L'ljcanidw), or hang freely in the loop, head upwards {Pieridce and 
Papilionidw). Finally it may be free in leaves rolled or drawn together 
(Hesperiidw). 

The length of the life-history varies and the number of broods in the 
year differs with the species ; these insects are dependent for their season 
on their foodplant and the caterpillar is found when the young shoots are 
put out or when the young leaves are available. For most this period 
covers the latter half of the rains and two months after, but many breed 
also in the early hot weather, which is the spring for many plants. Two 
to three broods a year is the most usual and the imagos live for long 
periods before they are able to lay eggs. Hibernation takes place in every 
stage even the egg and, in the plains, many hibernate as imagos. The 
relative length of the stages varies according to the stage in which hiber- 
nation or a stivation is passed, either of the four being prolonged. The 
imago as a rule is longlived and feeds upon the nectar of flowers. 

In the plains, butterflies are found practically all the year and most 
are two brooded ; there is a brood in July- August, produced by the eggs 
laid in June and a later brood from the butterflies that emerge in August. 
This latter hibernates and may live through the hot weather if its food- 
plant be not available. The student must bear in mind that this does 
not apply to all the plains .species, nor to the group as a whole ; some 
plains species breed freely in March-May if their foodplant be available, 
as, for instance, those on inigated crops or fruit trees : nor does this apply 
to the alnnidant hill and forest species ; though nuich i.< written about 



RFIOPALOCKKA. 403 

these, we are not aware that any author has yet dealt with this point fully 
for any family of liutterflies in India. 

The butterflies are e.xtremely well known, and far more is written 
about them than other insects in India. Their life-historie.s have been 
worked out to a far larger e.xtent than have those of other families and a 
great mass of information exists about this group. Bingham's volumes 
in the Fauna enable every species to be identified and fix the nomen- 
clature, we trust, for many years. De Niceville and Marshalls' Indian 
butterflies gives an account of the species of the Indian region, and it is 
necessary only to deal here with the species common in the plains ; the 
student will find ample details in the above volumes. For PieridcB and 
Papilionidw, the second volume of Butterflies in the Fauna should be 
used or the many papers published in India. A synopsis of the Hesperiidce 
has been recently published in Genera Insectorum, but Elwes and Watson's 
papers and those of Doherty must be consulted. The pages of the Jour- 
nal of the Bombay Natural History Society contain abundant informa- 
tion and most readable articles ; the descriptions of caterpillars by Bell, 
Davidson, Aitken, and de Niceville are of extreme value. For descrip- 
tions as for all identiflcation and synonymy, the volumes of the Fauna 
of India by Bingham are taken as the latest authority and these are indis- 
pensa'ile to students of this sub-order, who wish to be able to identify 
their specimens. The student should consult also the late Mr. L. C. H. 
Young's papers on the common butterflies of India in the Bombay 
Journal for 1906-7, the beautiful plates of which will enable him to 
identify the plains species of Ni/tnphalidrf : these are being continued by 
Mr. T. R. Bell. 

For the recognition of our few species, it is unnecessary to discuss 
the fundamental structural details that underlie the family distinctions. 
There are .six families of which one (Neitieohiidre, Lemoniidre, Erijcinidcp) 
we may omit. 

The Ni/mphalidcB have the forelegs reduced in both sexes and not 
used for walking. They include the majority of the butterflies. The 
Lycoenida', Blues and Hairstreaks, are small insects, the male tarsus of 
only one joint, long. The Pieridce, Whites and Sulphurs, have all the legs 
similar, the claws bifid or toothed. The Papilionidce, Swallow Tails, 
are the large butterflies and are di.stinguished by having all the legs well 
developed with large simplej claws. The Hesperiidce, Skippers, are 



404 LEPIDOPTERA. 

smaller, the antennte hooked rather than knobbed, the body robust, 
the flight quick. 

Students of Indian Insects who may have made collections in this 
sub-order will perhaps be surprised that so few species are mentioned ; 
we may remind them that we have attempted to deal with every family 
in due proportion and were we to discuss each family in proportion 
to what is known of them, then the section on this sub-order would be a 
very large one. The species mentioned are literally those common in 
the cultivated plains of India and a student who knows the little there 
is here knows as much; relatively, of these insects as is necessary to him. 

Collecting. — The -common species mentioned below are often obtain- 
able best as caterpillars on their foodplants ; perfect .specimens can then 
be reared and properly set. As with moths, specimens caught on tour 
can be put up in triangular papers and packed in boxes. Relaxing and 
setting requires care and is best deferred till a number can be properly 
relaxed and set at one time. A little Acetic acid should be put in 
the relaxing box to avoid discolouration. As with all caterpillars, 
" blowing ' is the best process for preservation. Except in LyccFnido' 
there is little to be done in the plains compared with other groups and 
we would recommend no one to devote time to this group, beyond 
rearing and becoming familiar with the common forms. 

Nymphalid^. 

Foreleqs reduced, the mnle with one, the female irith five tarsal jnivfx 

rvithout clav\ Pupa suspended from the tail. Larva usualh/ irith 

spiny processes on head and tail or on each segment. 

There is a characteristic facies in the species of each family except 

this, which renders the identification of this family easy in the field, any 

butterfly not evidentb/ one of the latter groups, falling probably 

into this one ; in the few instances when this fails, the legs must be 

examined. Nymphalids are usually large butterflies of bright colouring 

with distinctly sunshine-loving habits in all but one subfamily, the 

Satyrinae. Many have warning colouring associated with unpleasant 

taste and there is good reason to believe that birds and insectivorous 

animals will refuse these ; others deliberately mimic these, and thereby 

escape the fate that their edibleness .should bring on them ; a few 

have distinctly Deceptive Colouring (page !)()), while the colours of a 



NYMl'HALID.E. 



4o: 



uuinber bear no obvious interpretation in our eyes but may have a 
jiroteetive vahie : it is perhaps unnecessary always to seek out the 




DANAIS LIMMIAtE. 



value of the colour scheme in insects antl it would lie nice to think 
that butterflies are simply beautiful to be beautiful ; it is, however, at 
the least likely that with beauty is combined some measure of 
practical use, and we may not unreasonably believe that the diverse 
colouring of most Nymphalids blends generally with the light and 
shade of a mass of vegetation particularly when they are regarded from 
the birds' elevation and not from our level on the ground. Thaxter's 
article in Transactions of the Entomological Society, 1903, p. 553, 
is worth perusal in this connection. Manj' butterflies of this family 
exhibit what has been called " bird-misleading colouration," the large 
distinct colour-marks on the wings diverting the bird's aim for the head 
or body and so enabling the pursued to escape with only a bit taken 
out of its wing. 

The life-history so far as known is in general the same throughout 
the group. Eggs are laid singly on the foodplant, the larva that 
hatches feeding on the green tissues of the foodplant. While there 
is no definite means of identifying a Nymphalid larva in every case, the 
majority are of cylindrical form, with a distinct head, the body provided 



406 



LEPIDOPTERA. 




DaNAIS LIMNIAtH 



with processes which are usually branched. The pupa is suspended 

from the hind end without a girdle. The number of broods varies but 

is usually two, rarely four or more. The 

remarks under the sub-order apply to this 

family. Very few are pests ; Melanitis ismene 

Cram, on rice, Ergolis merione on castor, 

and very rarely Junonia alniana in swarms 

of other caterpillars are the only ones 

known. Like other Lepidoptera, these sufier 

from the attacks of parasites, both Hymenop- 

terous and Dipterous, and the principal 

check on their increase, next to food 

supply, is this factor. It is difficult to rear any species without getting 

parasites. 

The family is divided into six sub-families, which need not be noticed 
here as so few of the many species come within the limits of our fauna. 
The student will find fuller details in Bingham's volume of the fauna of 
India or de Niceville's volumes. 

Danaince. Danais is perhaps the most common genus, with three 
species found throughout the plains in suitable localities. Like Euploea, 
the male has two protrusible brushes of hair at the apex of the abdomen 
and a pouch on the hind wing, connected with the production of scent. 

Danais plexippiia, Linn., is discussed by de Niceville as D. f/enutia, 
Cram. The butterfly is figured there ; it is orange-brown, with black mar- 




Fig. : 



-Danais plexii'pus fullijkown i.akva. 



gins containing white spots, the veins heavily marked with black. Its 
larva is black, each segment with streaks and spots of white and yellow, 
and there are three jmirs of black processes, on the meta-thorax, third 



NYMPHAMD.K. 



407 



abdominal and ninth abdominal segments. Wild Asclepiads are its 
food and the pupa is suspended as is usual in the group. The pupa is 
green with metallic silvery and golden spots. 

Danais rkrijsippus, Linn., is similar the veins not marked with black ; 
its larva is grey with five black and a yellow band on each segment 

and a yellow lateral stripe ; 
there are three pairs of pro- 
cesses, of which the pair on the 
meta-thorax are the longer ; 
the chrysalis is light-green or 
pink, with golden spots on the 
anterior (lower) end, and a 
golden black-bordered line 
round the posterior (upper) 
end : the foodplant is the 
common Ak {Calotrojm spp). De Niceville and Marshall speak of 
this as " the commonest and most widely spread of all the Indian 
butterflies." In the plains it is common throughout the year, abundant 
especially in November. 

Danais Umniace, Cram., is black with very faintly blue markings 
as shown in fig. 275. It is likely to be confused with /). .septnitrionis. 




Fig. 2' 



Danais limniack i-l-p.h. 




-Elifl<ea rOKK. 



408 LEriDOI'TERA. 

But!., ill which the markings are smaller and bluer. Its larva, which 
has but two pairs of processes, is yellow-white with transverse black 
bars and a yellow lateral line; the piipa (fig. l'78) is green with golden 
spots at the anterior end, and a serrate metallic band at the posterior 
end. It also feeds on Calutropis and Bell found it on Drerjea volubilis. 
Like the last it is common throughout India and, with it, one of the 
commonest insects met with in Indian gardens. Euplcea is represented 
by several species, but one of which is sufficiently widespread to 
deserve mention here. E. core, Cram., is dark brown, paler towards 
the outer margin with a double series of white spots in this paler area. 
The caterpillar is described as lilac above, deep brown below, with 
transverse black bands to each segment ; there are four pairs of 
processes, an anteriorly directed pair on the mesothorax, and others 
on the metathorax, third and ninth abdominal segments. The food- 
plants are said to be Oleander, Ficus betujalensis, Ficus glomerata and 
Cryptok'im paucifloru. The distribution in India is given as " suitable 
localities throughout the continent. " The male of this species, if 
captured living, will protrude the anal brushes, tufts of buff hair on 
conical fleshy processes, a pleasant aromatic odour being diffused from 
them. 

Salyrina- are regarded by Hampson as a distinct family, the base of 
vein 12 of the forewing being dilated ; they include the dusky butterflies 
found under trees which have that curious flitting flight and the habit 
of suddenly setthng with closed wings and turning to an angle with the per- 
pendicular, suggesting a blowing leaf. Mr. Green has remarked of one 
that it turned at an angle so as not to throw a shadow. They are 
characteristic insects and in their habits clearly distinct from the sunshine- 
loving Danaiwe. 

Myodesis includes the common M. perseus, Fabr., which is taken 
to include M. blasius, Fabr., the former being the dry-season form, the 
latter the wet-season form. The butterfly is a deep brown, with one 
distinct and one indistinct ocellus above and with seven ocelli on the hind- 
wing and two to four on the forewing below, these ocelh being scarcely 
visible in the dry-season form, in which the under surface is darker. There 
is a narrow fascia of purple-white across both wings and numerous white 
lines on each side of the ocelli. The arrangement of the ocelli on the 



PLATE XXIX.— Melanitis Ismexe. 
The Rice Butterfly. 

Fif;. 1 Eggs, as laid on leaf. 
Single egg, magnified. 

3. Young larva. 

4. Fuy-growa larva, in tlie day resting altitude. 

5. Larva about to pupate. 

6. Pupa. 
Empty pupa case. 

Imajjo 



NYMrHALlD.i;. 



40; t 



hiiRlwiiig distinguishes it from the nearest ally, M. inineus, Linn., the 
former having the posterior three only in line, the latter the posterior four- 
The species is widely distributed in India in the plains in suitable localities 
and is found almost throughout the year. The larva; are described by 
Davidson and Aitken, feeding on grasses and also on rice. Betham 
records the attraction mohwa refuse and jaggery have for these, as for 
other butterflies, in India ; the attraction presumably lies chiefly in the 
spirituous matter left in the refuse, just as the rum is the attraction in the 
entomologists " sugaring " mixture. We figure the curious pupa and 
imago of Omolritrna incdn, F.. found on rice in the very moist areas of 
India. 





Fig. 2S0. -OKSOTRIOLVA .MEIlA, 

I'UPA. [F. M. H.| 



fnrmin^mmAinmiiitf p^ 



jLLHjmiiiiiiiMnni\>^^]llT)| iiin\miHAlnmiTO 

Fig. 2S1.-ORSOTKIIKNA MEDA. [F. M. H. 



Lethe euro pa. Fabr., is the large dark brown Ijutterfiy common in the 
plains of North India ; the upperside in the male has two white spots 
on the forewing, in the female has a broad white oblique band ; in both 
sexes there is a series of black ocelh on the lower surface of the wings 
towards the margin, with Ught lines on the inner and outer margins. The 
larva and pupa are described by Davidson and Aitken ; the former is 
green with a single short horn on the head and feeds on dwarf bamboo 
(Journ., Bombay N. H. Soc. V, p. 350). 

Y pthima contains one widespread species ( Y. huhneri, Kby.) out of the 
22 known as Indian, as well as two which occur in the plains, /. baldus. 
Fabr., aiul Y. inien. Hew. Thev are smaller dusky butterflies with 



4^0 LEPinOPTEKA. 

yellow ringed ocelli on the wings, and appear to be comniou only in the 
moister parts of the continent. The larva of hiibneri is described by 
de Niceville as green, abont one inch long, with two divergent processes 
from the anal segment pointing backwards. It feeds on grasses. 

Melanitis ismene, Cram., which is taken to include Jf. leda, is the large 
deep brown butterfly so common round the trunks of trees ; two or more 
are commonly to be seen flying round the trunks of large shady trees, 
their dusky colouring and quick settling making them difficult to see. 
The upper surface is uniformly coloured in brown, with two large black 
spots near the apex of the forewing containing each a white spot and 
some ferruginous marking. The under surface is extremely variable, 
marked in tints of brown, yellow and ferruginous and, especially in the 
dry-season form, alike in almost no two specimens. The resemblance 
to a dry leaf is extraordinarily close, and the resting attitude, with the 
wings folded, the body rigid so as to incline the wings at an angle to the 
wround, bears out this appearance. The larva feeds on rice and grasses, 
being green, rough and wrinkled, with two processes on the head and two 
on the terminal segment ; by day it clings closely to the leaf of the rice, 
and is extremely difficult to find ; it feeds at night. The butterfly appears 
to be common throughout the plains and is found through the cold wea- 
ther, there being, as a rule, two broods in the year, the butterflies of the 
second living till the following rains. (Plate XXIX.) 

The Morphince, also known as Amathusiince, are large butterflies 
often of great beauty, found wholly in the moist hill forest areas of the 
Himalayas, Assam, South India and Burmah. Not one species comes 
within our plains fauna. The group is a small one, intermediate 
between SatijmKF and NifinphalincB, with 1 i Indian genera. Stichel has 
recently listed the known species in " Genera Insectorum." 

Nymphalmce. — The largest of the sub -families, with the greater num- 
ber of the plains species. They are typically butterflies found flying in 
the sunshine, settling with the wings open and usually of bright colour. 
The larva; are cylindrical and usually provided with processes or spines. 

Charaxes is represented outside the hills by C. fabius, Fabr., a large 
black butterfly with a series of yellow spots forming a band across both 
wings, with a series of smaller yellow spots near the margin, and with the 



PLATE XXX.— El'THALlA Gaiu'da. 

Fig. 1. Laiva. x 2. 

2. ,, on leaf of mango. 

„ 3. Pupa. 

I Imago. Wings shown fiom below on the right. 



NYMI'HALIIi.K. 41 1 

liiiulwiiig pruiluced into two slender tails. Tliu larva is figured by David- 
son and Aitken (Journ., Bombay N. H. Sec. V, p. 278), who found it feed- 
ing on tamarind. The student should considt these excellent papers for 
information as to the larv;e of butterflies, and since this pubUcation .should 
be in every Library, we have forborne from reproducing the figures. 
Equally the list of foodplants of Kanara butterflies in the Transaction.s 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Vol. LXIX. p. 1S7) should be consulted. 

Euthalia. Out of 20 species, two of the Indian forms can be consi- 
dered as widespread in the plains and as hkely to be found. E. garuda. 
Mo., is a deep brown insect, the female paler than the male, both with dark 
loops near the base of the wings and, on the forewings, a series of five 
white spots from the costa near the middle. There is an outer series 
of black spots on the hindwing and the under surface is paler with nearly 
similar markings. The larva is figured by de Niceville and was found 
by him feeding on mango. It is perhaps the most beautiful and striking 
of all the butterfly caterpillars and, while not abundant, is to be found 
on the mango in most parts of India. (Plate XXX.) 

E. lum, Forst., is smaller, the upper side bright tawny, with black 
bands and dots, De Niceville remarks that it thrives best in open and 
moderately dry country : the larva is similar to that of the above species 
and is described by Moore. 

Neptis eMr//«o//(e, Westw., includes forms separated by de Niceville and 
others, but regarded by Bingham as the same. On the latter basis, this 
species is widespread in India. The upper side is black, with white spots in 
three obhque hnes across both wings, with an outer series of smaller ones 
on the forewing. The under surface is a deep rich red-brown, with the 
markings larger and confluent. The larva is described as green with 
processes on the sides of the third, fourth, sixth and terminal segments, 
and spines on the head. 

In the next species, Rahinda Jiordonia, StoW., the markings are on 
the same plan but larger, confluent, and a bright tawny colour ; the 
butterfly is widespread, its larva feeding on Acacia and Albizzia (see 
Bell, Davidson and Aitken, Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. X, p. 2-50). 

Ci/restis thi/odaiiia-s, Boi.sd., is the sole connuon species of this genus 
and is noticeable chiefly from its remarkable larva found feeding on Ficus 



412 



LKl'inOPTEKA. 



nemoralw and F. glomerata. The student should consult the papers of 
de Niceville and F. W Mackinon in Volume XI of the Journal of 
the Bombay Natural History 
Society for beautiful figures 
of butterfly larvae, including 
this remarkable species. 

With Danais, Junonia is the 
common genus of butterfly 
known to all in India. The 
numerous forms are abundant 
in gardens, and to those who 
appreciate their beauty, it is 
worth while growing the blue- 

fiowered Stack ytarpheta indica, which is in itself so dull and uninterest- 
ing, on account of the myriads of Junonias which will visit it in autumn. 
We figure Junonia almana ; the six Indian species are all common in 
the plains. Bingham gives the following key to them : — 




t'ift. •2S2.— Jlnoni.v almana. 




Fig. 283. -Junonia lemonias. 

ff. Upperside ground-colour brown. 

a'. Forewing without yellow spots or discal band on upperside 

./. iphita. 

b'. Forewing with yellow spots or a whitish discal band on upperside. 

a'. Forewing with yellow stops on upperside J. lemonias. 

h'\ Forewing with an obUque whitish short discal band on upperside 

J. orithya^. 

h. Upperside ground-colour yellow J. luerta. 



NY.MPHALin.1-: 



iVA 



c. Upperside grouiKl-colour ; fon-wiiiii black, liiiulvviiig blue 

J. orithya^. 

(1. Upperside grouiul-colour pale lavender-grey or liiown ...J. atlites. 

c. Upperside grouiul-coiour rich orange-yellow ./. (ilinana. 

The larva- aic cxlindrical with rows of s])ines or processes, and 
usuallv dull in colour. All feed on wild ])lants, but ./. nJmnna has been 

known to join other bands 
of swarming caterpillars and 
destroy rice fields on a large 
scale. The \aTva oi J . orithi/ia 
feeds on a common weed, 
Jxstiria sp. (Plate XXVIII, 
tig. 1) and the larva of .7. 
hmonias, on bariar {F^ida 
rhomhifnh'a). 

Vanessa is represented by V. cardui. Linn., the 'Painted Lady "" of 
England, found throughout the world, and rarely in the plains, and by 
T'. indira, Herbst. The larva is like that of Junonia ; the first feeds 
on AnjetHone »i('.ricann. the second on Zodiki and BJiniiea. 

H fi pnlimnas is remarkable on account of the striking sexual 
diflterences exhibited. The female in each case mimics a Danaine 




Fi>:. -JMt.-VA.NES 




Fijr. is."). — Hvi'dLIMXAS MISIPITS M.\LK. 



butterfly. //. holhui. Linn., mimicking Eiiplren, H. wisi/ipits. Linn., 
mimicking Danais chriisi pjins. The males are deep black, with a large 



414 LEPIDOPTERA. 



white patch in each wing, which has metaUic blue reflections; in H. 
bolina the edges of the wings show traces of the markings characteristic 




Fig. 286— Hypolimnas misippus, female. 

of the female, but in misippus the two sexes are totally distinct in 
colour. The larvae are of the usual form, with rows of spines. Both 
species are common in the plains, and the student may be on his 
guard against regarding the females as Danaids on superficial 
characters. 




Fif;. '2S7— Hyi'olimnas Misipprs, niMORPHir female. 



NEMEOP.IIP.K. 415 

The beautiful oak leaf butterflies of the genus Knllima deserve 
mention, though only one can doubtfully find a place in our plains 
fauna. Every butterfly collector is familiar with these, as every visitor 
to the Museums of London or Calcutta should be. Kallima inachus, 
Boisd., is the common hill form, found wherever there is sufficient 
moisture and forest, as at Pachmarhi and in Orissa. KaUimd 
liorsfieldl, KoU., is treated by Bingham as distinct, and as including 
several forms regarded by de Nic('ville as distinct ; it occurs at eleva- 
tions of 2,000 feet and upwards in Western and Southern India and 
may be the Western ionn oi inachus. Davidson and Aitken describe 
and figure the larva, and state that it feeds on Strohilanthm . 
Cethosia cyane, Dr., is perhaps the most notable butterfly of Bengal : 
it is a curiously tame species and we have caught it in our fingers at 
Duranta ; the larva is stated to feed on passion flower (Moore). Atella 
phalantha, Dr., is a small tawny butterfly with black markings : de 
Nici'ville says of it : " This species is one of the commonest Indian 
butterflies, occurring throughout the year in the plains and in suitable 
seasons in the outer Himalayas up to 8,000 feet." Davidson and Aitken 
describe the larva, which is stated to feed on Flacourtia and Salix. 

Ergolis includes the widespread E. nwrione, Cram., whose larva feeds 
on castor leaf. {Ricinus communis.) The butterfly is not common, flying 
among the foliage of dense trees and this species is one of the few 
that breeds on a plant of economic importance. (Plate XXXI.) 

Of the Acraeince but one can be included here, the little tawny 
Telchinia violce, Fabr., whose larva feeds on the wild passion flower (see 
Davidson and Aitken). It was reared in Bengal on Hibiscus cannahinus. 
The larva is spiny and may be protected by its unpleasant taste. 

The Lihytheinw include only the genus Libi/tJica wholly absent 
from the plains. 

Nemeobiid.e (Eri/ciiiidce. Lemoniidce). 
Forelegs fulh/ developed in female, imperfect in male. 
This family includes species almost wholly confined to the 
forest-clad hills. They have somewhat the appearance of Lycjenids, 
with short tails on the hind wing in some cases. Dodona eugenes, 
Butl., has been reared from a green flattened larva, feeding upon 
grasses and bamboo (Mackinon). Abisara echerius, HtolL, is the only 



iU 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



species found in our area ; Davidson and Aitken reared the larva, 
and describe it as being light-green, flat, very broad in the middle, 
tapering to both ends ; the pupa is closely attached to the leaf by 
th • tail and a girdle. The total number of species in India, Burmah 
and Ceylon is twenty. 

PlKRID^. 

Legs fiiUy developed, claws bifid or toothed. Hind wing with vein la 
present. Larva smooth or with fine pubescence. Pupa 
with a girdle, upright or horizontal. 
These butterflies are of moderate size, coloured in white, yellow, 
orange and black ; the colouring is vivid, noticeable and probably 
warning. The majority of 
the family and practically 
all our common species are 
instantly recognisable as 
Pierids in the field and the 
family is a very distinct one. 
Males and females differ 
little save in colouring, while 
dry-season forms of both - ' 

r. 1 1 j-l Fig- 288.— PlERIS BRASSIC*. 

sexes are often darker than ^ 

wet-season forms. 

There is little to comment on in 
the life-history. Eggs are laid in 
groups or singly, upright sculptured 
eggs, constricted near the apex, 
of a dull yellow white colour. The 
larvae are usually coloured in yellow 
or green with black and are smooth, 
or have a short dense pubescence 
often with grandular hairs bearing 
each a drop of fluid. They com- 
monly feed in company, a row 
eating steadily away at the epidermis 
of the foodplant together. Our 
common species feed on Cassia and 





Fig. 289.— Catopriua pyranthe pupa 

ATTACHF.n TO TWIG OF CA.siSIA. 



PLATE XXXI.— Ergolis MerioiNe. 
The Castor Butterfly. 

Fig. 1. Egg, seen from above, x 18. 

,, 2. „ lateral view, x 18. 

„ 3. Young larva, dorsal view, 

,, 4. Full-grown larva, dorsal view. 

„ 5. Second and third abdominal segments of larva. 

„ 6. Section of third abdonainal segment to show arrangement of 

processes. 

„ 7. A single process. 

,, 8 Chrysalis, dorsal view. 

,, 0. Imago, female, dorsal view. 

,, 10 ,, ,. ventral ,, 







f 




CASTOR BUTTERFLY. 



riKKin.K. 417 

allied Lfijunnnosre, on Cnpparis and Capparidacea;, on Brassica and 
Crurijerw, and on Lorunthun. 

Pupation takes place after the larva has attached the anal prolegs 
to the pad of silk and fastened the thoracic girdle, the pupa being hori- 
zontal or upright. The pupae are green, cryptic in form and colour. The 
butterflies are day-flying and very noticeable, some being strong fliers 
which visit flowers, others fluttering in low vegetation and grass. They 
appear to hibernate as imagines and where the foodplant is available, 
lay eggs early in the year at the onset of the hot weather. The number 
of broods is at least two and in some cases as much as six or more. 
A great deal has yet to be learnt of the occurrence of some species during 
the year, and the matter is by no means a simple one. We may mention 
Pieris brassiere, Linn., as an instance, there being^eason to believe that 
this butterfly migrates from the hills for the cold weather and early hot 
weather, spending this period in the submontane districts of the Himala- 
yas for instance, breeding on cultivated Cruciferce and returning to the 
hills for the summer there. This is by no means definitely ascertained, 
but it is in strong contrast, for instance, with such a species as Terias 
hernhe, Linn., which is a constant breeder in the plains, wherever 
food is available, and so long as the weather is warm enough. Only 
one species is in any degree destructive, Pieris hrassicw, Linn., being a 
pest to cabbages and other garden OrucifercT, in sub-Himalayan tracts. 

The larvsp are the hosts of parasitic H jimcnoptcrd and a very large 
proportion are destroyed in some .seasons. 

Bingham has recently revised the Lulian forms in the Fauna of 
India, with the help of de Niceville's manu.script of his propo.sed 
volume in the butterflies of India. Only 91 species are recorded in all, 
and this is probably a smaller number than any other author would 
allow. The tendency to split species and indefinitely multiply them 
is deplorable, and it is to be hoped that Bingham's commonsense 
views will be accepted as final. 

Lepiosia xipliia, Fabr., is common in the plains, a small white but- 
terfly, with rounded wings, the apex of the forewing and a large sub-apical 
blotch black. It is a graceful butterfly of delicate build, found in the 
jungle : the larva is recorded on Cappnris. 

IIL 27 



418 LEPinOPTKKA. 

Delias eucharis, Dr., is one of the most coinmoii and striking butter- 
flies of the plains ; it is white above ; the veins hghtly or heavily marked 
with black ; below, the apex of the forewing and hindwing are bright 
yellow between the veins, with an outer series of bright vermilion blotches 
between two black bands ; the red looks as if dabbed in with a brush 
and stands out extraordinarily sharply and crudely. This beautiful 
insect flies about in the sun and is one of our most striking butterflies. 
Aitken records its habits of laying eggs in row.s and not singly as do most 
butterflies. Its larva feeds on the mistletoe (Lnrnnthus), growing on 
trees and is readily reared. 

Anapheis (Beleiiois) mesentma. Cram., is white with fuscous mark- 
ings; the larva feeds upon bagnai (Capparis horrida), and the butterflies 
are common throughout the year. The pupa is green with yellow spots ; 
it has a spine on the vertex, one on the dorsum and a lateral pair. 

Pieris is represented sporadically by P. hrassicce, Linn., the common 
" cabbage white, " which is found within 100 miles of the Himalayas in 
Eastern Bengal, Behar, the United Provinces and Eastern Punjab. This 
insect is sometimes extremely abundant, coming in the cold weather in 
numbers and breeding freely on cruciferous plants. Its sporadic appear- 
ances are due either to the action of parasites which ultimately destroy a 
very high percentage of the larva? and check the insect apparently for 
some years, or to its sporadic migration from the hills into the 
plains. Ixias pyrene, Linn., is yellow with black and orange covering 
the apical half of the wing. Its larva feeds on Capparis sepiaria with 
that of /. mariamne. Cram. ; both are common in India in the hills 
as in the plains. Appias libijthea, Fabr., is a white butterfly with dark 
markings at the edge of the wing in the male, over the apical half in 
the female. The larva was reared by Davidson and Aitken on 
Capparis horrida. 

Catopsilia includes the two common white butterflies, C. crocale, 
Cram., and C. pyranthe, Linn. Both feed freely upon the weed Chakaur 
{Cassia oecidentalis) , the latter also upon the Indian laburnum (Cassia 
fistula) and are common throughout the year. 

Colias croceus, Fourc. {fieldi Men), is a beautiful orange species, the 
wings edged with fuscous and with the undersurface yellow. It is one 
of the common butterflies in the fields in the dry hot months. 



MIGKATION. 4111 

Tcn'as is perhaps the most common of the Pierids, the little yellow 
hutteiHies with black edges to the wings which are so abundant through- 
out the plains. T. hecabe, Linn., has been reared upon Cassia tora and 
probably feeds cm several species of Cassia. Watson refers to it as having 
at least four broods yearly, and in favourable places possibly twelve. 
It has been reared in Bengal also on Jainta (Sesbania acideata). 
The oval elongate egg is greenish white, laid singly on leaves. The 
larva _is green, with a lateral white stripe, and transver.se wrinkles ; they 
pupate (after twenty days larval life) with the head downwards, the 
body in the girdle, and their colour is green or brown according to the 
leaves they are on or among. The pupal period varies fi-om five days 
to twenty-five days. This species is variable in markings and is not 
easily distinguished from T. venata. Mo., T. libijtliea. F., and T. Jcefa, 
Boisd.. which also occur in the ])lains. 

Cohlis fiiiKitd. Fabr. {Terarolus cyprcpa) is oTunga above, with many 
dull lihick markings, and yellowish below. The larva is striking, as it 
feeds in company on the leaves of Salvadora 
persica : the full grown larva is cyHndrical, 
yellow green, the head and body with 
tubercles bearing hairs, at the end of each 
of which is a drop of fluid. These feed in 

a row. eating awav the epidermis and 
291)— Col KT IS .\.\iat.\. ■ ' 

gradually moving down the leaf. They are 

common where this plant grows in the drier parts of India. Coletis 

(Teracolus) etrida. Boisd., may also be expected in the plains. 




MIGRATION. 

To those who live in tropical countries, the migration of insects will 
suggest at once the flight of vast swarms of locusts, perceived as a cloud 
on the horizon growing larger as they approach till the sky is dark with 
them and they pass on overhead or alight for a while before resuming 
flight. In locusts we see the phenomenon in its most striking and 
exaggerated form, one in which the magnitude of the insects impresses 
us most distinctly and gives a perhaps exaggerated idea of the acwal 
numbers of insects concerned. 

We have in the Bombay Locust {Acridium succinctum, Linn.) a most 
striking example of an insect that is at once an ordinary non-migrating 



420 LEPIDOPTERA. 

grasshopper and a migrating locust ; this insect occurs over a large part 
of India in small numbers as an ordinary member of the fauna not occur- 
ring in specially large numbers. In certain areas it becomes extremely 
abundant in occasional years, packs into swarms and migrates over long 
distances. In this case, the change of habits is associated with a change 
of colour, the insect becoming suffused with brilHant red. Normally 
this occurs in November or early December when the insect migrates ; 
yet specimens with the normal colouring are found elsewhere or when in 
small numbers right through until June and no colour-change takes 
place. One would hesitate to attribute the colour-change to the mere 
change of habits did one not also feel that the habit of migration is one 
that must exert a profound effect on the insect itself. We have elsewhere 
suggested that the red colour facilitates migration in swarms since it 
renders the swarm -visible at a distance and enables stragglers to come 
up (Mem., Agric. Dept., India, Entom. Vol. I, No. 1); that the 
commencement of the migration induces the colour-change is striking, 
but the observation of this insect leads one to believe it to be true. The 
question that naturally arises is, why do locusts migrate ? Why does 
this impulse come upon them and impel them to move in swarms over 
long distances, or even, as the Bombay Locust does in its early flights, 
to fly solitarily and steadily in one direction at night till they have 
covered a hundred or as much as 200 miles. We believe it is due to 
two motives : first the need of food ; second, the need of finding satisfac- 
tory places to lay eggs. In the year 1903, the Bombay Locust gathered 
in immense quantities in the forests of the Western Ghats before the 
winter ; this was probably for food since only in these forests would they 
find a sufficiency of green leaves ; afterwards they moved out in swarms, 
as they have done before and after ; this was. we believe, to enable 
them to lay eggs in places where grass abounded rather than trees, 
since the hoppers live in moist grasslands among low vegetation. The 
same two motives would appear to apply to the Migratory Locu.st which 
first migrates in search of food and has a brilliant " migration " colour, 
and then moves further in search of sandy wastes and gets a protective 
yellow " Sand colour " when it is going to lay eggs; only in this species 
the hoppers too have a migrating habit since they are born and live, not 
in the midst of plenty in rainy places as does the IBombay Locust-hopper, 
but in arid lands where the drought-resisting bushes afford less food. If 
then these views are correct, the migrating habit has arisen in the latter 
species as a necessity of food getting and reproduction, and is so habitual 
as to be instinctive, while in the former it arises only in the adult when 
it is surrounded by many of its kind and the assumption of the habit 
produces peculiar colour-changes as a physiological result. Out of all 
the many grasshoppers in India, we know of this habit in only two 
species and one may wonder why it should occur in these only ; but 
it is necessary to think back one stage and wonder why these two 
should reproduce so abundantly. This we cannot answer, save by 
saying that Nature is full of variety and makes one species prolific, 
another always a rarity. There is reason to beheve that, like the 



r.\riMONii).K. 12I 

lioiiibay Locust, otluTs migrate when alniiuhint, the iu.stiiict to do so 
moving them when many are together. Thus the Central Asian locust, 
Ptu-hjitijlus rincrdscens, oceur.s in India sparsely, but is a well known 
migrating locust in places where it is more abundant, and we believe it 
would be so in India were favourable conditions to make it abundant. 

Scanty records exist of the migration of other insects and we can 
mention a few of these. From time to time, one reads in newspapers 
of a swarm of butterflies having been seen flying steadily in a particular 
direction; we have seen this in the case of a West Indian skipper {Calpo- 
(h's ethlius) which was extremely abundant ; de Rh(' Philippe in his paper 
on the butterflies of Lucknow, mentions it in the case of a Lycronid 
{Poli/oiinuiiliis batictiis, Linn.) which he says migrates annually to the 
lulls in iireat numbers in the early hot weather (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. 8oc. 
XIV, p. ■Iv'^l); Dudgeon (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc. XIV. p. 147) has 
lemarked on migrations of Catopsilia crocale, Cram., and Anapheis 
(Beleiwis) mesentina, Cram., with small numbers of other species 
which he has observed in the Kangra Valley, where they are said to be 
not unusual. He found they flew steadily in one direction and that 
both sexes were present. 

G. C. Nurse also has observed a migration of Catopsilia pijrantlif 
at Deesa in August, and states that it has been seen to occur every 
year for three years back. (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc. XIV, p. 179.) 
Other instances will be found in Indian literature and it is probable 
that these casses are associated ^vith food supply, not so much for the 
actual migrating insect, as for its young. Other recorded cases 
include the migration in swarms of dragon flies {Odunata), though 
such cases are rarer. Such a case is mentioned by Morren, where 
LibeUula depressa migrated in vast numbers in Belgium (A. N. H. 
II, Vol. 13, p. 239). Howard (The Insect Book, p. .'i31) mentions seeing 
a " migrating army of Cockroaches, incalulable in number," crossing 
the street in Washington and apparently moving from an undesirable 
building to others, the motive being, he considers, the desire of the 
females to lay their egg cases in a place that might afford food to their 
abundant young. 

Finally we may mention the fly Sciara, whose larvae are recorded as 
moving in a sohd mass steadily in one direction ; this phenomenon occurs 
in some European and American species, where it is well known. 

PAPiuoNiD.ii. — Swallow tails. 
Legs fully developed, claws large and simple. Hindwing with vein la. 

absent. Pupa with girdle, fixed at tail, head upwards. Larva ivith 

or without processes, not hairi/. 

These insects include the finest and most striking of the butterflies, 
but they are almost wholly confined to moist forest areas and but tliree 



422 LEriDOrJ'EHA. 



species are common in the plains. Those who wish to see Papilios should 
visit the hills of Assam, Burmah and Indo-China, the few that occur 




Vi''. I's)!— Pai'ILio hemoleus. 



within our limits not representing the group adequately. Bingham re- 
cords 121) species in the Fauna of India. Vol. II. 

Papilio demoleus {erithonius), Linn., is conunon throughout the 
plains, a moderately large butterfly coloured in black with yellow- 




Fig. L'!)^— YOUNU LAKVA III- PaI'ILIO DEMOLEUS ON ORANGE LEAF, x 'I. 

blotches and an indefinite eye spot on the hindwing ; its larva is 
found upon the lime, orange, bael {-"Egle marmelos), bawchi [Psoralen 
corylifolia) and other Rutacece : the larva is smooth and thickset, and 
feeds on leaves ; it is at first a dull brown with a large irregular white 



t.vc.kn'th.t:. 



4-2;-i 



blotoh on the upper surface ; whilst it h.as this colouring, it feeds on 
tender leaves and rests openly on the leaf where it resembles a bird's 
excrement ; at the third moult, it becomes green ; apparently it is 
now too large to mimic bird's excreta and it adopts a cryptic colour- 
ing, green with purple brown oblicjue bands. It is now somewhat 
snake-like in appearance and by some observers is regarded as being 
so to an extent that may be protective. The larva on being irritated 
extrudes a forked yellow process from the prothorax, which gives out 
a scent : presumably this is a protective device. Pupation takes place 
on the plant. The number of broods yearly does not appear to be 
known ; there are certainly two in the months preceding the rains and 
apparently two during and after these months, but there is not any 
apparent regularity. 

P. jiammon. Linn., is not distinguishable from the above as a larva, 
but the butterfly is distinct. Unlike P. demoleus, it occurs in more than 
oiu- form. The two species are destructive to young Citrus trees and 
while demoleus appears to be most common, both occur throughout 
India. 

P. aristolochiw, F., is the only other common species : its larva is 
deep velvety brown, with a cream coloured band across the abdomen, 
and with short blunt reddish processes ; the chrysalis is of peculiar 
form, resembling a torn leaf ; the foodplant is the cultivated climbing 
Aristohchia, as well as the wild Aristolochia indica found as a field weed. 

Lyc.enid.^. — Blues. Copiiers. Hairstrcaks. 
Forelegs slighthj reduced. Male tarsus of one joint, with one claw. 
Precostal nervure absent. Pupa usualln attached to leaf, /nth a (jirdle. 
Larva fusiform, smooth and without long hairs. 

The family is distinguished readily l)y its appearance in nearly all 
cases, being of small to moderate size (among butterflies), the hindwings 
often with little tails, the colouring usually blue or grey above with 
metallic reflections, grey or white below with many dark spots and, 
often, coloured ocelli. 

The colouring of the undersurface is distinctly cryptic, blending 
beautifully with the prevailing light and shade of dry grass when the 
butterfly sits on a grass stem with folded wings. 



42-1 LEriDOPTERA. 

The life-history presents features which are characteristic of the 
family (Plate XXXII) ; the eggs are less dome-shaped than in most 




Fifr. 293— ViRACHOLA ISOCHATES, LAKVA ON CUAVA FRUIT. 

Rhopalocera, white or bluish and reticulate : they are laid singly on the 
f oodplant. In most cases the larva is flattened, oval, the legs and 
prolegs under the body ; the general form is that of a woodlouse 
(" Onisci-form "); there is commonly a dense covering of very short 
hairs, though some are smooth and a few tuberculate with bristles. In 
many forms, a secretion much sought after by ants exudes from an 
opening at the hind end, and each species has its special attendant 
ants. Curetis larva? have a peculiar process bearing a tentacle at 
the end of which are hairs ; this tentacle is whirled round rapidly 
when the larva is alarmed, presumably with the object of frightening 
off enemies. Lifhjra has a still more remarkable larva, a description 
of which occurs in the Fauna of India Volume. 

The larvaj are vegetarian in nearly all cases, feeding on leaves or 
buds and living exposed on the plant, their form and cryptic colouring 
rendering them inconspicuous. 



PLATE XXXII. — Catochrysops Cnejus. 
TuR Hairstreak. 

Fij; 1 Egg on shoot. 

-'. Egg. X 50 

■?. Larva, x li. 

t. Larva, x 4 



:] 



Tmajro. X 2 



PLATE XXXII. 







3 




I.YCKNin.K. 



425 



The pupa is rounded, humped at the thorax, constricted behind the 
thorax, and flattened below, usually smooth. It is attached by the cre- 
master and usually by a girdle. 

The butterflies are day-flying, fluttering about in grass and low her- 
bage, the larger forms being strong fliers. Hibernation in this group 
is commonly in the imago stage in the plains and there are two or several 
broods in the year, depending upon food-supply. None are serious pests 
except Viracliola isocrafct^, which works havoc in plantations of pomegra- 
nate. 

Lyca?nids have not been collected in India to the extent that other 
butterflies have, and there are fewer data in the case particularly of 
distribution. The species common in the plains are far less well known, 
and we have mentioned only those species we are certain are widely 
spread, a very small number considering the large number of forms that 
exist in India. Bingham, who has revised the family in the Fauna of 
India, divides them into seven sub-families. The student should 
see these volumes (Butterflies, Vols. II, III) where the known species 
are described and their larvae. 

Spalgis epius, Westw. (fig. '2':)'2), is notorious on account of its (lar- 
val) habit of devouring mealybugs ; it is distinctly not vegetarian as 







Fig. i!94— SPALOIS KPIU.S, LEFT, MALE: RIGHT, FEMALE. 

are its allies, but lives among colonies of the larger mealybugs and feeds 
on them ; it has been found with Phenacoccus iceryoides, Gr. ; the larva 
is short and thickset, with a thick coating of white mealy wax adhering 
to its short stiff hairs ; its appearance is exactly like that of the clustered 



t2(i LKPIDOPTERA. 

bugs and only careful examination di.stinguislies it. The head and feet 
are concealed, the body below is greenish. The larvae when full fed walk 
about, settle down and pupate, emerging after 9 days as butterflies. 
Aitken figures the larva and pupa (Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 
VIII, p. 485), but the student may be cautioned against taking his 
remarks seriously as to the resemblance of the pupa. In this as in 
8 other genera the girdle is absent, the pupa attached only by the 
cremaster. The butterfly is widespread, but perhaps not abundant, 
being dependent for its food on this and other mealybugs. Mr. Green 
was the discoverer of the carnivorous habit of the larva, which was con- 
firmed by Mr. Aitken, and we have since reared the butterfly from the 
mealybug we mention. The butterfly (fig. 294) is violet-brown above, 
with a square white spot in the forewing, and greyish white below with 
brown lines on both wings, without ocelli. 

Chilades includes two plains' species; C. laius, Cram., which is blue 
above and without colour or metaUic scales on the marginal spots 
below and C. trocMlus, Frey., which is dull black above, the marginal 
spots with metallic scales and orange colour. The larva of the former 
is described as feeding on the leaves of lime and pomelo ; de Niceville 
says it can be " confidently looked for in any part of India where any 
trees allied to the orange grow." The larva of the latter is described 
by de Niceville, as feeding on Hclintrnpinni strigoinDn, Zornia dipht/Ila, 
and on indigo in Behar. 

Zizera includes the smallest known butterflies with Z. (jaika, Tr., only 
six-tenths of an inch across the wings ; some of these are abundant in 
the plains on low vegetation, while here and there one finds them in pro- 
fusion on a patch of- grassland. De Niceville considered there were but 
four species in India, though he hsted all the species mentioned as distinct 
to the number of thirteen. Z. maha, KoU., is the largest, with the upper 
surface of the male silvery blue with a black border, the female blue to 
black. The flat green larva was found on Oxalis corniculata. Z. lijsi- 
nion, Hubn., is small, the wings above violet blue in the male, greyish 
brown in the female and having the spot near the middle of the discoidal 
cell below, which is present also in Z. maha, bnt absent in the next two. 
This is taken to include the common Z. karsandra, Mo., which breeds free- 
ly on lucerne {Medicago sativa) in the plains where this is grown, and 



],Y('.KNU)/K. 



4-27 



probably also on wild leguminous plants. Davidson and F>ell leaied 
it on a vetch, Zurnia diphijUa. 

Z. (/(likd, Trim., lias two spots on the costa of the forewing below, 
one on either side of the discocellular spot. It appears to occur in grass 
and low herbage throughout India, though best known from hill locali- 
ties. Z. Otis, Fabr., has no costal spot below and is the last of this genus 
which de Niceville regarded as distinct. Accepting this view, the species 
is widespread in India ; he records rearing it on Ah/sicarpas vagmnlk 
in Calcutta. 

Lampkles is also widespread in India, L. clpis, God., light metallic 
blue above, rather less so than L. celeno., Cram., [celiamis, Fabr.) which is 
milk white above. The former feeds on the cardamom (Elettaria carda- 
momn) where this plant grows, the latter on the Dhak {Butea frondom) 
and on Heijnea trijiuja. For the accurate identification of these insects 
as for particulars of this family, the student should consult the third 
volume of de Niceville' s Butterflies of India, and Bingham's volume 
II of the Butterflies in the Fauna of India. An account of L. el pis will 
be found in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. I, p. 11. 

Catochrysops is regarded by de Nic(''ville as containing three species, 
while he lists nine. C. strabo, Fabr., has a " distinct si^iall dusky costal 
spot between the disco-cellular and discal bands on underside of forewing ; 
eyes hairy." While the others have not these characters, C. cnejus, 
Fabr., has two nearly ecjual black spots at the anal angle of hindwing 
above, while C. pandava, Horsf., has but one such spot, in each case in 
the male. The first of these has been reared once from Vi(jna catjang, 
the second from Cajanus indicus, and other common pulses (Plate 
XXXII), the third from Cycads. All are common in the plains and may 
be captured readily. Tarucus theopkmstus, Fabr., is the commonest 
of all these butterflies and is reathly found as a larva on the ber 
(Zizjiphus jUjuba). The flat green larva eat off the epidermis much as 
a snail feeds and gradually denude the branches of leaves ; the smaller 
bushy plants are preferred and one may frequently see a number of the 
little butterflies clustering on one little bush to sleep. De Niceville, 
in commenting on the number of species made by some writers, urges the 
breeding of this species in large numbers on this common foodplant ; 
the views of two authors as to what constitutes a species are rarely 



428 LEPIDOl^TKKA. 

identical ; it is evident that every species varies, that given a large number 
of variable specimens it is difficult to group them if there are any inter- 
mediates, and finally that, since this depends entirely on the judgment 
of the individual, the views of variable individuals will differ ; we must then 
have recourse to the only test, namely, breeding from eggs laid by dis- 
tinct females ; if we find that out of one female's eggs we get all the varie- 
ties, then all fall into one species ; when this does not occur, but one batch 
of eggs gives only one variety, and another a second, we are further 
towards the truth, and by further breeding and judicious attempts at 
coupling, we can separate our species with some distinctness. This is 
what requires to be done for many forms of Rhopalocera, and will 
eventually have to be done in the case of many species of other groups, 
when these come to be as well known as the butterflies. 

Castalius cthion, Doubl., and C rosinum, Fabr., are also recorded by 
Bingham as widespread in India, feeding also on the ber. 

PoJijommatus hwticus, Linn., is referred to by de RluThilippe as 
migrating yearly in swarms from Lucknow to the hills in the early hot 
weather (Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XIV, p. 488). Probably many 
more species have this habit in sub-Himalayan locahties and the cold 
weather fauna of the Gangetic plain may be partly composed of such 
migrating insects. De Niceville records rearing this on the flowers and 
pods of Crotnlaria cah/cina. 

Virachola isocrates, Fabr., is the most important economically of 
the butterflies, perhaps the only one that is constantly and regularly 
injurious. The male is a beautiful glossy violet blue above, the forewing 
with an indistinct ochreous spot ; the female is violet brown above, the 
ochreous spot more distinct. This insect has been described and figured 
several times ; the student should read the dehghtful account of West- 
wood, reprinted in de Niceville's Butterflies of India, III, p. 478. The 
larva feeds on the fruit of guava, pomegranate, etc. V. perse, Hewits., 
also occurs throughout India, both sexes being black above, with blue 
(not metallic) on the basal area of forewing and disc of hindwing 
Aitken records it as feeding on the fruit of the Ghela {Randia 
dumetorum). 



hksperiip.t:. 



429 



The followins species, in addition to those referred to above, may 
be looked for in the plains : — 

Nacaduba ardates. Mo. 
Lampides bochus, Cram. 
Tarucus plinius, Fabr. 
Ciiretis thctis, Dr. 
Aphnn'vs micanus, Fabr. 

elima. Mo. 
Tajuria hnginus, Fabr. 

jehana. Mo. 
Deudorir epijarbns, Mo. 



Neopithecops zalmora, Bntl. 
Megisba malai/a, Horsf. 
Cj/aniris pus pa, Horsf. 
Azanus ubaldus. Cram. 

„ uranus, Biitl. 

,, jesous, Guer. 
Li/ccpnesthes emolus, God. 
Talicada ni/seus, Guer. 
Everes anjiades, Pall. 



Hesperiid.e. — ,Skip])('rs. 
Forewing irith all the veins separate. Front tibia icith a pad. Claws short 
and thick with an empodium. Antennce hooked bei/ond the club. 
Larva smooth, .slii/hlli/ fhittciicd. irilh a distinct neck. Pupa in^ a fold 
of the leaf. 

These Initterflies are recognisable, as a rule, by their stout build, 
<iui('k jerky ]\\a]\t and, when at rest, by the curious manner in which 




Fijr. 2(1.")— (i.WOAK.V TIIYIISIS (1. M. N. 



the wings are held at an angle to the liody. They are of moderate size 
and only rarely of bright colour, a dull brown being the commonest tint, 
though some are bright orange and brown. The body is stout, the wings 
short ; the head is large, with large eyes, the palpi three-jointed, porrect 
or upturned. The legs are equally developed, the middle tibia? with one, 
the hind tibia' with two spurs. There are certain secondary sexual marks 



430 LEPIPOI'TERA. 

Oil the males including a costal fold on the forewing closed during life 
and containing silky hairs, a stigma on the forewing and glandular 
patches of specially modified scales. 

The life-histories of a small number are known and have the main 
features the same (Plate XXXIII). Upright eggs are laid singly on the 
foodplant, which hatch to caterpillars with five pairs of suckerfeet. The 
larvae are usually smooth and elongate, tapering evenly to either end, 
the head large and often with a paired process, the prothorax distinctly 
compressed behind the head, giving the appearance of a neck. The body 
is slightly flattened, the inter-segments not constricted and the sucker- 
feet are flat ; the "whole structure enables the caterpillar to remain closely 
pressed to the leaf during the day and the colours are commonly green 
or whatever tint best agrees with its foodplant. None exhibit warning 
colouration, or terrific devices, and they appear to depend upon their 
cryptic form and colour. Some live between the folds of a leaf, others 
openly on the leaf and most are nocturnal feeders. The foodplants 
include grasses (Graminew), palms and species of Scitaminece. The pupa 
is cylindrical, the hind end tapering and terminating in a spine : it lies 
in a fold of the leaf or between two leaves fastened together with silk ; 
the cremaster is attached in the usual manner to a silk thread or pad and, 
in some common species, the pupa is surrounded by a white efflorescence 
on the leaf. The life-history is in general a fairly quick one and there 
are two or more broods in the rains ; so far as known, hibernation 
is pa.ssed in the imago stage. The larvae are the hosts of parasites, both 
Tachinidee and parasitic Hymenoptera having been reared from them. 
None are serious pests, though more than one lives upon rice and some 
on palms, turmeric and ginger. 

The family is a large one and Mabille has recently enumerated 2,fiOO 
species (Genera Insectorum) ; 190 of these are Indian, a small proportion 
being plains species. The student should consult Elwes' Revision of 
Oriental Hesperiidse (Trans., Zool. Soc, 1896, XIV, p. 101) where many 
species are figured in colour as well as Watson's " Hesperia Indica " 
(1891) and de Niceville's papers. The family is divided into the follow- 
ing sub-fanulies : — 

PyrhopyginEe, Hesperiinae, Ismeninaj, Pamphilinae, Megathymi ii.'B. 



PLATE XXXIII.— PaRNAK A MATHIAr^. 

The Rice Skipper. 

Fig. 1 . Eggs, from the side. 

2. Young lai'va webbing up leaves. 

3. Full-grown larva. 
i. Pupa in rolled leaf. 
5.. 

6. V Imago. 

7. I 

> Puparia of Tachinid parasites. 
10. Ichneumon parasite. 

> Tachinid parasites. 










1^: -^ 



4 



HKSl'KltllDj:. 



431 



I.siiu'iiina\ — The life-history of Badaniiu exdaninlidnis, Fabr., is 
tohl by Dudgeon (Jo. Bo. Nat. H. Soc, X, 18<t.j, p. I S4) and his 
account is quoted by Sharp. The caterpillar feeds on Canna. 

Pampliilince A. — Suastus gremius is superficially like Panmra matJiias. 
but has black spots on the hindwing beneath. It is recorded as feeding 
on rice, but probably is a palm leaf feeder principally, Davidson and 
Aitken rearing it oidy from several palms. It is stated to be the com- 
monest skipper in Lucknow (Phillipe). De Niceville gave an account 
of it in Indian Museum Notes (I, p. 11). 

Gangara thi/rsis, Mo. (fig. 295), is a larger species whose larva also feeds 
on palms. Aitken speaks of the butterfly as coming out before dawn 
and after dusk. Matapa aria. Mo., was found commonly in Calcutta, 
feeding on bamboo leaves by de Niceville (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. V, 
p. 115). 

PamphUina} B. — Parnara (Chapra) mathias, Fabr. (Plate XXXIII), is 
perhaps the most abundant of the family in the plains, a small oUve 




n-. 296— P.\RXAKi CULA< 
(F. M. N.) 




•298— PillKAON.'V PALMAKl Jl. 

FEMALE. (I. M. N.) 




brown species with whitish speckles 
on each side of the wings. It is com- 
ni' !ily found on rice as a larva or pupa 
and is occasionally destructive. There 
appear to be two broods on rice during 
the rains as a rule ; P. colaca, Mo., is 
stated to have fed in paddy in Savan. 
(I. M. N., Ill, 3, p. 4.) 
TeKcota (PadraoHd) pnUtuiium, Mo., is recorded from Date palm 
and is wides])n'ad in India. T. <i<ujia^, Linn., is one of the very common 



Fit;. 297— Padraona palmakim, 

MALE, (I. .M. .NM 



432 LKPinOPTKRA. 

plains species, coloured, like the above, in orange and olive-black ; its 
larva is found breeding commonly on sugarcane, also on bamboos and rice 
rarely. 

Udas-pes folus, Cram., is a small black and white species whose 
larva feeds on turmeric and ginger. It is rarely abundant or injurious, 
but is widespread over the plains. 

HBTBROCBRA.- Mo/^s. 

While there is no distinct gap between the Rhopalocera and Hetero- 
cera, there is justification from the practical point of view in separating 
the two Divisions ; the latter have antenna? not knobbed, do not 
as a rule fly by day, and pupate commonly in a cocoon or in concealment. 
This great group is a very large assemblage of species and both logically 
and practically requires breaking up to form workable series. A 
number of families were formerly separated as Microlepidoptera, or 
Small Moths, but the limits of this series was ill defined. We have 
preferred to divide them into three series as follows : — 

I. Heterocera. Thirty-one families, the typical Moths. 

(see page 399.) 

II. Microlepidoptcra. Ten families, the smaller moths : 

JCalliduUdce. 
ii.,,^. „^i,g, .^... ._ ii^^, i. ^^^^..^. . Drepmiidw 

( Thyrididre. 

Hindwing vein 8 connected to cell ) n, , ■ • , 

by a bar or tree, If present i Ti I'dm 

Hindwing vein 8 aborted, Ic. present. Sesiidce. 

Hindwing vein 8 anastomosing 

with or closely approximated to 

7. Ic present. Pyralidcv. 

Wings divided into plumci. ! /^ ji ' 

•^ '- { UrneodidcB. 

III. Protolepidoptera. 

Cell of hindwing emitting more f Hepialidw. 

than fi veins. \ Micropterygidw. 

On this division, we get in one series {Microlepidoptera) the families 
placed by Hampson (as above) at the foot of the order, but also 
families in which (1) the egg is flattened, not upright, spherical or 
sculptured and (2) the larva is " Pyrali-form," the suckerfeet in a circle 



PLATE XXXIV.— Syntomids and Noctuids. 

Fig. ]. Syntomis cyssea, larva. 

1! 2. „ ,, pupa. 

I, 3. „ ,, male. 

„ 4. „ ' „ female. 

„ 5. Aegoceia venulia (Agaiistidre). 

,, 6. Euchromia polymelia (Syutomida?). 

,, 7. Ceryx godarti. „ 

,, 8. Psychotoe duvaucelii. ,, _ 

,, 9. Syntomis sperbiu.s. ,, 

,, 10. Agrotis c-nigriim, larva (Nocluidse). 

„ 11. 

„ 12. Polytela gloriobc-e „ 

,, lo. Homoptera lunbriria „ 



^^ 












/J 





SYNTUMIP.K. -IS;') 

and not in two opposed linet*. From the working point of view the 
Microlepidoptera becomes a useful assemblage of fairly distinct insects. 
We discuss first the typical Heterocera, following the order of Hamp- 
son's Catalogue of Lepidoptera and enumerating at the head of each 
family the characters given by him as regards venation. The student 
will find descriptions, etc.. in the Fauna of India and in the author's 
subsequent papers, still being issued, in the Journal of the Boinhii// 
Natural Histori/ Sncietij. 

Syntomid.t.. 

Hindu-iwi u'ifli rei)i 8 absent or short, Ic. absent. Forewimj 

with vein 5 nearer -i than <). 

These moths have, as a rule, a peculiar facies. the wings have hyaline 
patches, the hind wing is often reduced in size. They are small or of 
moderate size, the colouring is bright and the plains species are day- 
flying. The student will confuse them with Zi/r/anidce. from which 
the}- are distinguishable only on the venation. 

The life-histories of some Indian species are known : eggs are round, 
yellow-, laid in masses together on the foodplant or soil ; the larvae are 
clothed in tufts of hair, dull-coloured and inconspicuous as a rule (Plate 
XXXIV). They make a cocoon of silk and hair on the soil. The moths 
are commonly found sitting exposed on grass stems and plants by day, 
the conspicuous colouring being apparently warning. Until more is 
known, it is impossible to discuss hibernation ; it is noticeable that 
Syntomis sperbius and S. cyssen are, in the plains, common in the cold 
weather both as moths and as larvee ; larvae have been reared on rabi 
(winter) crops, as well as on kharif (rainy season) crops ; it is uncertain 
whether we have some species which breed only in the cold weather and 
some only in the rains, or whether some breed all the year. Develop- 
ment is not rapid and there are probably few broods a year. None 
are know-n to be pests, though some feed upon cultivated plants. 
Hampson enumerates 1.100 species in the Catalogue of Lepidoptera 
Phaleenae of which about 100 are " Indian " and perhaps ten found in 
the plains. 

Psychotce duvauceli, Boisd. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 8), is a small dusky 
moth, with smoky w-ings and the abdomen with two orange bands, dilated 
towards the apex. It is common in the plains though rarely noticed. 



484 LKl'inOPTERA. 

Ceryx, in which vein 3 of hind wing is absent, is commonly 
represented by two species, godarti. Boisd. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 7), with 
two abdominal vellow bands, the hind wing with a narrow black border, 
and imaon. Cram., with a broader black border to the hind wing. 

Syntoniis, in which vein •'5 of the hind wing is present, is similar in 
appearance. S. passah's, Fabr., has seven narrow cupreous bands on the 
abdomen. S. cyssea,CTa.m.,aindS.S])erbius, Fabr., have each two orange 
bands on the abdomen, the former having a yellow collar, the latter a 
vellow metathoracic patch between the wings. S. cyssea. Cram., and S. 
sperbius, Fabr., have been reared from red brown larva? (Plate XXXIV, 
figs. 1-4 and 9) with dense short tufts of hair found feeding upon 
sweet-potato, wild Convohndncew and oats. They appear to be the most 
abundant species in the plains. 

(S. /jas§ai?'s, Sulz., is less conmion but its larva may be found upon 
bean leaves ; the life-history occupies two months and broods succeed 
each other throughout the year. 

Eiichromia polymena, Linn. (Plate XXXIV, fig. fi), has broad orange 
spots on the wings, two or more crimson bands on the abdomen, 
and touches of metallic blue on the thorax and base of each wing. It 
has a reddish larva, with longer tufts of hair at each end, which feeds 
upon wild CnnvoJtmlacea'. 

Arctudm. 

Hindwing irilh vein 8 nnastomnsiw/ irith the rell to near or beyond the 
middle : then remote from 1 : frenulum present. Foreirinq with 
vein 5 nearer 4 thaniS. Hindwing with vein Ic absent. 

In this family we have principally small to moderate sized moths, 
often of bright colouring. The precise object of the bright colouring 
is not clear since the majority are nocturnal in habit, but as white is 
often the ground colour, making the moths conspicuous in the dusk, 
it may be a form of warning colouring. 

The antenna? are usually ciliated or bipectinated, the head small 
and inconspicuous ; the proboscis is well developed, the palpi commonly 
short and porrect. The body is robust and hairy or well scaled ; wings 
are present in both sexes ; males and females are alike in colouring 



435 



and appearance, the former often distingtiishable by the pectination of 
the antennas. The round sculptured eggs are commonly laid in clusters 




Fig. 299— Am».\(Ta ALBisTiucA > -2 (I. M. X 



upon the foodplant and the moths are often very prolific. Larvfe are 
commonly hairy, with tufts of long hair or a dense uniform clothing. 
(Plate XXXV.) Five pairs of prolegs are present in all but one 
divi-sion {NoU)i(e) in which the first pair is aborted. All the known 




Fig. 300— Amsaita alkistriga lakva •! (I. H. N.). 



larvae are herbivorous and the majority feed openly upon plants. 
Pupation takes place on the soil in a cocoon of silk and hair. Moths 
are commonly crepuscular or nocturnal and come to light in many cases. 
So far as has been ascertained, hibernation is passed as a pupa in the 
cocoon in a sheltered place on or in the soil, the majority of the moths 
not emerging until the first heavy fall of rain. There are exceptions 
to this rule, some moths emerging in the dry hot weather and breeding 
then if food is available. The number of broods varies from one 
or two to as many as eight. Several are injurious owing to their very 
great multiplication under favourable circumstances and to their 



4;U) LKl'TIiOn'KKA. 

omnivorous habits ; they are the common " hairy caterpillars " 
which are well-known pests in the plains, especially during the early 
weeks of the rains. The larvae are very extensively parasitised by para- 
sitic Hymenoptera and Tachinidae ; there is some reason for believing 
that they are less attacked by birds than the Noctuidse, for instance, 
possibly on account of their hairy covering. 

Hampson in the Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalaena^, after separating 
the NycteoJince and placing them in the Nociuidw. sub-divides the family 
as follows : Nolince without ocelli, with tufts of raised scales in the cell ; 
Lithosiince without ocelli, without tufts ; Arctiince with ocelli, without 
tufts. If the later classification be followed, the nomenclature and 
arrangement of the family as given in the Fauna of India is of no value 
to the student. The later arrangement is adopted here as it is only a 
question of time before a revi.sion of the very useful Fauna of India 
volume will be published. 

Nolince. — Small moths, with tufts of raised scales in the forewing. 
Most are hill species, the moths found on trees, the larva- generally feeding 




Fit;. 3(11 — RiKsRi.iA FOI.A : I.ARV.K X IJ (I. M. N.). 

upon lichens and having the first pair of prolegs absent. Celama inter- 
neUa,'W]k. {Nola pascua, Swinh.), occurs in widely scattered localities in 
India, the larva feeding on the shoots of the plants of the genus Rubus : 
the cocoon is boat-shaped, of .silk and pieces of plant, exposed. The moth 
is white, the forewing marked and snfFu.sed with brown, the hindwing 



PLATE XXXV.— DiACRisiA Obliqua. 

Behae Haiky Caterpillar. 

Fi^. ]. Young larva. 

2. Full-grown larva. 

3- 

4. Pupa. 

6. Imago. 

7. ' 

t*. Ichneumon cocoon. 
9. 





BEHAR HAIRY CATERPILLAR. 



AllL'TllD.K. 437 

tinged with fuscous in the female, with yellow in the male. Nola argen- 
talis, Mo., is found in Sikkini, its larva being stated by Dudgeon to mimic 
a Coccid wliirh lives on the same leaves. Rn-selia fola, Swinh., was found 
by de Niceville in Calcutta on country almond {Terminalia cidappa) and 
he figures it. (I. M. N., V. pi. X). We reproduce his figures. R. ligni- 
jera, Wlk., also occurs in Mhow (Forsayeth), and Dudgeon describes the 
larva as making a cocoon of pieces of rotten wood, bark and interlaced 
long hairs. 

l.itliDsihuv. Brightly coloured moths, small or moderate in size, 
riving by day or in the dusk. The larva has few hairs and fre(|uently 
feeds on lichens, the pupa being in a thin cocoon of hairs. Ilema vicariu, 
Wlk. (Lithosia antwa. Wlk.), though a hill species, occurs sparingly in the 
plains, a small moth with narrow wings, lead colour, with a yellow margin. 

( 'hioiuenid (Cyana) pcmjrind, Wlk., is a white moth with wings banded 
in scarlet, found in the moister parts of India, .-f.sffm (Nepita) cunjerta, 
Wlk., is perhaps the most common of the family after Utethcina. The 
dark-coloured caterpillar, with tufts of hair and orange spots, is very 
abundant in the rainy season, on house walls, paths, verandahs, etc. ; 
it feeds on lichens and often appears in great numbers in towns. The 
nujth is orange, the forewings banded with black, the hindwing orange, 
with a terminal black band. Asura {MiUochrista) semijascki, Wlk., is 
a small moth, pale yellow in colour, the forewing lined and spotted with 
black. The larva feeds on mosses ; it is clothed in black hair, " which 
opens out at the joints when it rolls itself into a ball." (Hampson.) 

Arctiiufc. Brightly coloured moths, of moderate size and with stout 
bodies ; the larvaj have five pairs of prolegs and are clothed in long hair ; 
the pupa is in a cocoon formed of silk and hair. Most are hill species, 
a considerable number widespread through the plains. 

Diacrisia is a large genus with many Indian species. D. obliqua., 
Wlk. (Spilosoma todara, dalbergicp, bifascia), is common in and near the 
hills and in forest localities : it is the predominant hairy caterpillar 
of Behar and occurs, for instance, also at Poona ; the larva is hairy, the 
ground colour black and yellow, the long hairs black or black and white. 
(Plate XXXV.) It has as many as eight broods in a year, a single 
generation taking from five weeks in the rains to 2^- months in tli(; cold 
weather, though the latter is exceptional. They are found in vast 



438 



LISPIDOPTKRA. 



numbers at some seasons and are almost omnivorous so far as crops and 
low herbage is concerned. There are several varieties of the moth, 
the var. confusa which is suffused with red being a common one. 

Amsacta lineola, Fabr. {Creatonotus emittens), A. lactinea, Cr., and A. 
Moorei, Butl., are found in the plains, being destructive to a variety of 




Fig. ,302— Amsacta la(Tinea lakva, full grown x 2. 

crops. Their larvse are densely clothed in dark hair and appear in swarms 
in the rainy season. The moths may be distinguished by their colouring. 
Amsacta albistriya, Wlk. (figs. 29'.), 300), is recorded from South India, 
where it feeds upon groundnut. (Indian Mus. Notes, V, p. 50.) Creatonotus 
gangis, Linn, (interruptus), is also common, the larva hairy with a yellow 
stripe, the moth pinkish with a broad black fascia on the forewing. 
Estigmene ferrotteti, Guer. (Alphsea biguttata), is a beautiful moth, 
the forewing black with a longitudinal white fascia, the hindwing red 
with black blotches, found widely over the moister parts of India. With 
it is E. vittata, Mo., found principally in the Mysore and Nilgiri plateau. 

Pericallia ricini, Fabr., is a striking insect, the forewing grey-brown, 
with series of dark spots with light edges, the hindwing scarlet with black 
bands. The hairy caterpillar 
is a pest to castor and Cu- 
curbitacece, and is general 
over India. Utetheisa pul- 
chella. Linn., is a common 
species in the plains, the 
moth flitting about herbage 
in the day. It is widely 
scattered over the old world. 
The brightly coloured fik- 3u;j— amsacta laitinea (I. m. n.). 




AGARIJ5T1D.E. 430 

caterpillar foeils upon Saiui Hemp and wild Crotalaria. (Agric. Jourii. 
India, Vol. I.) Rhodogadria mtrcas. Dr. occurs widely spread through 
the hills and plains. The larva is green with few hairs and series of 
black spots ; the moth is noticeable by the hyaline wings clouded with 
fuscous at the margins. 




Fig. 304— Amsacta moobei 



Collcctiuy. — In this group what is most required is careful study of 
larvie, their food habits and their times of occurrence. There is a great 
deal to be learnt about this family, which is an important one, and every 
opportunity of rearing new larvae should be seized. The foodplants are 
varied and require careful observation. The number of broods is a very 
important point as this is a family which apparently reacts very 
markedly to climatic influences ; a great mass of information is required 
before we can be in a position to generalise on this point, and much inter- 
esting work has to be done. Each species must be studied distinctly 
and in detail and every capture and date will ultimately be valuable. 

Agaristid.*:. 

AnlenncB dilated towards the apex : Hindwiiiy with vein 8 

anastomosing IV ith the cell at base, then remote, vein Ic. 

absent. Forewifw/ with vein 5 nearer 4 than (5. 

A small and unimportant family of moths, mostly of moderate size, 

found flying by day. They are, as a rule, brightly coloured and resemble 



440 LEPIDOPTKRA. 

Noduidce. The larvi® are clothed with long scattered hairs and have 
lateral tufts ; the pupae are naked, without cocoon. None are of any 
economic importance. Hampson enumerates six genera and 34 species 
as Indian, of which 5 are not confined to the hills. 

Exsnla (Eusemia) victr ix jWestw., occurs in North -West India and 
Burma. It is a large moth, the forewing black, spotted with blue and 
yellow, the hindwing blue and black. Eusemia adulatrix, KolL, is 
common throughout the hills of India. The black forewing is banded 
with yellow and has blue spots at the base ; the hindwing is black with 
red or orange spots. The genus Zalissa is by Hampson placed in the 
Noctuidae in the new volume. Aegocera venulia, Cram. (Plate XXXIV, 
fig. 5), and A. himacula, Wlk., are the common plains species ; the 
palpi are clothed with long hair, the antennae dilated, the forewing is 
red-brown with a light median streak. 

NOCTUID.E. 

Antennce not dilated, hindwing with vein S anastomosing with the cell 
at base then diverging, Ic. absent. Frenulum present. Forewing with 
5 /row, nearer 4 than fi. Moths with short robust bodies ; moderate 
antenna, which are pectinate in the males of a few, usualli/ simple or 
ciliate. The foreicing is stiff and narrow, the hindwing larger. Colours 
usually sombre. 

This very large family includes moths varying from one-quarter of an 
inch to five inches in expanse, the majority of about two inches. Some 
of the very largest moths are included in this family as well as some of 
the smaller. The colours are mainly cryptic and sombre combined often 
with deceptive colouring, often so assimilating the insect to its surround- 
ings that it habitually spends the day sitting motionless on a tree-trunk 
or stone, securely protected by its invisibility. There is a general similar- 
ity of facies about the majority, which helps in placing them, whilst 
some have the form associated with other families. The antennae are 
moderately long, usually simple or ciliated, sometimes pectinate. The 
labial palpi are prominent and are of value in the classification, being 
porrect or upturned, in some very large and conspicuous. The probos- 
cis is usually present. The thorax is robust and densely scaled or hairy, 
the abdomen short, thick and evenly tapering, clothed in hair and 



PLATE XXXVL— NocTuiDiE. 

Fig. 1. Zalissa venosa. Laiva full-grown. 

,, 2. „ ,, Larva, 2nd and 3rd abdominal .segments. 

,, 3. „ ,, „ with cocoons of braconid parasitic 

larvre that have emerged from it and pupated. 

„ 4. Zalissa venosa, Pupa. 

„ 5. „ „ Hind end of pupa. 

„ 6. „ „ Moth. 

,, 7. Cosmophila erosa. Female. 

„ 8. „ „ Male. 

„ 9. Eublemma cretacea. 



NOCTIID.K. Ill 

often tufted. The legs are of moderate size, the tibia" often with spurs 
and spines. Males are distinguished by many minor characters such 
as the pectination or ciliation of the antennae, the presence of scent 
diffusing hair-tufts on wings or legs and rarely by the different 
colouring ; females are usually the larger. 

The life-history in all is uniform in general characters. The eggs are 
round and the micropyle is at the top ; most are a pearly white or dull 
green, beautifully ribbed and sculptured ; they are laid singly or in 
clusters on the foodplant, the clusters sometimes covered with hair. The 
larva> have three to five pairs of prolegs, the first two pairs being reduced 
in some sub-families when the motion approaches that of the true looping 
caterpillars ; these larvae are known as semi-loopers and it is worth note 
that the first two pairs of prolegs are proportionately less developed in 
the young than in the old larva. The hooks on the prolegs are arranged 
in two opposed lines and not in a circle. As a rule, the larvse are not 
clothed in hair, nor do they have long processes. The typical larva is 
smooth with regularly disposed short hairs and a dull brown or green 
colouring. (Plate XXVIII, figs. 2, 5.) With very few exceptions they are 
herbivorous, a few boring in plants, the majority living on leaves. 
Eublemma is the sole genus known to include larvae which habitually 
feed on mealy bugs, but many leaf-eating larva^ are cannibals if 
confined with insufficient food. 

Pupation takes place in the soil with no cocoon, but a case of consolid- 
ated earth, on the surface with a cocoon and leaves, or, more rarely, on 
plants in a cocoon. The imago is nocturnal, emerging at dusk. Hiber- 
nation, when it occurs, takes place normally in the resting larva or pupa 
stage, a few living through the winter in hiding as imagines. Some are 
active through the winter, especially in the moister parts of India, but 
the majority have food only in the rains. A number emerge as imagines 
in March and live until the rains if their foodplant is not available. Little 
is known as to the food of the imago, but it is certain that some feed on 
nectar, on fruit juice and on the sap exuding from plants. Some {e.g., 
Opliideres) are habitual feeders on the juice of fruits, piercing tlie rind with 
their proboscis to obtain the juice. In some reproduction is very rapid 
and the number of eggs laid totals hundreds and in some cases thousands. 
The smaller forms destructive to crops have several broods yearly, the 
larger forms and wild forms only one or two. 



412 LEPIDUPTEBA. 

A considerable number have a large number of foodplants, including 
cultivated planta, and these often become injuriously abundant. The 
pests fall into several series, as pests, including the seed-eating species, 
the surface caterpillars, the swarming caterpillars and leaf-eating cater- 
pillars. None are household or grain pests. These insects have many 
enemies, notably the parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera. These para- 
sites can very commonly be reared from the larvae or pupse and constitute 
a very important check without which the crop feeding species would 
be far more frequently injurious. Predaceous insects {e.g., Carabidw) 
also attack the larva, and the fossorial Hymenoptera carry them of! to 
store for their young. Birds, especially Mynas, attack the larvae, and the 
moths are probably destroyed by birds and bats. 

The family is a very large one, Hampson listing more than 2,000 
Indian forms, the majority of which are from the hills. The number of 
species actually generally distributed outside the hill and forest areas is 
probably within 300, but these have not been as carefully collected. 
About fifty are known as crop pests or feeders on cultivated plants and 
this number will probably be increased. 

Hampson in the Fauna of India divides them into nine sub-families. 
In his more recent Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phak^ia?, wherein he lists 
the species of the world, the classification is revised and fifteen sub-fami- 
lies are recognised. While this is probably a more natural classification, 
it is as yet incomplete, and as the nomenclature formerly used differs 
markedly from that now being pubhshed, the revised nomenclature is 
used, when possible, with the old in a bracket, thus admitting of reference 
to the volumes on the Fauna of India ; the sub-families adopted are those 
of the Catalogue, and we have followed Dudgeon* in placing the genera 
in their sub-families. 

Key to the Sub-families. 

A. Maxillary palpi absent. 

B. Hindwing with vein 5 obsolescent from or 

from just below middle of discocellulars. 

C. Mid and hind tibiae, or hind tibiae 

only spined . . . . . . Agrotince. 

* We liave to thank llr. .Aiiniituiale fof |>LTiiiissioii to use the Uudgeon collfCtion 
arraiiueuient. 



KliY TO THE SUB-FAJIlLIEtJ. 



U3 



C.C. Mid and hind tibiiB not spined. 
D. Eyes hairy . . . . . . ■ • Hadcnitiw. 

D.D. Eyes not hairy. 

Eyes with long overhanging cilia . . C ucidliance. 

Eyes not ciliated . . . . . . Acrowjclinae. 

B.B. Hindwing with vein 5 well developed. 

C. Hindwing with vein 5 more or less approxi- 
mated to 4 at base. 

D. Frenulum of female simple. 

Abdomen with lateral anal pencils of hair . . Eutdianw. 
Abdomen without anal pencils of hair ; forewing 
with tufts of raised scales in cell . . Stictojjteritiw. 

D.D. Frenulum of female multiple. 

E. Retinaculum of male bar-shaped. 
Forewing with tufts of raised scales in cell 
Forewing \vithout tufts of raised scales in cell 

E.E. Retinaculum of male not bar-shaped. 

F. Mid tibiae spined 
F.F. Mid tibiae not spined. 

G. Eyes hairy . . 
G.G. Eyes not hairy. 

H. Eyes with long overhanging cilia 
H.H. Eyes not cihated. 

Hindwing with vein 5 from close to lower angle 

of cell, strong . . . . . . Noctuince. 

Hindwing vein 5 from well above angle of cell, 
rather weak . . . . . . Erastrianw. 

C.C. Hindwing with vein -5 parallel to 4 . . HypenincB. 

A. A. Maxillary palpi present .. .. HyhlceincB. 

As the further classification is based on venation, necessitating the 
preparation of wings, and requiring more study than is desirable, the 
venation has been disregarded and reference to it omitted. For accurate 
identification, the venation must be made out and it is not the purpose 
of this volume to enable species to be identified. The student of the 
family will find this in the two works mentioned above and, unlesa the 
family is to be very closely studied, it is advisable not to attempt to 
identify a species solely from the data available in thoise volumes, and 



Sarwthripince, 
Acontianw. 

Ckitocalince. 

MomincB. 

Plusiance. 



444 



I,KPIIiOPrEUA. 



without a reference collection. With so large a group much must be 
omitted, and we have selected for mention those species only which are 




Fi;;. 'Mo -ClILOKIDEA OBSOLETA fUfA AND MOTH 



likely to be found as crop pests, which are found feeding on common 
plants or which are striking and likely to be noticed. 

Agmtince. — Hampson lists 1,200 species, of which about a tenth are 
Indian in the very broadest sense, i.e., reach some part of the Himalayan 
region of British India. A very small number get beyond the Himalayas 
■Southwards into India proper, these occurring principally in hill locali- 
ties such as the Nilgiris and Western Ghauts. The proportion of palse- 
arctic species ranging completely across Northern Europe and Asia is 
very striking and a number of these extend into the Himalayas and rarely 
into submontane districts of India. 

Chloridea (Heliothis) includes three species common in the plains. 
C. obsoleta, F. (armigera), is olive-grey or reddish brown, with the post- 
medial line indistinct and dentate. C. assulta, Guen., is orange to orange- 
brown, with a strongly marked postmedial line that is hardly dentate ; 
C. peltigera, Sch., is ochreous to orange, with a black sub-terminal point 
above the tornus. The first is the universal pest known as the Ameri- 
can bollworm. It is an omnivorous insect, whose life-history is elsewhere 
described in detail. The second is a less abundant species, feeding on 



KKY TO THE SUII-FAMILI ES. 445 

tobacco and tipari in the plains. The third is Euro]iean and recorded 
from scattered locahties in India. 

Adisura (Chariclea) marginalis, Wlk., is a pretty pink and yelUiw 
moth common in the plains. A. atcinsoni, Mo., is also common, but has 
apparently not been reared. The genus Agrotis as it stands in the Fauna 
of India is now divided on structural characters, the majority falling into 
Ac/rot {.s Sind Exxon. The former indudes A. ijps Hon. Rott., the "Uni- 
versal Greasy Cutworm" and the very common A. flammntra. Fabr. 
Both species have a curious habit of hiding in sheltered spots in houses 
in the cold weather, and the latter especially is found in thatched roofs. 
In March the moths emerge, and when my office was in a thatched barn, 
living flammatra moths used to fall out of the thatch, tightlv wrapped 
in a clothing of spiders' web ; apparently the moths hibernated there, 
were spun up by .spiders, woke up in March and in struggling to escape 
fell out of the thatch. Agrotis c-nigrum, Linn., and A. descripta. Brem., 
also breed in the plains but rarely. (Plate XXXIV, figs. 10, 11.) 

Euioa includes E. segefis, Sch. {siiffu.sa), E. corticea, Rchiff., and 
E. spinifera. Roth, {hironirn). with other less common species. The larvn? 
of these behave as Surface Caterpillars, j ust as the larva of A . i/psilon Rott., 
does; all are figured in the Agricultural Journal, Vol. II, p. 42, and in 
Memoirs of the Agric. Dept., Entom., Vol. I, No. 2. 

Hadenince. — Hampson lists 94() species in the world of which over 
120 are " Indian. " Nearly all of these are species occurring in Central 
and Northern Asia, which extend into the Himalayas and rarely into 
the Khasis. A few are peculiar to India and Ceylon, while a few range 
over the Indo-Malayan or Indian and Indo-Chinese area. Glottula 
dominira. Cram., is a dull brown moth, the forewing with a series of 
sub-marginal lunules, the hindwing white. The larva bores into the 
fleshy leaves of lilies and is black, thickset and warty, spotted with 
white, the head, legs and two ends of the body marked with red. It is 
a conspicuous insect with apparently warning colouring. PohjteJa 
(jloriosep. F., has a somewhat similar larva, but smooth, and slightly 
differently marked. It feeds upon the leaves of Amaryllids and the 
moth is blue-black, with orange specks, the hindwing alone fuscous, 
with orange cilia. It is a pretty and striking insect with more beauty 
than most of its family. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 12.) 



446 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



Cirphis (Leucania) includes two very common species known as 
pests in the plains. C. unipuncta, Haw., is the destructive " Army worm" 
of world-wide distribution, whose larvae feed upon rice, maize, juar and 
other crops, occurring often in very great abundance. There is a 
voluminous literature regarding this insect, one of the best accounts being 
Tryon's (Queensland Agric. Journ., 1900, p. 13.5). He states that the 
moth lays 500 to 700 eggs, there being two broods yearly in Australia ; 
abundant enemies and parasites check its excessive multiplication nor- 
mally. The larva may be known by the plate over the base of each 
suckerfoot, a character not found in other Indian injurious Noctuids. 
C. lorejji, Dup., is also found upon cereals, but the larva occurs also under- 
ground, feeding upon the roots of plants or coming out at night to feed. 
C. fragilis,'But\., is reported as having been destructive to wheat in 
Chindwara, but has not been found since that time as a pest. 

Borolia is most commonly represented by B. venalba, Mo., whose 
larva feeds upon rice leaves. 

Polia (Hadena) is a large genus of moths superficially like Agrolis, 
but with hairy eyes and tufts on the abdomen. P. consanguis, Guen.' 








Fi;;. :f06-EU SCOTIA SP. I.AltVA ON OCIMril X 



KKY TO THK srR-FAMILIES. 



447 



with several varieties, is common and has been reared from pupa^ found at 
the roots of trees. 

CuciiliincF — Hampson Hsts 50 out of 590 species as Himalayan, 
Khasi Hills or Kashmir. One only extends further 8outh, Euscotia 
inextricata, Mo., being found in the Nilgiris and Himalayas. We have 
one other and apparently undescribed species or variety reared at Pusa 
on Or>)ninii rnniiw. 

Arroniictinfe. Euplexin conducta, Wlk., feeds on Niger seed, Jute, 
Safflower and on Corcnpsis. It is not uncommon on the former plant. 
The smoky form (Inlorosa feeds on Kakaronda {Bhtmea halsannfera). 
E. iiii'la)io.'<pil<i. Koll., is a moth of varied markings with dark green 
and dark brown ground colour, common in the plains. E. indistans, 
Guen.. has been reared from larvte found in the soft bark of the Gular tree 
(Ficm glomerata). whither they had retired to pupate. Others were 
found under the bark of teak. 

Mudaria rornifrons, Mo., is a grey moth witih fuscous markings dis- 
tinguished by the possession of a three-pointed chitinous process on the 

frons. Its larva is commonly 
found feeding in the pods of silk 
cotton {Bombax malaharicum). 
It " hibernates " as a pupa from 
May or June to the following 
March, in the soil ; this has been 
conclusively proved by actual 
breeding in the Pusa insectary. 
Pmdenia littoral is, Boisd., is 
widely distributed and commonly 
destructive : its foodplants include 
a great number of wild and 
cultivated plants. (Mem. Dept. 
Agric. Ent.. Vol. I, No. 2.) The 
larva, up to the last instar, may 
be known by the transverse 
raised black band across the first 
abdominal .segment above. .\ full account is given in Mem. Agric. 
Dept. Ind., Ent., Vol. II. No. (>. 




Fij;. 307— MnoAKIA <oii.viFROi\.s. 



448 IJf.PIPOPTRRA. 

Spodoptera rnauritia, Boisd., is a grey and black moth with a blotch 
of white on the forewing, distinguished by the immense tufts of hair on 
the forelegs of the male. The larva feeds on rice, grasses and millets- 
appearing sometimes in great abundance in the rains and soon after. 
It is often obtainable on dubh grass (Cynodon dactijlon) lawns, with other 
noctuid larvae. Berresa turpis, Wlk., is a smaller dark-coloured moth, 
most easily recognised by the vesicle in the cell of the male forewing, 
covered by a tuft of scales below ; it is common at the close of the rains. 
Aniyna selenampha, Gnen., and A. octo, Guen., are deep brown, with 
slender upturned palpi and tapering abdomen, found under trees. The 
larva of the latter has been reared on sweet potato, a green larva with 
two black crescents on the thorax above. The former is recorded by 
Green as a serious pest to the Croton Oil plant in Ceylon. 

CaJlopistria recurvata, Mo., is the only common species of the number 
found in India ; the male has curiously curved antennae with three 
spatulate hairs at the curve, the legs also densely clothed with long 
hair. 

Carndrina is a genus of many species, of which one is abundant 
and destructive. This is the cosmopolitan C. exigua, Hubn.. a very 
widely distributed species, destructive to a number of crops but partic- 
ularly to indigo in its young stage. {See Agric. Journ., India, Vol. I, 
pt. IV, for a full account.) This moth is like a small Euxoa segetis, but 
has no spines on the legs. Caradrina peeten, Guen., was reared from 
larvae found in the dubh grass on a lawn and is apparently common. Th^ 
larva is brown and orange with black stripes, the pupa, as usual, in the 
soil. 

Nonciijria uniformis, Ddgn. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 7), has been the 
subject of much inquiry, since it is the important stem-borer of wheat 
in the cold weather ; it then attacks sugar-cane and injures the young 
shoots and canes ; it has been reared in maize, guinea grass and juar, and, 
finally, it severely attacks rice. The pink caterpillar is a borer, not feed- 
ing in the open. The moth is dry-grass colour ; the species is not recorded 
in the Fauna of India, but was described since, and the species N. in- 
ferens was probably confused with this, .since the specimens in the Indian 
Museum and the Pusa collection, from which it wa^ described, are all 
stated by Mr. Dudgeon to be his species, A^. uniformis. 



PLATE XXXVII.— NoriuiDX 



'S- 1 


Tarache tropica, larva. 


2 


,, ,, pupa. 


„ 3 


,, ,, UlOtll. 


» 4 


j> 1) .1 


, 5 


„ notabili.s, larva. 


.. *J 


Plusia daubei. 


, 7 


Nonagria unifuriuis. 


, 8 


Eublemraa aaiabilis. 


,, S' 


Acontia intersepta. 


„ 10 


Plusia oriclialcea. 


,- 11 


„ agranmia. 


, 12 


,, Jessica, 



NOOTIlIi.K. 



44it 



Eideliince. — A single genus, Eiitclin, is comiiuin in our limits with 
four species, E. dehitn'x, Gueii. : E. jncondlrix, (Juen. ; E. mujntrix, (}uen. ; 
E. favillatrix, Wlk. 

Stictopterincr. — Hisoha obstn«i(i, Mo., feeds on Qtn><(jii(iJis indica 
and is common in the plains. Odontodes alciica, Guen., is a deep brown 
moth, with black stipples and a crenulate margin to the forewing, found 
generally in the plains. 

Sarrothriimxr. — The wings are coinmonly narrowed at the base, of 
even width otherwise, with patches of raised scales on them. The palpi 




Fi);. SOS— PlOTHEIA CELTIS LAKVA, fOCOONA.NTl 
PELLETS, <OCOO.\, IMAOO. (1. M. N ) 

are porrect or upturned. PI otheiaceltis, Mo., is a small grey brown moth 
with a spiral dark hne on the forewing. Its larva feeds on the leaves of 
litchi (Nephelium litchi) and gular (Ficus glomerata) ; it is rather sparsely 
clothed with long grey hairs which project over the head and tail and from 
the .sides ; a rough .silken cocoon is formed on the soil covered with excre- 
ment ; the life-historv is rapid, less than one month in June. De Nicc'ville 
records it also (Ind. Mus. Notes, V, p. 108) as feeding on the leaves of 
Terminaliacntappa,tlie country almond, and Gmelina arborea. Another 
species, P. nephelotis, Meyr., has been found feeding on the leaf of 
Brinjal (Solanum melongena) and this appears to be a common plains 
species. The larva is short and thickset, dark coloured with brilliant 
yellow spots and long hairs. It turns the edge of the leaf over and lives 
within. 

iiL 29 



450 



I.KPIHOPTKKA. 



Gklumetia transversa, Wlk., is worth mention as de. Niceville records 
it (Ind Mus. Notes, V, p. 125) as boring in the shoots of mango at Dehra 
Dun. It is found in this habitat also in Bombay and has once been reared 
on litcbi leaves with a batch of Plotheia celtis. Cletthara sceptica, Swinh. , 
is a small grey-black speckled moth, whose green semi-looping larva was 
reared from velvet beans. It appears to be rare. 

Acontiinw. — Acontia includes larger moths of a yellow colour 
(Plate XXXVII, fig. 9) whose larvae are found on cotton, bhindi {Hibis- 
cus esculentus) and other Malvacew. The larvse are green with white 
spots and short hairs, having three pairs of prolegs. Four species are 
mentioned, all occurring commonly, A. malvce, Esp., A. transversa, Guen., 
A. intersepta, Guen., and A. grcellsii, Feisth., though we doubt their real 
distinctiveness. The larva of Carea subtilis, Wlk., has been reared on 
the Jamun tree (Eugenia jambolana) ; it has a curious voluntary dilata- 
tion of the first thoracic segment, which gives it a quaint appearance. 
It pupates under the bark in a cocoon of beautiful white silk. 

Callyna jugaria, Wlk., is a beautiful moth, the forewing deep purple 
with greyish lines and an apical light spot, found throughout India, 
though rarely. 

GatocalincE — Anisoneura hi/poci/anea, Guen., is the large deep brown 
moth with many dark markings which emerges in June and is found on 
the bark of trees in the rains and flying in the dusk. It has an expanse 
of 3| to 5 inches, and is most beautifully coloured in deep brown and 
black to harmonize with the bark when both wings are spread fully out. 
Nyctipao includes large deep-coloured moths up to five inches in 
expanse, with posterior tibiae spined ; the large ocellus-like markings 

on the forewing are very striking. 
Four species are found, N. mac- 
rops, Linn., N. hieroglyphica, Dr., 
N. caprimulgus, F., andiV^. crepus- 
cidaris, Linn. The male of the 
first is characterised by an immen- 
se tuft of buff flocculent hair in a 
costal fold of the hindwing. 

Remigia includes two moths 
of moderate size, brown with 
variegated hues. R. archesia, 




REMHilA AKCHESIA. 



yoci'rm.K. 



451 



Cram., is deep brown, its larva is Vfllow-irrfpu with broad black 
stripes and attains a length of two inches ; the foodplants include 
such cultivated leguminosse as Urid (Pliaseolus nfinyo) and indigo. 
It is one of the many caterpillars found upon indigo in the rains and 
is sometimes extremely abundant. R. frugdis, Fabr., is greyer and 
less distinctly marked : the brown larva Hves on rice, juar and other 
Graminene, i)upating in a cocoon surrounded by leaves. It is a common 
insect, not known to be often injurious. Trigonodes hyppasia. Cram., 
is readily recognised from the very distinct markings ; the yellow 
semi-looping larva feeds on indigo and other leguminosse, with Remlc/ia 
arrhesia. The moths are often extremely abundant in long gra,ss and 
are found at alnmst all times. T. re /)/»:.se. Cram., though recorded only 
from Burmah. is found in India. 





Ki''. :JII)- Remi<:ia kkii;ai.is 



V'f^. .ill -Tklconodes hyppasia. 



Grammodes geometrica, F., is closely aUied, the markings distinct 
and recognisable, found also in grass ; the larva feeds on rice. G. stolida, 
F., a smaller moth is also found, though more rarely. Spirama retorta. 
Cram., and S. vespertilio, Fabr., are large dark moths with the pecu- 
liar " inverted comma " marking on the forewing. In the former the 
female has the ground colour ochreous, the male having the forewing 
wholly dark. This insect appears in the hot weather. 

Ophiusa is a large genus of moderate-sized moths with upturned 
palpi, the tibiae fringed with long hair in the male. The larva is semi- 
looping, with the first or first two pairs of prolegs obsolescent and with a 
double process on the hind end of the body. There are .several common 
species, the most abundant being 0. melicerfe, Dr., the common pest of 



452 I.KPinOPTKKA. 

castor which also feeds upon the coniinoii waed, dadhi {Euphorbia pihdi - 
fera. For a full account see Mem. Agric. Dept., Ent., Vol. II, No. 3. 0. 
algira, Linn., also feeds on castor but appears to be rarer. Other common 
species are, 0. serva, Fabr. ; 0. ilUbata, Fabr. ; 0. palumba, Guen. ; 0. 
dotata, Fabr. ; 0. mejanesi, Guen. ; 0. arcuata, Mo. ; 0. joviana, Cram, 
(feeds on Phyllanthus) ; 0. arctotcenia, Guen. ; 0. analis, Guen. ; 0. crameri. 
Mo. ; 0. onelia, Guen. (feeds on Phyllanthus) ; 0. coronata, Fabr. (feeds on 
Quisqualis, and has the hindwing orange) ; 0. trirhaca, Cram, (hindwing 
orange, feeds on guava) ; 0. honesta, Hubn. (hindwing crimson) ; and 
0. fulvotcrnia, Guen., in which t^e male has the mid tibia cleft and 
filled with scales. The larva of 0. coronata, Fabr., is very striking, a 
very long grey-brown larva with two tiny oval tubercles, which cUngs 
tightly to the shoots, pressed closely against them and so being very 
difficult to see. The first we found was due to a mynah jumping from 
the ground and snapping one off a Quisqualis bush. 

Homoptera is similar, the male \vith heavy tufts of hair on the fore 
tibiae. It includes the two common species, H. umbrina, Guen. (Plate 
XXXIV, fig. 13), and/?, glaucinans, Guen. ; Forsayeth (Trans. Ent. Soc, 
1884, p. 370), reared these species and his paper may be consulted. 

Momince comprises the genus Monia, not included here. 

PlusiincB. Plusia is a large genus of which several species occur 
in the plains, some as pests. The discrimination of these species is a 
matter of difficulty as the markings are closely ahke in a large number 
of species. (Plate XXXVII.) P. orichalcea, Fabr., is distinguishable 
at once by the large brafssy patch on the forewing, occupying the 
centre up to the outer margin. The larva feeds on Cruciferous plants 
and is common in the cold weather ; it is green with a marked lateral 
white fine and conspicuous black spines. P. agramma, Guen., is nearly 
uniformly coloured in grey-brown, the forewing with dull bronzy 
reflections. The larva feeds on Cucurbitaceous plants. (Plate 
XXVIII, fig. 13.) The remaining species have the " Y " mark in 
some form on the forewing and cannot be identified save from a 
comparison of specimens. P. limbirena, Guen., feeds upon indigo in 
Behar. (Ind. Mus. Notes, V, p. 162.) P. wt, Hubn., is not uncommon 
feeding upon opium, cabbage and safflower. P. signata, Fabr., feeds 
on cabbage and is an occasional pest. P. chalcytes, Fabr. (eriosoma, 
Doubl.), is common, the green larva feeding on mint and on cultivated 



NocTuin.T:. 453 

pulses and Sanii hiMup. It is said by Hanipsoii to feed on Ficus ; 
Grote reared it on Oeraniiini. P. nigrisigna, Wlic., feeds on 
gram, lucerne and peas and is a common pest. P. daubei, Boisd, 
has been found feeding upon mint, the larva dull brown in colour. 

Nocluince — Arete ccerulea. CJuen., is a dark moth with blue on the 
wings, the male with a long fringe of hair on the inner margin of the 




Fig. 312— ARCTR tiKIU'l.KA LARV.4. 
{From Hiimp.ion.) 

hindwing. We figure the larva from Hampson. Sphingomorpha 
chlnrea, Cram., will be mistaken for a hawk moth, a large moth with 
long narrow body and forewing. The palpi are upturned, the third 
joint long and slender ; Forsayeth reared the larvae on an Acacia, 
and describes them as green, with white marks and a bar of orange 
and blue which can be concealed. Pohjdesma includes moths of 
moderate size, found in grass or on the bark of trees. P. quennvadi, 
Guen., has been reared from caterpillars, found in bark. Other common 
species are P. umhricola, Boisd. ; P. spissa, Guen. ; and P. inangulata, 
Guen. 

Cosmophila is an important genus with four common species. C. 
■mesogona, Wlk., is dark red-brown in colour with very slight markings. 
C. sahulifera, Guen., is distinct with some doubt ; its colouring is very 
varied. The semi-looping larva is found on jute during the rains. (Agric. 
Journ., Vol. II, p. 109.) C. fulvida, Guen., is stated to have a larva with 
four pairs of suckerfeet that feeds on Waltheria indica. It has been found 
on Abutilon avicennce, a green caterpillar with the first prolegs reduced 
in size ; pupation takes place in a leaf folded over with silk. C. erosa, 
Hubn., is common as a green semi-looping larva on cotton and malvaceous 
plants ; the male moth is darker in colouring than the female. (Plate 
XXXVI, figs. 7, 8.) The semi-looping larva is a common pest of cotton. 



454 LICPlDOt'TKltA. 

Malachra capitata, bariar {Sida rhombiiolia) and some other plants during 
the rains. 

Zalissa venosa, Mo., is found breeding upon the common creeper 
panchanjuria (Vitis trifoUa) \ we figure the larva which is not common 
but may be found in the rains. This species is in the Fauna placed in the 
AgaristidcB. (Plate XXXVI.) Trisida varieyata. Mo., has an expanse 
of three to five inches, and is red-brown with dark markings. The larva 
is stated to be red-brown with numerous blue warts clothed with rather 
sparse tufts of long hair ; it feeds on the pipal (Ficus religiosa), and the 
cocoon is covered with stones, excrement, etc. (Hampson.) Erygia has 
very slender palpi almost naked; E. apicalis, Guen.. is common, a small 
moth of dark red-brown colour. Lacera alope, Cram., is dark reddish 
with grey markings ; the larva is known from Ceylon and is green with 
two anal tubercles. Hamodes aurantiaca, Guen., is a moth of an orange 
brown colour, the forewing produced and with an obUque line from the 
apex across both wings. At rest it very closely resembles a dead leaf 
and is found in wooded places. 

Ischyja manlia, Cram., is a large dark brown moth, the smaller male 
with dark blotches on the forewing, both sexes with a conspicuous blue 
band on the hindwing. It is not uncommon as a moth during the rains. 
Spiredonia is smaller with two common species, S. anops, Guen., and S. 
feducia, StoU. Hylodes caranea, Cram., is brown, with a light band across 
the ends of the wings. The green larva, which has two anal tubercles, is 
said to feed on Acanthads. Catephialinteola, Guen., is larger, the male 
with heavily tufted fore femora and tibiae, which are absent in C. 
acronydoides, Guen. C. inq^iieta, 'Wlk.,was reared from larva? feeding 
upon sweet i>otato in Behar. It is not uncommon in Bengal generally 
upon this crop ; the caterpillar is grey with bright vermilion stippled 
stripes, a yellow lateral line and, at the hind end, a single round white 
spot on the dorsal surface. (Plate XXVIII, figs. 4, 5.) 

Sympis rufhasis, Guen., is stated to feed on the Htchi (Nephelimn 
litchi), the pupa found in the rolled end of the leaf (Moore). Plecoptera 
reflexa, Guen., is a small grey moth abundantly found in long grass 
near sissoo trees {Dalbergia sissu). The larva is green, the first two 
pairs of suckerfeet reduced ; it feeds on the leaves of sissoo, pupating in 
the bark or on the soil among fallen leaves. Acantholipes pansalis, 



NOCTrin.T:. 455 

Wlk., is a small dull brown moth found abundantly in long grass and 
under trees. 

Ophideres is a large genus of large 'yellow underwing ' moths, with 
several species common in the plains. The moth sucks the juice of fruit 
and at least one species (0. jullonica, Linn.) is destructive to orange 
cultivation on that account. The common species are 0. salaminia, 
Fabr. ; 0. ancilla, Fabr. ; 0. fullonica, Linn. ; 0. materna, Linn. ; and 0. 
hypermnestra. Cram. The student should see Moore's revision of Ophi- 
derinae (Trans. Zool. Soc, XI, p. (i."?) where he figures imagines and larvae. 
The latter are large dark coloured insects, smooth with large yellow and 
red eye spots and are humped semi-loopers. In spite of the large size 
of the caterpillars, they are seldom found ; the larvae of 0. materna 
are dark brown, with blue transverse bands, red spots on the thorax 
and red transverse bands on the second and third abdominal segments. 
Pupation takes place among dry leaves fastened with silk. The moths 
are typical examples of the deceptive colouring found in many Noctuids, 
the forewings being cryptically coloured, the hindwings bright, the 
moths resting with the latter covered and only exposing them in flight. 
(Compare with Anisoneura.) 

Thcrmesia ruhricans, Boisd., varies in colour from light ochreous 
brown to deep red brown ; its larva is green, semi-looping, and feeds 
upon Urid (Phaseolus muwjo) and other Leguminos», being often 
abundant in the rains. 

Erastrihm. Hyelopsis siynijera, Wlk., is a pretty little white and 
brown moth, whose green semi-looping larva has been found feeding on 
rice leaves. The full-grown larva folds the rice leaf over in three folds 
and makes a cocoon within this, the pupa wriggUng half out for the 
emergence of the moth. 

Tarache is an important genus, its larva; being semi-loopers feeding 
on weeds and cultivated plants, the moths in all cases sitting exposed on 
plants and having a more or less close resemblance to bird droppings. 
Five species are known in the plains. T. catena, Sow. ; T. opalinoides, 
Guen. ; and T. notabilis, Wlk., are pure white moths with lead coloured 
markings on the forewing. The last has a conspicuous larva with six pro- 
mment yellow spots, which feeds on cotton and wild Malvacea?, appearing 
occasionally in great abundance. T. opalinoides, Cuen., has been reared 



456 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

from beautiful red semi-looping larvas found eating the leaves of Abutilon 
indicmn ; the first two pairs of prolegs are reduced, pupation takes place 
in the soil and the moth appears in the rains. T. tropica, Guen., is 
3'ellowish, with oUve-green markings at the base of the wing, the 
apical half with a broad band of deep olive-brown, this being much 
darker in the female than in the male. (Plate XXXVII.) The larva 
feeds on bariar {Sida rhomhijolia) ; it is green with small yellow and 
white spots and has three pairs of prolegs. Its attitude on the plant 
is very striking, the body curved and rigid, the thorax approached 
to the apex of the abdomen ; it clings thus to the margin of the leaf. 
Tarache wj&M/a, Wlk., is darker yellow, the outer area of the wing 
deep red-brown. T. crocata, Guen., is still darker but may be known 
by the yellow or orange hindwing : its larva has been reared from jute 
(Corchorus), whose leaves it eats. 

Xanthoptera nigripalpis, Wlk., is a small ochreous moth with the 
reniform dark and the cilia black spotted, one of the many moths found 
commonly in thick grass and low vegetation in the plains in September. 
Naranga diffusa, Wlk., is a pretty moth, the male dark purple red, the 
female yellow with red bands, whose larva feeds on rice leaves ; the 
larva is a semi-looper, green with a lateral yellow stripe ; it pupates 
on the soil without a cocoon. 

Earias, included by Hampson in the Arctiidcp, is now placed in 
this sub-family. It includes three common species, feeding on Malvacew. 
E. insulana, Boisd., has the forewing green, rarely with an ochreous tinge ; 
it feeds on the seeds and shoots of cotton and bhinda (Hibiscus esculen- 
tus), as does the larva of Earias jahia, Stoll., in which the moth is buff, 
with or without a green wedge down the forewing. Both are fully 
described as the Spotted BoUworms of India and are pests of the first 
magnitude. E. chromataria, Wlk., has the forewing green with some 
bright orange and brown suffusion and its larva feeds on cultivated 
Hibiscus, and has been reared from jute seed-capsules. The habit 
of the larvae of boring into shoots and seed pods is unusual and 
notable for members of this group. (Plate XXXVIII.) 

Enblemma includes several common species in which the palpi are 
uptm'ued and reach the vertex of the head. The genus is remarkable 
for including species which feed upon plants as well as species which 



PLATE XXXVIII.- Earias. 



Fig. 1. Larva of E. insulana. 
An attacked boll. 

3. An attacked shoot of cotton. 

4. E. insulana. 
Larva of E. insulana. 
E. insulana, yellow varietj-. 
E. chromaldvin 
R Jabin. 




COTTON BOLL WORM, 



■ ^ Ttffi CALCITTA FMOTOTVTtfc 



NocTUin.E. 457 

feed upon Coa'idw. Grcien in Ceylon found E. coceidipJiaga, Hmpsn., 
feeding upon mealy bugs ; in India E. amabilis, Mo. (Plate XXXVII, 
fig. 8), feed.s upon the lac insect (Tachardia lacca) and at least two othei- 
species, E. cniacca, Hmpsn. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 9), and E. coccidiphaga, 
Hmpsn., feed upon mealy bugs. The commonest species are E. olivacea, 
Wlk., the forewing white with olive-green suffusion, whose larva bores 
in the green shoots of the brinjal {Snlanidii. inelongena) and wild Solaria- 
cecB ; E. rosita, Guen., ochreous with the outer half of the wing pink ; 
E. divisa. Mo., bright yellow with the outer half of the forewing bright 
pink ; E. hemirhoda, Wlk., differing from the last in its sub-marginal par- 
tial ochreous band, and E. ahrupta, Wlk., which is red-brown, its larva 
found upon fig trees. The common species which may be reared upon 
the cotton mealy bugs (Dactylopius nipce) is an undescribed species. 
E. trifasciala, Mo., has been reared from caterpillars boring into the 
pods of a species of Rivea and E. parva, Hubn., from caterpillars feeding 
on Kakaronda {Blumea balsamifera). 

Zagira includes two common moths, in which the colour is dark but 
a broad light band crosses the thorax and occupies the costal half 
of each forewing. Z. irrectn, Wlk.. in which the colour is red-brown 
and Z. divisa, Wlk., in which it is nearly black are both to be found in 
herbage in the plains. 

HypenincB {Deltoid! nee). — These moths are recognisable by the 
sickle-shaped palpi, curving up to the front of and over the head. 
Raparna includes R. digraiiiina, Wlk., R. ochreipennis, Mo.; and R. 
imparata, Wlk. ; which are more or less common in the plains ; de 
Nic('ville records finding R. nebulosa, Mo., in abundance on indigo 
in Chumparan and in fact stated it to be the commonest indigo 
caterpillar in the rains. As it is recorded only from Sikkim and 
Bhutan and has not since been found on indigo, this observation 
requires confirmation. 

{Focillincc). The palpi are sickle-shaped and long, or are porrect ; 
a frontal tuft is usually present in the latter case. Simplicia robustalis, 
Guen., is a brown moth with the palpi curved over the head, the male 
antenuce with a tuft of scales at the middle. It has been reared from 
a brown caterpillar which feeds on dry fallen sissoo leaves {Dalbergia 
>iis.st() ; it is a semi-looper, pupating in a light cocoon among leaves or 



458 LEPinorTKUA. 

on the soil. Nodaria extremaJis, Guen., has similar but shorter palpi, 
and a narrower forewing. Dichromia erosia, Cram., has porrect palpi ; 
the hindwing is orange, the forewing grey with a large black triangular 
patch. Rhynchina has porrect palpi, the forewing narrow and acute at 
the apex. R. ahducalis, Wlk., is the most common, the forewing with 
a long dark patch bounded below by an oblique light line running from 
the apex. 

Hypena is a large genus of seventy species, the palpi porrect and of 
varied length. H. lividalis, Hubn.; H. iconicalis, Wlk.; H. ahyssinialis, 
Guen. : H. indicatalis,'W\k., are the most widespread species; the identi- 
fication of these and the other forms is possible only if a long series of 
specimens is available or if they can be compared with accurately identi- 
fied specimens. A species was reared by de Niceville on indigo in Gham- 
paran (I. M. Notes, V, p. 163). 

Hyhlceina — Hyblwa puera, Cram. ; and H. constellata, Guen., are 
common where teak {Tectona grandis) grows, their larvae defoliating 
this tree ; the life-history of the former is fully described by R. 8. Hole. 
(Journ. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. (579.) 

Collecting. — Most noctuids are nocturnal and many can be 
captured at light, some come to sugar (a mixture of treacle or syrup 
and spirit) and some to ripe fruit. Numbers can be caught in thick 
grass, on tree bark and in similar situations by day. There is a large 
field for rearing as only a small percentage are known from the larva 
and they are, as a rule, easily found and reared. Large numbers of 
species are as yet undescribed probably and large collections can be 
made anywhere in India. 

Pterothysanid^. 

Frenulum absent. Hindwing unth vein 8 approximated to 7 at 

middle of cell. Ic absent. Forewing tvith vein 5 nearer 4 than 0. 

This family consists of a single genus (Pterothysanus) of moths, 

found in Assam and Burmah with five doubtful species. They are large 

diurnal insects, with small upturned palpi, simple antenna^, and long 

hair fringes to the hindwings. The colouring is vivid black with white 

and pink blotches on the wings. The larva is unknown and the moths are 

not common anywhere. None are found in the plains. 



LYMANTRIID^. 459 

Lymantriid^. — {Liparidw). 

Proboscis aborted. Frenulum present. Forewiwj with vein 5 nearer 

(3 than 4. Hindiving with vein Ic, absent, vein 8 

connevted to the cell hi/ a bar. 

This family is common in both the hills and the plains, a number of 
common species occurring widely in cultivated areas. The moths are of 
stout biiild and usually dull colours ; the antennae of the male are 
pectinate, with spines at the tip of each branch, one of which is oblique 
and appears to preserve the position of its branch with the next. There 
is no proboscis and the moths cannot feed. The female is usually 
characterised by a large anal tuft, which is in some species used as a 
supply of hair for covering the eggs. The life-history is known in a 
number of species ; the females are usually prolific, laying many eggs 
in clusters ; the larvtB are hairy and are distinguished by the distinct 
erect tufts of hair on the body ; in a number of cases these hairs are 
poisonous, the point sharp and barbed so that once inserted they remain 
in the flesh which festers. 8uch poisonous caterpillars are characteristic 
of the hills and rare in the plains. Pupation takes place in a loose 
cocoon of silk and hair, usually on the soil among leaves and debris. 
The moths fly by night in nearly all cases. 

Hibernation appears to be passed in the pupal stage, but more has 
yet to be learnt of the seasons of these moths. The majority are found 
in the hot weather and rains, but there are several broods yearly and 
occasionally larvse are found in the cold weather. None appear to be 
definite pests to agriculture, though more than one feeds on cultivated 
plants, and it is probable that they are checked by parasites to a more 
marked extent than some other groups. 

Hampson lists over 1(J0 species in the Fauna of India and has added 
11 since. (Jo. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, X, XI, XIII.) 

Ltelia includes several species, of which L. exclamationis, Koll.. 
is most likely to be found. The larva is brown with grey hair and four 
dorsal tufts of short brown hair. The moth is brown with a single black 
line on the forewing. Thiaeidas postica, Wlk., is the very common hairy 
larva found on the ber tree {Zizyphus jujuba). We reproduce the figure 
from Indian Museum Notes, 11, PI. 2. 



460 LEPIPOPTKRA. 

Dasychira is an important genus with many species. D. horsfieldi, 
Saund., is the common grey moth found so abundantly in forest locaU- 




Fig. :^13— Thiacidas postica. A. Male, B. Fbmalk 
C. Pupa, D. Larva (I. M. N.). 



ties after the rains ; the male is a little over half the size of the female. 
D. thwaitesi, Mo., is mainly a hill or forest form, for which the student 
should consult Indian Museum Notes, I, p. 2'.». DasijcMra mendosa, 
Hubn.jhas been reared from larvae feeding on potato {Solarium tuberosum), 
Mr. de Nic(''ville reared it on ' desi badam ' (TerminaUa catappa). The 
moth is dark brown, with a light costa, and the forewing is noticeably 
drawn out at the apex. This occurs also in D. securis, Hubn., in 
which the moth is dry grass colour with a central fascia of lilac-grey on 
the forewing. Its larva feeds on a variety of cultivated plants, including 
cereals, grasses and cruciferous plants (Plate XXXIX, fig. 7). The pupa 
is in a thin cocoon of silk and hair, of which one end allows egress to the 
moth. 

Three species of Lijmantria may be found ; L. incerta, Wlk., feeds on 
pipal {Ficus religiosa), babul (Acacia arabica) and ber (Zizyphus jujuba). 
Forsayeth describes the larva as light brown with creamy variegations 
and dark markings. L. ampla, Wlk., was reared by de Nicrville on 
country almond (TerminaUa catappa) (Ind. Mus. Notes, V, p. 108), 
and feeds also on pipal (Ficus religiosa). 

Porllicsia xanthorhoea, Koli., is a small white moth with fuscous 
hindwings in the male, and a large yellow anal tuft. The caterpillar 



LYMANTRIID.^. 



461 



(Plate XXVIII, fig. 8), is orange with black marks and with hair tufts on 
each side. It pupates in a cocoon of silk and hair ; the foodplants in- 
clude cane, juar, bajra, marua 
{Eleusine roracana), guinea grass 
and other cereals, and the moth 
f-s common in the plains. It has 
a habit of sitting by day exposed 
on plants and grasses as does 
Scirpophaga aurifua which it 
clo-sely resembles. This species 
is not known to occur in abun- 
dance at any time and is not 
injurious. 

Euproctis includes a large num- 
ber of small to moderate-sized 
white, yellow, brown or orange 
moths which are probably not 
really as numerous in distinct 
species as authors now state. 
E. lunata, Wlk., is said to feed 
on babul (Acacia arahica), bi'-r (Zizyphus jujuha) and rose. E. scin- 
tillans, Wlk., feeds on linseed, bhindi [Hibiscus esculentus), bajra {Penni- 
setum ti/pJioideuni), and probably other plants, and is recorded as destroy- 
ing mango in Poona (Indian Museum Notes, II, p. 38), and Tenmnalia 
catappa in Calcutta (loc. cit. V, 108). E. fraterna, Mo., feeds on rose and 
castor, E. icilia, Stoll. (Plate XXXIX, figs. 5, 6), on the common Loran- 
thus on trees. These are common throughout India, as well as, E. semi- 
signata, Wlk., E. flavinata, Wlk., E. digramma, Guer., E. flava, F. {guttata, 
Wlk.) The last is the species so destructive to fruit trees of all kinds 
in the Punjab, the caterpillars sometimes occurring in great abundance 
in the Canal Colonies. E. dama, Swinh., is a small yellowish species found 
very commonly ; its caterpillar feeds on Kakaronda (Blume abalsamifera). 




Fig. 314— EnPRO(TIS FKATEKNA : MALK 

ABOVE, FEMALE BELOW, AND PUPA 

IN COCOON (I. .M. N.). 



The larva of Perina nuda, F., feeds on Kanthal (Artocarpus integri- 
folia), and is common throughout India. A description of the larva will 
be found in Indian Museum Notes, IV, p. 14. 



4C2 



LKPIDO?TERA. 



Leucoma suhmarginata, Wlk., is also common, a pure white moth with 
a single black " comma " on the forewing and yellow on the frons, palpi 
and fore coxa?. Its ally, L. subvitrea, Wlk., was reared by de Niceville 
on desi badam (Terminalia catappa). and is figured (Indian Museum 
Notes, V, PI. XI). 




Fig. 315— EUPROCTIS KKATERNA I,AR\ A K '2. 



Hypsid.?5. 

Proboscis well developed ; hindicing with vein 8 connected to cell by a 

bar, Ic. absent ; frenulum present. Forewing, 

vein 5 nearer to 4 than (i. 

A small and unimportant family whose species (27) are mainly con- 
fined to the hills, but a few of which are common and widespread in the 
plains and cultivated areas. They are of moderate size and usually bright 
colouring, rather weak on the wing and sometimes seen flying by day. 
The colouring is conspicuous enough for any common species to be easily 
recognised when once seen and is presumably warning in function. 



PLATE XXXIX.— Hypsids and Lymantriids. 

Fig. 1. Hypsa feus, larva (Hypsidse). 

2. ti 11 cocoon „ 

3. ,, alciphron, larva „ 

4. ,, „ imago ,, 

5. Eu2)roclis icilia, larva (Lymantriidje). 

6. ,, ,, imago ,, 

7. Dasychira securi!<, larva „ 
''^. Aryina aryun, larva (Hypsida-). 
9. ,, „ imafio 






iifpsp^ 




) 






HYPSID.^. 463 

The life-history presents few points of interest. Eggs are laid singly 
or in clusters on the foodplant and the larvto have five pairs of sucker- 
feet, are brightly coloured and sparsely clothed with hair. They feed 
openly on the leaves by day and are possibly distasteful to the majority 
of birds. Pupation takes place in a shght cocoon in rolled leaves on the 
soil. So far as is known, hibernation is passed as a pupa in the soil, and 
there are several broods yearly commencing in the hot weather if food is 
available. Two species are pests to agriculture and at least two injure 
trees, so the family has some economic importance. 

Hypsa is a genus of rather large moths, the palpi upturned, the 
apical joint slender and reaching above the head. The antennae are fasci- 
culate in the male, ciliate in the female. Two species are very common 
in the plains, the larvae feeding on pipal, pakur and other species of Ficm 
grown as shade trees (Plate XXXIX) ; the caterpillars are sometimes 
so abundant that they defoliate large trees and, standing below an 
infested tree, one hears their excrements falling in a continuous shower 
hke rain. We figure the moth of H. akiphron, Cram., from which H. 
ficus, Fabr., differs in markings ; both are dull ochreous with yellow and 
black markings at the base of the wing. 

Digama hearseijana, Mo., is common throughout the hill and forest 
areas in India but is rarely found in the cultivated plains. It is a small 
moth, the forewing dusky with dark spots, the hindwing orange. It 
has a very neat trim appearance and is one of the very common 
moths one first sees and captures in the hills. Two genera, Nyctemera 
and x-lrgfTOa, formerly placed in ^rrfarfcE are now classed with Hypsa. Of 
the former, three species, N. lacticinia, Cram., N. latistriga, Wlk., and 
N. plagifera, Wlk., are large moths, white and brown in colour, which 
occur throughout the hill and forest areas of India and are found rarely 
in the plains. Of the latter, three species occur throughout India in- 
cluding the plains, feeding on Sann Hemp {Crotalaria juncea) and wild 
Crotalaria. All are bright coloured moths, the forewing with ringed black 
spots; A. nrgus, Ko\l., has the forewing brownish red, the hindwing 
scarlet, the larva is common in the pods, feeding on the seeds. (Plate 
XXXIX, figs. 8, 9.) A. sj/n'ng'rt. Cram., has the forewing pinkish brown 
and clouded with fuscous, the hindwing crimson, while A. cribraria, 
Clerck., has the ground colour orange. The last is the most common, its 



464 LEPIDOPTERA. 

larva a serious pest occasionally, feeding mainly on leaves (see Agric. 
Journ. I, No. 3). 

SPHiNGiDiE. — Hawk Moth. 
Antenna fusiform, thickened toivards the apex and dightly hooked. 
Forewing long and narrow, vein 5 nearer 6 than 4 or from the middle 
of the cell ; hindwing vein 8 connected to the cell hy a bar at the base, 
then approximated to or anastomosing with 7, vein ic. absent. 
Frenulum present. Pupa in soil, larva smooth with anal horn. 

The narrow forewings, the spindle-shaped hooked antennae, the 
usually torpedo-shaped body and the swift flight enable this family to 




Fig. .S16— Daphnis nrrii. 

be readily recognised in tlio field. The moths are moderate to large in 
size, with an expanse of one to four inches. The colouring is uniform 
in design, but diverse and marked in individual species. The body 
and forewings are cryptically coloured in shades of brown, grey and 
dull green, which make the insect invisible when resting on bark 
or on other exposed positions. The lower wing and sometimes part of 
the base of the abdomen is brightly coloured, the resting attitude being 
such that the forewing covers the brightly coloured parts, which 
are visible only in flight. The object of the bright colouring, usually 



PLATE XL.— AcHERoNTiA Styx. 
Til Sphinx. 



Fig. 1. 

2. Young larva. 

3. » 
V Half-grown larva. 

5. Full-grown larva. Natural size. 

6. Pupa. 

7. Moth. 



9 9 











TIL SPHINX. 



sPHiNorD.T„ 466 

red or oranire. is prohaljly (Irri'ptivi', the whole scheme Ixmiil; similar to 
that (if the Aeridiiihe and other insects which exhibit this peculiar 
colour scheme. (See unth'r Aeridiiihe.) 

The head is lari;e with larye e(imi)ound eyes; the prolxiscis is usually 
very long, tightly curled up in repose and slittty e.xtended to its fidl 
length when the moth hovers before a flower. The anteniise are straight, 
a little smaller towards the apex, slightly hooked, and in the male with 
curious tufts of cilia on the lower side. 

The thora.x is robust, the outline of the whole body from head to 
a])ex of abdomen smooth and tapering to each end ; the abdomen is long, 
in some s])ecies with lateral and terminal tufts of erectile hairs. The 
forewing is long and narrow, the hindwing smaller. Males and females 
are similar in colouring, the males smaller and distinguished by the 
antenniv. 

The life-history is uniform in all but detail so far as known. Eggs 
are laid singly on the leaves of the foodplant, each egg circular with the 
micropyle at the apex. The larvae grow to a considerable size, some 
exceeding three inches in length ; there are five pairs of suckerfeet, and 
usually a horn on the Sth abdominal segment. The integument is smooth, 
or more rarely, roughened with numerous tiny blunt spines ; none are 
hairy or tufted ; the head is either large and distinct, or small and retrac- 
tile into the prothorax, which is drawn back with the meso and meta- 
thorax. The colouring is usually green or brown, cryptic, and often 
with lateral yellow stripes which increase the cryptic resemblance. In 
many, there are in addition devices which are evidently meant to be 
terrifying ; such are the eye spots, large coloured spots on the sides of 
the thorax which look like large real eyes when the head is drawn in ; 
the appearance of the insect with these eyes is very striking and in 
some there is, to us, a suggestion of the snake. In some these spots 
are concealed and can be suddenly shown, when the effect is still more 
striking. As a whole the larvae exhibit cryptic colouring combined 
with terrifying devices. An interesting adaptation is found in the 
change of colour which often takes place at the close ot the larval 
l.fe ; hitherto the green caterpillar, for instance, has been concealed 
by its colour among the leaves of its foodplant ; prior to pupation 
it must leave its foodplant and crawl over the soil, perhaps after a journey 
down the bark of a tree, to find a suitable place to hide itself for pupation. 
IIL 30 



40() LEPinOPTKRA. 

The green colour would then be very conspicuous on the soil or bark, and 
we find that the upper surface of the body darkens in tint till it, and 
perhaps the whole body becomes brown when the insect has to pupate. 
It then crawls away till it finds a suitable shelter in soil or among fallen 
leaves, etc., where it pupates. As a rule, coarse threads of silk are used 
to form a covering with leaves and debris, or the caterpillar forms a 
chamber in which to pupate : from the time the caterpillar ceases feeding 
till it actually transforms to the pupa as much as a week may elapse, 
during which the caterpillar is internally and externally preparing for 
the last moult. 

The caterpillars are wholly herbivorous, feeding on the leaves of 
their foodplants which usually embrace a few allied species. They feed 
usuallv in the morning and evening only. The pupa is a large brown 
object, of two forms, one with an external proboscis sheath (as in 
Herse convohuU) the other without (as in Acherontia sti/x). 

The moths are usually crepuscular, the smaller " humming bird 
hawks " being alone seen flying by day. Food is the nectar extracted 
from flowers, the moth hovering before the flower, the long proboscis 
being inserted to suck it out ; white flowers that bloom at night attract 
these moths and it is a wonderful sight to watch such plants when large 
numbers of the moths come. QuiscjuaUs indica is a favourite flower, 
being white at night to attract these moths, though it is red by day. 

The moths are extraordinarily swift of flight and very powerful ; 
it is possibly due to this that they form so large a proportion of the insect 
fauna of the island of Barbados in the West Indies, a fact not yet recorded 
by any naturalist ; this island is low and wind swept, less than 20 miles 
across and any but a strong flying moth is liable to be blown away by 
the tradewinds, just as large numbers of insects are sometimes blown 
on to the island ; apparently the hawkmoths have been able to remain 
on the island, and they constitute an extraordinarily large proportion 
of the insect fauna. 

The duration of the larval stage is relatively long, the larger species 
requiring two months to become full-grown, the pupal stage then being 
moderately long and the imaginal life shorter. Hibernation takes place 
as a pupa in the soil and no cases of larval or imaginal hibernation are 
known ; equally aestivation is passed as a pupa, unless it be one of the 
species whose food is then available. 



spHiNGin.E. 467 

As a fule tln'it' art- two 1)i-()(hIs during the rains, witli jnipal liilierna- 
tion in thi' second until March or June, more often the latter. Few are 
pests since they are insects that increase hut slowly, but a few are found 
feeding on cultivated plants and are occasionally luunerous. 

The larva' are parasitised by parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera 
as are other caterpillars, and these parasites are the chief check. Birds 
readily eat the caterpillars when they find them, and help to check them 
when they are numerous. 

Hampson lists 121 Indian sjiecies, mostly hill forms not recorded 
from the plains. A few species are common in the plains, a number 
more are recorded and will be found widespread. Jordan and Roths- 
child list ]r)4 (1907) ; their revision alters practically the whole nomencla- 
ture and classification, and brings in the greatest possible amount of con- 
fusion. In the present deplorable state of entomology, their nomen- 
clature will probably be adopted till another replaces it, and we 
accordingly use both here. The most recent account is that of these 
authors in Genera Insectorum, which is a revision of their earlier 
revision. The authors are extremely vague about geographical 
distribution, and it is impo.s.sible to be certain exactly which species 
actually occur in India. 

Acherontiina' — Hersv (Protoparce) cnnvolvuh. linn., is our commonest 
form, a large grey moth with pink bands on the abdomen, which comes 
freely to light. The larva feeds on sweet potato, urid (Phaseolus mungo), 
and on convolvulaceous creepers. The pupa is in a hard earthen chamber. 

Acherontin styx, Westw., is our death's-head moth, so-called from the 
skull-mark on the thorax. This is the tropical and sub-tropical form of A. 
lacJiesis. Fabr., found only in the Himalayas. The large green caterpillar 
is found on til {Sesamum indicum) and kulthi {Dolichos lablab). There 
are probably two broods a year in all parts of the plains, the pupa 
living over the winter (Plate XL). 

Psilogramma menepliron, Cram. (Pseudosphinx discistriga, Wlk.), 
is a large grey moth with an expanse of 3| to 5^ inches, less common 
but widely spread in the plains. 

Amhuh/cime. — Compsogene (Calymnia) panopus. Cram., is the very 
large purple and brown moth, with a wing expanse of 5i inches. The 
larva is grey with vellow stripes, the anal process long and straight ; it 



468 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



feeds on the leaf of mango. Oxi/anibxli/.r sidiocclldta. Feld (Ainbulyx 
semifervens, Wlk.) is widespread in India while the larva of Clanis 
phalaris, Fabr. {Ainbuh/x pagana, F.) is described (under Clanis cervina) 
by Forsayeth as feeding on the dhak or palas tree (Bt<Ye« frondosa), 
(Trans. Ent. See, London, 1884, p. 393). Leucophlehia emittens, Wlk., 
and L. lineata, Wlk., are the beautiful pink moths with a yellow fascia 
along the forewing, which so often come to light in India. The larva of 
Polyptychus trilineatus, Mo. (dentatus. Cram.), is said bv Forsaveth 
{loc. cit.) to feed on lasora (Cordia itii/.ra). 

Sesiino'. ( 'cphonode 




' hum- 
of the 



Linn., i.s the common 
ming l)ird hawk moth " 
plains, a beautiful moth with 
yellow and red abdomen and 
a spreading black anal tuft. 
which comes in dull weather 
and at dusk and flies softly 
through shrubs seeking flowers : 
it is a shy insect, hard to see 
or catch, with a distinctive 
deep hum in flight. 
Philavi pell nee. DeilephiJn (Daphni.s) iifi-il. IJnn.. is the beautiful 
(lark olive-green and pink moth (fig. ol4) whose larva feeds on the 



Fig. 317— Cefho.nopf.s hyl.xs 




Kia. 318— Nephki.k iiihyma (I. M. N.). 

(ileand r ; D. hijpotJwus, Cram., also occurs in our limits. XepheU 
didiima, Fabr. {hespera, ¥.) is a smaller olive-green moth, reared in 
Calcutta on Karunda (Cnrissa Carandas) (Indian Mus. Notes, V, p. 12(i). 



sPHiNnin.T;. 



469 



.}f<icr(></lossiiiii includes dark coloured "" huininiiifi- liird liawk moths," 
found flyino; by day in bushes seeking flowers : they are extremely abun- 
dant in the subtropical zone but scune occur in the plains. M. rii/rnn-i. 
Wlk. : M. helis. Cram. ; and .1/. pi/n-DstlrtH. Rutl. {(/Ih'a. Herr. Sch.) are 
to be found, the second most abundantly. 

Chwrovampinre. — A number of common forms are included in this 
sub-family. The larva^ have the head and thoracic segments more or less 
retractile into the swollen metathora.x, which often has lateral eye-marks, 
in Ifliiiiii/iiiii ccli'iiii. L., the larviv may be green or dark brown, both occur- 
ring together in ail stages on the same foodplant. The genera Thcretra 
and Hipjiotion include the common hawkmoths of the plains, moderate 
sized insects with the apex of the forewing produced slightly. The full 
fed larva pupates at the surface of the soil in a covering of leaves webbed 
up with coarse silk enclosing an earthen chamber. 

The following are the common species, with the revised and old 
nomenclature of the Fauna, and the known foodplauts in India. 

'Jlii-riira f/iiouni, Kabr. (C'liieriiciiiii|pii buHi!;, Cram.) Grape vino. 

„ aUrto, Linn. (Chairocampa). Peas, Teak, I'ilii tri/olui. 

„ ii!de>dandiii; Tiihr. (Uliteroeampa). Balsam, Vitis tri/nlin 

„ xillteteiisis, Wlk. (Chierocarapa). 

,, latreillci, Macl. (Cliierocampa liicasi, Wlk.) 

,, iicssvs, Fabr. 

nijipntiiui crlieclus, Boisil. (Cliierocampa eson, Ciam.) .'^esamum. 

,, raj/i-si. Bull. (Glia;rouampa tlieylin, (iinn.) 

„ cHcriii, Lino. (Cliajrocampa). Hal^ani ami lldn nilt/nrix. 

„ relax, Fabr. (Cha>rocampa visjil, Gucr). 

Bln/nrliohibn nctevx. Cram. (Thcreini)- 

Collectim/. — Moths are caught on the wing by day (Maem- 
glossince) or at dusk at flowers. Some come to light and the occur- 
rence of these is worth noting even if they be common species. 
Larvse are always worth rearing if their food plant can be a.scertained, 
and there is no special difficulty in this. If it is desired to obtain eggs, 
the pupse must all be treated alike as they react quickly to altered 
conditions and will not emerge together if differently treated. 

Cymatophorid.?:. 

('liinarti')s (if Spliingidre hut vein 8 not connected irith 7. 

A family of 22 moths found in the Himalayas, Khasis and liurmah 
Hills, and which are ab.sent from tropical India. They are in appearance 



470 LHJPIllOl'TKKA. 

like Noctuids while the larva has five pairs of suckerfeet and is not clothed 
with hair. No species will be found in the plains. 

EUPTEROTID/E. 

Frenulum present, proboscis absent. Forewing with vein 5 nearer (> 
tha7i 4. Hindwing with vein 8 remote from vein 7, vein Ic. absent. 
Larva uniformlij hairy, pupa in cocoon of silk and hair. 
This is a family of large moths with hairy palpi, the antenna; pecti- 
nated in both sexes, the mid-tibia with one pair, the hind tibia? with two 





Kin. 319— Eui'TEKorE mi.vok, m.\le. Fig. 320— Eupterote minor, FE.M.4LE. 

pairs of spurs. They are dull coloured moths, principally found in hill 
forest areas, of which 42 species are recorded as " Indian." 

The larvae are found, in great numbers occasionally, feeding upon 
forest trees. They are uniformly hairy, with five pairs of suckerfeet _ 
The larvse are gregarious, feeding together on the plant. The hairs are 
poisonous and are readily detached either when the larva is irritated or 
touched, and these hairs become firmly fixed in the skin giving rise to 
great irritation. The pupa is in a cocoon of silk and hair. Hibernation 
in the cocoon takes place from the end of the rains to the following 
rains. 

Eupterote is the abundant genus, with several species common in 
the moister and more densely forested parts of India. E. undata, Blanch., 
occurs throughout North India and as far south as the Nilgiris ; it varies 
much in colouring from pale brown or yellow suffused with brown to deep 
red-brown ; each wing has a varying number of waved lines : E. fabia. 
Cram., is not regarded by Hampson as a distinct species ; the male has 
the forewing bright yellow. In both, the expanse ranges from three to 



NOTODONTIU^. 471 

live iiu'lies. E. inulli/cni. Wlk., is .similler, 2i to ."ji inches with tlie 
jiromul colour always yellow or dark, often suffused with rufous. It 
occurs in South India. E. citrind. Wlk., is uniform yellowish white, 
with the heati aiul prothora.x fuscous in the male, the female with 
raised scales at the outer angle of the forewing below and the apex of 
the hindwing above. Its distribution is given as the Deccan, Central 
India and Bombay. 

Of these E. nnddtn was reared by de Niceville in Calcutta, on 
Eri/tkrinn indivd, with one ])rood yearly apparently. (I. M. N., V, 
p. 12!t.)£'. minor, Mo., was reared from caterpillars which appeared in 
great numbers in Burmah " destroying the herbage and swarming on 
the roads to such an extent that thousands of them must be trodden 
under foot by passing way-farer.s. "' (I. M. N., Vol. Ill, p. 21.) 

Sangiiti.ssa aubcurviferd. Wlk.. is jjale brown, the forewing with the 
three curved dark bands oblit(uely along it. It occurs in the North- 
West Himalayas, in South India, and has been found in the CTangetic 
plain. Nisaga siviplex, Wlk., varies much in colour, the wings yellow to 
deep brown, with lines of dark scales along the veins. It has been 
reared from a yellow-marked black caterpillar, moderatelv hairv, found 
feeding on rice in Ranchi and on grass in Pachmarhi, t'entral Provinces, 
and it is common also in Assam and South India. It hibernates in the 
cocoon from October-November to June. 

NoTODONTID.E. 

Hindiriiuj irith rein S coiuiectcd to 7 iic<ir tiiiddlv of cell. Vein 5 

obsolescent, Ic. absent. Proboscis present. Foretfimj 

with vein o nearer (> than i. 

A family of moths, recognisable by their veiuition alone, and super- 
ficially like Nocluidce, or in some cases, Sphin'jid'r. The colours are 
dull, greys and browns predominating. The antenna are often pecti- 
nate, the abdomen long and tapering, terminating in some in long scales 
or tufts. Many are of large size with an expanse in some instances of 
over four inches. Nearly all are hill forms, confined to high elevations ; 
the family is a very large one in temperate climates, and there are 120 



472 



LEriDOPTKliA. 



species listed as from the Indian region of which four alone are common 
in our area ; 21 have been since added by Hampson. 




Fig. :W1— STAUROrOS ALTERNl'S, LAKVA (IN ROSK LKAF. 



Antheua servula. Dr., is a yellow moth, with a brown patch and 
rufous margin on the forewing. The larva is brown clothed in brown 
hair ; it feeds on grass, pupating in the soil. Stauropus aUernus, 
Wlk., is a grey moth, the forewing rather narrow, the abdomen 
long. The male has pectinate antennae. We figure the larva (fig. 321) 
which is of the form characteristic of some Notodontids, destitute of 
anal prolegs, holding the apex of the abdomen in the air, with processes 
on the dor,sal surface. This device is to protect the insect by its 
alarming appearance. The grey moth rests with the costal margin of 
the hindwing projecting in front of the forewing, after the manner of a 
Lasiocampid moth. The larva has been found feeding upon pigeon 
pea (Cajanus indicus). 

Antkijra combiista, Wlk., has been reared from a larva found feed- 
ing upon maize. This larva is 2i inches long, of a whitish green colour 
with white intersegmental bands, and a lateral green stripe ; there are 
short white hairs laterally ; the prolegs are normal, 5 pairs. Pupation 



PLATE XLI.— Geometiupve and LAsiocAMriD.t:. 

Fig. 1. Eunielea rosalia. (Georaetiidiie) 

„ 2. Maciuia fasciata. >i 

,, 3. Teplnina disputaria. Larva. ,, 

4. ,, )i Pupa. ,, 

„ 5. „ „ Imago. ,, 

,, 6. Hypererythra phrcnix. ,, 

,, 7. Tliala.ssodes quadiaiia. ,, 

„ 8. Taragama .siva. Larva. (Lasiocainpidrp). 

9. ,, ,, Cocoon. ,1 

„ 10. „ „ Mi^le. 

IL ,, ,, Female. ,, 

12. Estigena pardalis. _ „ 




1 




I 








OEOMETRID^. 



-173 



takes plai'f in the soil without a uocoon and lasts l."5 days. Thf moth is 
'■ dry grass colour " with a median purplish suffusion ; it sits with 
its wings rolled round it. and very closely resembles a piece of maize 
stem cut from a node, with a piece of dry leaf round it ; the head 
looks like the dry bluntly-cut node and the whole resemblance is 
singularly perfect and striking. 

GEOMETRID.^i. 

Vein .") nearer () IIkdi 4 //) foreirin;/. Hindwirm vein ^ mnneeted with 

7 <tl the txise iir il not. ivin •') fullif developed : vein 

[e. iibsent. Prnhoseis present. 

There is a general family 
resemblance among our 
common Geometers but the 
venation affords the sole 
accurate characters. They 
are frenulate moths with 
the proboscis developed, 
with the venation as above, 
and the tarsi usually long 
and naked. They are of 
moderate to large size with 
cryptic colouring in nearly all cases. 

The Hfe-history of but few has been worked out in this country : 
the known larvffi are loopers, with two pairs of prolegs. the body nearly 




Fijr. S'22 -Bl.STON SlM'i-KE.SSARIA. (I. M. N.) 





Fi^'. :?•_>:} -BisTON suppressaria. 
(I. M N.> 



Fig. .SSi— BiSTON SUPPRESSARIA. 
(I. M. N.) 



naked and slender. As a rule a true looper is at once recognisable from 
it attitude and general form (Plate XLI, fig. 3) ; the attitude with the 



-tTJ: LEPIUOl'TEKA. 

colouring is often beautifully cryptic, the larva remaining stiffly 
stretclied out at an angle, the suckerfeet clasped round a twig, and 
the whole looking like a small shoot or twig and quite unlike a Hving 
insect. 

The moths are crepuscular as a rule and but rarely seen, or are 
found in thick vegetation and under shade. They have a habit of rest- 
ing with fully opened wings tightly pressed against the surface they are 
on ; the colouration is adapted to this, the markings continuous from 
fore to hind wing ; in this attitude they are difficult to distinguish and 
they will rest thus during the whole day if undisturbed. They seldom 
occur in any great abundance and the larviB are very seldom found. 
None is known to be of any economic importance in India. The family 
is a very large one (1,300 species in the Indian region) and additions are 
constantly being made to it. Nearly all are hill and forest forms, few 
living in the plains. 

Hampson divides the family into (i sub-families, the key to which 
is on page 138 of volume III of moths in the Fauna of India. 

Boarmiince. — Hindwing with vein -^ obsolete. 

Dilinia capitata, Wlk., is a common species whose larva feeds on 
ber (Zizyphus jujiiba). The larva is green above, greenish-white below 
with the usual two pairs of suckerfeet ; seen from above it is of the colour 
of the upper surface of the leaves, seen from below of the colour of leaves 
looked at from below, a colouring common in leaf-eating caterpillars and 
doubly cryptic. Pupation takes place between two leaves fastened with 
white silk: the period is about a week. 

Macaria jascluta, Fabr. (Plate XLI, fig. 2), is common, the larva 
green or brown with dorsal and sublateral yellow stripes, found feeding 
on the flowers of Jlcacia concinna. M. nora, Wlk., M. sufflata, Guen,, and 
M. emersaria, Wlk., are also likely to be found. 

Tephrina is the most abundant Geometrid in the plains, 1\ disputaria, 
Guen., being the little browny-white moth so common in grass. The larva 
feeds on babul (Acacia arabica) and may be found wherever this tree 
grows (Plate XLI). Hyposidra talaca, Wlk., is another plains .species, 
the larva green irrorated with black, with the ist and 3rd abdominal 
segments dark, the recorded foodplants are Jamhora, Combretus, 
Ficiis parasilicus and rose. 



SATUKNlIUJi. 



m 



Orthuslixiniv. — The beautitul Eiuaiiea ivf:alia, Cram., is fouiul Hi 
the pUiiu.s (Plate XLI, tig. 1). 




liKS l.ilAriKAUIA, I.Al;\ A UN LITcHI. 



Acidaliinw. — A number of species are widespread in tlie forest areas 
of India and less than ten are known from the plains. 

Geometrinw. — Agathia h/ccenaria, Koll., is said to feed on Neriuni odo- 
rum (Grote). Thnlassodes f/uadraria, Guen., has been reared from larvaj 
feeding upon the leaves of Mtvhi {Nepheli am lichi) and also on maize. 
The larva is green with a ]iair of orange processes on the head. (Plate 
XLI, fig. 7.) 

SATrRNiiD.E.— n'//f/ .S';7^- Moths. 
Famritu/ icith rein 7 connected to S and H. Hind icimj iritli vein S 

divergimj from cell from the base. Foreiring irith rein 5 nearer <) 

than 4. Hinduing vein Ic. absent. Litrro irilli conspicnous spin// 

processes : pupa in cocoon of sill'. 

These in.sects are commonlv recognisable m all stages. The moths 



476 LEPrnOPTERA. 

are of large size, the immense Atlas Moth having a span of ten inches. 
The colouring is bright and very varied in tint ; it has no protective 
significance in all probability and the resemblance to the head of the 
cobra seen by some authors in the apex of the wing of some species does 
not appear to have any real significance ; in some species there are clear 
circular spots in the wings. The body is short and thickset, densely 
clothed in hair, the legs are short, the wings very large. The absence 
of proboscis makes feeding impossible and the moths are not long-Uved. 

The moths deposit large numbers of round eggs (Plate XLII), which 
are thickshelled. without ornamentation and in some cases laid with a 
coating of gum which makes them adhere in groups. The larvse grow to a 
large size, and are characterised by having tubercles or processes bear- 
ing spines ; they are leaf-eating and found principally upon forest trees. 
When full grown a cocoon is spun, composed of more or less tightly woven 
silk fixed to a leaf or some other part of the plant. Emergence from the 
cocoon is effected by softening one end of the cocoon by a solvent fluid 
excreted by the pupa or by the passage of the moth through one end 
which is so constructed as to allow of the egress of the moth but not of 
the entrance of insects from without (see page 481). 

The moths are nocturnal and short lived ; the phenomenon of assem- 
bling is conspicuous and is utilised by native silk rearers, who keep only 
the heavier female cocoons for rearing females ; these females are then 
exposed at night, fastened down, and are fertilised by wild males which 
come from the surrounding forests. " Assembling " denotes the attrac- 
tion of the males to females by some sense, possibly that of smell 
which guides them from a long distance ; it is employed in collecting 
certain butterflies and moths which exhibit this faculty, the exposure of 
a newly hatched female being sufficient to bring up the males in the 
vicinity. It occurs only in Lepidoptera in this marked form. 

None of these species can be considered as pests, while the species 
producing tasar, eri and muga silk rank in economic value beside the 
true silkworm (Botnbyx mori, L.) and the lac insect (Tachardia lacca). 
These insects are wholly confined to moist forest areas, the larvae usually 
feeding upon forest trees and not thriving when exposed to hot dry 
west winds. For this reason it is impossible to rear them throughout 
India, and though some will feed on cultivated plants such as castor. 



^ATURNIin.^. 



477 



tlie.se are not cultivated outside limited area.s in which the insects occur 
naturally. 

The family is not a large one and the thirty odd Indian species are 
almost wholly confined to the moist hill forest areas. Actias, Attacus 
and Antlierwa are the principal genera and the variation in colour of 
the moths has led to their being described under a variety of names, 
Hampson's classification in the Fauna of India reducing many of 
these doubtful species to synonyms. The student should familiarise 
himself with these synonyms before reading the past literature of these 
insects in which a variety of names are employed for the few economi- 
cally important species. The following list embodies the species of 
Wild 8ilk Moths referred to by Cotes (Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. II, No. 2) 
and figured by him : these are insects which make silk in some quantity 
but only three are actually reared for silk or produce a silk used in 
commerce. We have included the Bombycids, etc., in this list. 



Attacus 


atlas. Linn. 
eihvardsi, Wh. 


The Atlas Moth. 


„ 


cijnthia, Dr. 


The wild form of A. ricini. 


„ 


ricini, Boisd. 


The eri silkworm of A.ssam. 


Actias 


selene, Hubn. 




„ 


mwnas, Dubl. 


{^Actias Icto, Dubl.) 


Antherren 


jrithi. Mo. 
hclferi, Mo. 
roijIei, Mo. 




„ 


assama, Westw. 


The muga moth of A.ssam. 


„ 


paphia, Linn. 


The tasar moth (^A. nnjlitta. Dr.) 


„ 


hijivetli, Hamps. 




,, 


andamana. Mo. 




Cricula 


trifenestrata, Helf. 
drepanoides, Mo. 




Loepa 


newara, Mo. 


(Rhodia). 


„ 


katinka, Westw. 


[L. sikkima. Mo.. L. miranda, Mo.) 


Saturnia 


stoliczkana, Feld. 




„ 


pyretorum, Westw. 


(S. cidosa. Mo.) 


» 


grotei, Mo. 




„ 


huttoni. Mo. 


(Neoris.) 


>» 


siiula, Westw. 


(Caligula.) 



478 



LKriHOl'TRIiA. 



Saturnia 

Salasfid 

Brahma'ii 
TheopJilld 

Ocinara 



l/iibda, Westw. 
zuleika, Ho. 
I old, Westw. 
rojji. Elw. 
irallichii, Gr. 
huttoni. Westw. 

varians, Wlk. 
apicalis, Wlk. 
signifern. Wlk. 



{Caligula.) 
(Rinara.) 



{ = B. certlMh F.) 

{religiosa, Helf., hengalensls, Hutt. 

affinl.t, Hutt., sherimlli, Hutt.) 

Trihcha albwoUls. Wlk. 

0. Ikhi, Mo. 

0. Inctea. Hutt.. O. diaphana. Mo. 



Actias selene. Hubn., is a very striking insect, the forewing is large, 
the hindwing produced into a long tail ; the colour i.s a delicate pale 




Fis'. ;^-JG— ACT[.\S SKI.ICNK. 



PLATE XLII.— Antheraea Paphia. 
TussER Silk Worm. 

1. Eggs. Natural size. 

2. Larva newly hatched. 

3. Young larva. 

4. „ ,, half-grown. 

5. Full-grown larva. 

(J. Cocoon on bcr {Zizyphus jnjuba). 
7. Stalked cocoon. 




J^ 




M 






M. 








1^ 



SATURN iin^-. 470 

green, the forewiiiji having a dark pink fore edge ; in each wing is a l)ufi' 
and red spot. The larva is green with yellow tuherclcs liearing spines. 
The s|>ecies is widely spread over the hill forest areas in India, at low 
elevations often, hut is typically a subtropical and only occasionally a 
plains species {i'.(/.. in Chota Nagpur). 

Alldciis atlas. Linn. (The Atlas Moth), is the largest Indian Moth, 
a very beautiful vividly coloured insect found in hilly forest districts. 
Its life-history is described by Grote (Entomologist XII, p. 25) and an 
account of it occurs in Hardiman's " Silk in Burmah. " Aitanis 
(1/ lit Ilia, Dr., is stated to be the eri silk of Assam, as also is Atlanis n'riiii, 
Boi.sd., the two differing only in colouring and verv slightlv in markings. 
Moths reared from true eri cocoons cultivated in A.ssam proved to be 
the latter (Plate XLIV). The lifehi.story has been fully descri])ed 
elsewhere and there is a literature on this insect. Like others of this 
family it is wholly dependent upon moist conditions ; the larva» exhibit 
a curious variation, some being green, some white, some being spotteil 
with black, others not : the cocoons are white or brick-red but selection 
fixes the latter, while it does not influence the larval colour or spotting. 

Anthercpn includes the tasar .silk moth (.1. papliia. Linn.) and the 
muga silk moth {A. Assaiiia. Westw.). The former makes a cocoon 
usuallv of the form shown, fastened by a stalk, the latter a simpler oval 
cocoon. Tasar is collected in many forest areas in India and is a verv 
important industry, muga is semi-cultivated in Assam, and forms the 
basis of an industry there. 

The tasar silkworm (Plates XLII, XLIII) is not a domesticated 
insect at all. it feeds upon trees or bushes in the open entirely and the 
sources of silk are either of purely wild cocoons collected by cow-herds 
when the trees are leafless and they can be seen, or cocoons formed on 
special trees by worms which were hatched on that tree from eggs laid in 
captivity, the rearer having kept cocoons till the moths emerged. In 
this species, the females alone are kept, the males are allowed to fly away 
and mating takes place at dusk with any male that comes. There are 
in tusser a number of varieties or races, some two-brooded, some one- 
brooded ; the entire absence of any control over this mating, so far as 
the male is concerned, is probably one cau.se of the degeneration of the 
tasar industry, since a female of a race that spins good marketable 



480 LEPIDOPTERA. 

cocoons may be crossed with a male of a poor race, and the crossing 
of a bivoltine race with a univoltine probably causes the irregular 
eclosion of moths that is such a handicap to the rearer. 

The different races have distinct periods of eclosion ; there is a brood 
usually in July-August, followed by a brood in October-November in 
some : some ('close in September and are one brooded, some in July or 
June with one brood. Owing to Hhe failure to domesticate fully, the 
variety of races which cross and the entire lack of control of fertilisa- 
tion, there is no distinct pure race that can be grown in domestication, 
and were tasar to be improved or the industry revived under an 
increased demand, these factors must be taken into account. 

Tasar is found on a great variety of trees, the asan (Terminalia 
tomentosa), the Urjun (T. arjuna), the sal {Shorea robusta), the b('r 
(Ziztjphus j-ujuha) being the more important ; in gardens, it feeds on 
Lagerstrcemia indica. The cocoon is very dense and hard in some races 
with a long or short peduncle. As a rule, the summer cocoon is flimsier 
than the winter cocoon where there are two races. The silk is a reelable 
silk as in Bombyx silk and the moth must not be permitted to emerge, 
as the end of the cocoon is softened with alkali, then torn by the exit of 
the moth. 

The stages are figured on Plate XLII. The larva has the most 
beautiful metallic spots, silver or a reddish gold tinge ; it is cryptically 
coloured, being leaf green, resting in a very characteristic attitude and 
possibly the metallic spots represent spots of light coming through 
leaves. The tusser worm is attacked by many foes and a very low 
percentage pass through their stages and attain maturity, even 
when the larger enemies are kept away ; the possible rate of increase 
is a hundred fold, each pair producing about 200 eggs ; not more than a 
tenth of this is actually realised. Wasps [Ves-pa and Polistes) feed 
on them ; Canthecona furcellata, a Pentatomid bug, sucks them ; 
Mantids eat them, birds, bats, lizards all eat them and a Tachinid 
fly parasitises them. The Kterature is extensive, but Cotes' articles 
on the Domesticated and the wild silks of India give useful infor- 
mation and are well illustrated. 

The student may be cautioned against accepting some of the litera- 
ture as accurate : notably much is said as to the possibility of the exten- 
sion of silk cultivation in India by English writers ignorant of the fact 



PLATE XLIIL— Anthekaea Paphia. 
TussER Silk Moth. 

Fig. 1 Moth, male. Reduced to a half. 
„ 2, ,, feujale. ,, ,, 




TUSSA SILK MOTH. 



SATURNIIDjE. 481 

that this is purely a matter of climate : it is impossible to grow any kind 
of silk profitably unless the climate is suitable, which it is only in well 
defined tracts for each species. It must also be remembered that the 
production of a textile fibre from silk caterpillars of whatever kind 
re(juires primarily an abundant supply of absolutely cheap labour 
in whom the occupation is hereditary ; given all other conditions, 
a suitable equable moist climate, a healthy race, a supply of food- 
plant, and a demand for the fibre, silk as an industry cannot be carried 
on except by low-])aid people to whom the occupation comes naturally 
from childhood : it has never and will never be carried on in countries 
where living is dear or where labour finds high wages, unless the 
demand for silk increases ; no insect fibre can be produced at the 
low cost of a vegetable fibre ; the lowest price for a pure silk (£120 a 
ton for eri cocoons) is above the price of all vegetable fibres excepting 
that of the very best flax which reaches this price in some years. 
The attempts to grow silk in the United States for instance have all 
ended in failure for this reason. 

Cricula trijenestrata, Helf., is the only species which can properly 
be brought within the fauna of the plains of India. Its caterpillar lives 
upon the mango tree in lower Bengal and Burma ; it is clothed in 
poisonous spines and therefore dangerous to handle ; Mr. Jamini Mohan 
Ghose informs me that it is a common belief in Mymensingh that if 
the mouth touches any portion of the human body, that part will 
decay as in leprosy ; the caterpillar is accordingly feared and nothing 
is done to check it, though it wholly defoliates the mango tree. 
Attempts to make an industry in it, for spun silk, have been made 
in Burma (Silk in Burma, J. P. Hardiman, p. 20). 



EMERGENCE PROM THE COCOON. 

Very little attention has been paid to that one moment in the lives 
of so many insects when the imago emerges from the pupa and has to 
make its way out of the cocoon or other pupal envelope. If the cocoon 
or covering is sufficiently perfect to resist the weather and the foes of 
the pupa, how is the usually soft and delicate insect to escape ? We 
have not .space here to discuss this exhaustively, nor are the data 
available for many Indian insects ; we indicate some of the commonest 
methods chiefly in order to direct the attention of the student to this 
neglected point. 

IIL 31 



482 LEPIPOPTERA. 

In the first place, we find that in some species the pupa is provided 
with moans of forcing itself out, so that the imago can emerge free to 
the open air. Micro pterijx is a conspicuous example, in which the 
pupa has a very large pair of mandibles, with which it cuts through 
the cocoon and, having done so and forced its way out with the aid 
of spines on the abdomen, the mandibles are shed. The imago is 
then free to emerge unimpeded by the cocoon. The same occurs in 
Myrmeleo, in Hemerohius and in the Phryganeides ; (this is only one 
of the reasons adduced to support the view that Micropteryx is 
closely related to the Phryganeides). Actually it is the muscles of the 
imago which move the large pupal jaws, but the latter are an essential 
pupal character and absent in the emerged adult. In another group, 
in which pupal emergence occurs, we find that the pupa has hard 
processes on the head and that the body is much ciliated to give it a 
grip on the cell ; an instance is the pupa of the Bombyhid, Anthrax, 
parasitic in the xiest of mason bees. In several groups of Lepidoptera, 
the pupa wriggles half way out of the cocoon or shelter and then the 
imago emerges. This is seen in the male of Psychidw (fig. 328) in 
many Sesiidw and Tortricidce (PI. LII), and in Cossidw (fig. 330). In 
some of these, there are not only abdominal spines, but on the head a 
strong process used for piercing the cocoon. We may remind the 
student that the bulk of Heterocerous pupae are firmly attached to the 
cocoon by the terminal process and so cannot move out ; the families 
mentioned here are in a minority in utilising the activity of the pupa. 

The more general device is some arrangement by which the imago 
can emerge. One of the most striking is the secretion of solvents which 
either dissolve or soften the cocoon, releasing the imago. I^atter proved 
the presence in the Puss Moth Cocoon of free Potassium Hydroxide, and 
further states that the imago is itself protected by a part of the pupa 
skin when it pushes through the softened cocoon (Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1895, p. 399). The same principle is utihsed by the silk moth {Bombyx mori) 
and by some Saturniidce. For this reason silk can be reeled only from 
cocoons from which the moth has not emerged, as the solvent is injurious 
to the fibres of the silk. In a number of species of SaturniidcB, this process 
is supplemented or replaced by the action of two spines, one on each 
forewing at the base of the costal edge ; the imago emerges with crumpled 
wings and with the spines projecting forward before the head ; these are 
used to cut through the cocoon and allow the moth to emerge. This occurs 
in the genera Saturnia, Actias and Anthercea. In Attacus this does not 
occur, but the cocoon is spun with one end closed with thread loops, in 
such a way that anything trying to get in, forces the loops together, 
but the moth, emerging from within, forces the loops apart. Similar devi- 
ces are far more common probably than are now recorded ; in Earias 
fabta, for instance, the cocoon is of peculiar shape, and the lips of one end 
close mechanically ; the moth pressing from within escapes easily and the 
lips gape readily if the cocoon is pressed from above ; but it resists any 
attempts at entrance from without. It would be of great interest to 



EJIKRdEXCK KRUJI THK COCoON. 483 

investigate this device in cocoon-making Lepidoptera ; it apparently gives 
place to the simpler device of the less strongly woven cocoon from which 
the moth escapes by pushing tlrrough the loose fibres and hairs at one 
end ; there are probably many transitional stages from this to the stout 
self-opening cocoon. The Arctiids commonly have loose cocoons as do 
many Noctuids, Pi/ralids, Tineids, etc. For these, as for many Cole- 
optera, the body of the pupa is set with backwardly directed spines and 
a terminal hook to give the moth the necessary purchase to escape. 

Finally, there are a great number of stout cocoons in which a definite 
lid is provided which comes off. Lunacodidce are a conspicuous example 
(fig. .■?34). In these cases there is a definite line of weakness along the 
wall of the cocoon and we may admire both the instinct of the larva in 
providing it and its ability to so make the cocoon. It occurs also in some 
Braeonidn-, and in Clonus among Curculionidfe. In the latter the larva 
can be seen through the horny cocoon preparing its shelter and leaving 
the line of weakness. By what means the emerging imago ruptures 
the lid is not known, but as little strength is required, there are probably 
as a rule no special devices. In a great number of species, especially 
of Coleoptera, the imago employs its own jaws. The beetle comes out of 
the pupal skin, rests till the chitin is hard and then bites through the 
cocoon or the end of the gallery in which it may be and so emerges. In 
manv weevils the true mandibles are provided with false mandibles for 
this purpose, which drop off and leave a scar, after they have been used. 
In the Sawfly Athalia proxi)»a. the imago cuts a lid in the end of the 
tough cocoon witli its jaws and then emerges. Most Aculeate Hijmenoptera 
do the same, the thin cocoon being bitten through, and this occurs even in 
Megachile, where masonry has to be pierced. 

We have skirted round this fascinating subject in a superficial manner, 
but we may have said sufficient to indicate that tliere is here great scope 
for observation. There are probably abundant devices as yet unknown, 
and we do not pretend to have even indicated all that are known, but 
there is verv little on record for Indian forms. 



HOWBYCID/E. 

Proboscis and frenulum absent. Forewing, vein 5 nearer 6 than i. 

Hind wing vein If. absent, vein 8 remote from 1, connected 

to or approximating to the cell. 

This family includes only fifteen species of small dull moths] known 
by the bipectinate antennae of both sexes and the hairy spurless legs. 
The proboscis is absent, the antennae are bipectinate in both sexes, the 
legs hairy and without spurs. The larva is elongate, with dorsal humps 
or a terminal horn and is not hairy. A cocoon of silk is formed. 



484 LKPIDOPTERA. 

Of the fifteen species listed in the Fauna of India, one alone is found 
in the plains. Ocinara varians, Wlk., is a small grey moth, whose larva 

hves upon the Gular tree 
(Ficus glomerata) and other 
figs. It is a grey caterpillar, 
variegated with brown ; 
there are slight protuber- 
ances dorsally and a slender 
horn at the hind end. It 
feeds upon the leaves, readi- 
ly letting itself down from 
leaf to leaf on a thread of 
silk ; the cocoon is bright 
yellow, formed on the bark 
or on a leaf. This insect 
defoliates its foodplant, 
stripping large trees of their 
foliage. It is abundant in 

the hot weather before the 

Fig. 3i7— OuiNARA VABiANS. X 2. Male above. • 1 • : 

rains and in some years is 

exceedingly destructive to the large trees upon which it feeds. It is 

checked by Tachinid parasites. 




'^xmori, Linn. (I'late XXVIII, figs. 9 and 15) is the Chinese 
domesticated silkworm, spread from China to India and Europe. 
Its domestication dates too far back to be recorded. As a result of 
domestication in various climates local races have arisen treated by some 
authors as distinct species. To the student of the Heterocera as a whole, 
these races will appear as varieties only ; to the student of silk insects 
they are of sufficient distinctness to rank as species, but for our purposes 
they are domesticated races solely. For convenience we give the more 
important Indian races described by Hutton as distinct species, united 
by Hampson under this one species : — 

Bomhyx mori, L. Univoltine. 

Desi Polo, Chota Polo. „ fortunatus, Hutt. Multivoltine. 

Nistry, Madrassi. „ croesi, Hutt. Multivoltine. 

Nya Paw. „ arracanensis, Hutt. Multivoltine. 



BOMBYCID.K. 485 

Boro Polo, Bara Pat. Botnhijx textor, Hutt Univoltine. 

8ina, Clieona, Chota Pat. ,, sinensis, Hutt. Multivoltine. 

Oiif important difEercnce induced by domestication is the variation 
in the number of broods : this is a matter depending largely upon climate, 
the one-brooded (univoltine) being probably the normal habit in a cold 
climate with short summer, the multivoltine found in warm moist loca- 
lities. There is a vast Hterature upon this subject and every aspect of 
this insect and its attendant industry has been fully discussed elsewhere 
(.see below, page 48il). ' Silkworm gut ' is the fibre used by anglers for 
attaching their hooks, which must be strong and resistant to water ; it 
is the dried silk of the silkworm extracted by dissection from the silk- 
glands of the caterpillars just before it commences to spin, and drawn 
out into a thread from one to three feet long. It consists of the same 
material as silk, only drawn into a short thick thread instead of into the 
extremely fine long thread of silk formed by the insect. It is an article of 
commerce produced in Italy and Japan. 

Silkworms also yield an oil (derived from the chrysalides) which 
is extracted from the stifled chrysalides after reeling. It appears to have 
little commercial value. 

SILK. 

The silk of commerce is the thread emplo3-ed by certain species of 
insects of the families Saturniida' and Bomhijcidcp (and in Mauritius a 
Lasiocainpid) for the formation of their cocoons. There is an immense 
literature on the silk insects of India and we are not concerned here with 
the commercial aspect of this question (See Watt's Dictionar}- of 
Economic Products. Vol. VI, Ft. Ill), losing the term in the wider .sense 
to denote the thread produced by insects for cocoon-making or other 
purposes, we find that the faculty of .silk-production is not confined to 
the few economically important species but is general among a verv 
large section of the insect world. 

As a rule, silk is formed in the body of the insect as a fluid in the 
salivary glands which open by two minute apertures on the apex of the 
lower lip : the salivary glands are long sac-like structures with walls 
composed of large cells, and ending in two fine ducts which lead to the 
lower lip. Silk is poured out as a thick gummy fluid usually transparent, 
which rapidly hardens and dries, assuming then a tint of buff, yellow 
or brown. When used in cocoon-making, the insect spins a continuous 
thread at first on the object to which the cocoon is fixed, later building 
up the cocoon of continually added threads. The outer layer is somewhat 
irregular and not necessarily continuous, as it has to be adapted to the 



486 LEPinorrKftA. 

nature of the support, but the inner layer is often formed of practically 
one thread, disposed regularly round and round and finally ending at 
some point inside the cocoon where the caterpillar finishes. The cocoon 
is thus built up from inside, the outside layer first, the fine inner layer 
last. In many insects this is then cemented with material produced 
by the caterpillar from the alimentary canal and the cocoon is fini.shed. 
In some, the production of silk is not continuous, the caterpillar probably 
resting, and the cocoon consists of distinct layers which may be separated ; 
this is the case, for instance, in Eri and is the reason why a distinct thread 
cannot be got from these cocoons. 

This is the principal use of silk in the insect world, for the prepara- 
tion of the cocoon to shelter the pupa ; the cocoon may not be of pure 
silk but may include fragments of plants, leaves, etc., or as well as earth 
or other matter ; the hair of the larva is in many used with the silk and 
forms a large part of the cocoon. Silk is also produced by glands opening 
on other parts of the body than the lower lip and then differs little from 
the gummy matter produced, for instance, by some weevils for the prepar- 
ation of the cocoon (c. /. Clonus, CurcuUonidce). 

Silk is not known to be produced by any member of the order 
Orthoplera. The Embiidce produce very delicate silk from glands situate 
in the forefeet ; with this they prepare small web-like shelters on the soil 
under which they live. The Psocidce prepare somewhat similar webs on the 
bark of trees or on old wood, the silk being excreted from the mouth- 
parts in the usual way and being of a very fine nature. The M t/rmeleonides 
and Hemerohiides among the Hemerobiidce produce silk cocoons ; in the 
former the silk is the product of anal glands and issues from a single spin- 
neret at the apex of the abdomen ; the cocoon is white and hard, the pupa 
being provided with jaws for cutting through and emerging. In the 
Hemerobiides the cocoon is round and white or is very flimsy and partly 
formed of a leaf. 

Among the PhrijcjnneidcB silk is in constant use for the preparation 
of the cases in which the larva lives and is the product of the salivary 
glands ; some species {Hydropsyche) use the silk also in the preparation 
of the nets which are used to catch their prey. The use and production of 
silk in this group is similar to that in Lepidoptera. Throughout the 
Hymenoptera silk is produced by the larva for the cocoon ; these cocoons 
are of very varied form, but are almost universally formed of very close 
fine silk. No cocoon is formed by some of the parasitic forms which 
pupate in the skin of the host. Among Formicida> the silk is sometimes 
employed for nest building ; this is especially the case with the 
common red tree Ant (CEecophylla smaragdina) an account of which is 
given on page 232. 

Among Coleoptera true silk is not formed, cocoons being made of 
cement produced by the alimentary canal ; in at least one species of Chrys- 
omelid, however (Oides hipundatus), this secretion takes the form of 
coarse threads spun over the pupa and forming a very rough cocoon of 



SILK. 487 

thick silk. The hvuchid Car i/borus gonagra prepares a cocoon of coarse 
gunnnv threads that ahnost come within our definition of silk but which 
are also very little removed from the typical gummy secretion of other 
Coleoptera. 

The production of silk as described above is general throughout the 
Hesperiida' and all Heterocera during larval life. In many Micro-Lepi- 
doptera, the silk is of vital importance in larval life, being used to fasten 
together the habitations of leaves or other matter. So also in Hesperiidw 
and Psijchidce. In other groups the larvae use silk in very early 
life only (e.g.. Caradrina and other Nocinids) or use it to let themselves 
down from leaf to leaf ; practically all can use it to make a rough surface 
to walk on if they are placed on too smooth a surface : and finally, nearly 
all use it in the preparation of the cocoon or of the covering of leaves, 
etc., which shelters them during the pupal period. 

Among DIptera silk is produced in the normal manner by the larva 
of Siiiiulium, which lives in hill streams and fastens a network of threads 
across, along which it moves ; some other Diptera which live in soil under 
bark, etc., also prepare silken shelters. 

CoccidcE are the last family in which silk can be said to be formed, 
and this silk is the product of the numerous glands on the pygidium ; 
the scale of the Diaspince is formed of felted threads of silk produced 
from these glands with the cast skins of the previous instars. In this 
family as in Aleurodidw the glands producing waxy thread-like excre- 
tions are very abundant and can, strictly speaking, be hardly called silk 
glands ; in the Diaspinse alone is the secretion used as silk is. 

TJie composition of siJk.* — The main constituents of silk fibre are 
fibroin coated with a glue-like substance called Seririn or Silk-Albumen, 
and coloured with ceraceous matter. Lombardy .silk (Bombyx 7»ori) 
yields about 70% fibroin and 30% sericin and even technically purified 
silk contains about .5% glue. Fibroin is insoluble in superheated water, 
in dilute acids or alkalies ; it can be heated to 120" C. for hours without 
any change taking place. 

Sericin is soluble in weak alkahne solutions and in hot water, from 
which it can be jjrecipitated as a white powder by alcohol. The yellow 
colouring matter of raw silk consists of chlorophyll (the green coloiiring 
matter of plants) more or less altered and deprived of its blue constituent. 
From the cocoon unaltered chlorophyll may be extracted. 

Fibroin is obtained by exhausting the silk with boiling water, alcohol 
(to dissolve and precipitate sericin), ether and acetic acid successively ; 
analysis shows a very high nitrogen and a very low carbon content. It 
differs in its constitution very considerably from other albumins, as it 
contains more than 5C% Glycocoll, 1C% of tyrosin and only a small amount 
of leucin. Glutaminic and Aspartic acids are absent, and the base 
radicles are slight in amount. It gives the biuret and Millon's reactions, 

* KinJly j ro[.ared by J. H. Hanies, Esq.. .Agricultmal Chemist. lunjal). 



488 



LKPIDOPTIIKA. 



is not attacked by either pepsin or trypsin, while by strong acids or 
alivalies it is converted into albumoses or albuminates. The silk coverings 
of wasp cells and spider's webs give the reactions and show the solubili- 
ties of fibroin (Engel and Schlossberger). 

Sericin resembles ordinary gelatin in its solubility, but does not 
gelatinise so readily and is precipitated by acids. The presence of 
glycocoll is doubtful, while tyrosin and serin are abundant. 



PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 



Glycocoll (Amino-Acetic acid). 

Alanin (Amino-propionic acid). 

Leucin (isobutyl-a-amino-acetic acid). 

Phenylalanin. 

Prolin (d-PyrroUdin-carboxylic acid)- 

Glutaminic acid, (n-Amino-normal 

glutaric acid). 
Aspartic acid (Amino-succinic acid). 
Serin (« - Amino-/5-hydroxy-propionic 

acid). 
Hydroxy-pyrrolidin carboxylic acid 

(C,H,NO,). 
Lysin(e diamino-normal-caproic acid) 
Histidin. (Cr H„ N, .) 
Arginin(Guanidin-«-aniino- valerianic 

acid). 
Ammonia. 
Tyrosin (phenyl-<(-hydroxy-f/-amino 

propionic-acid). 



Gelatine. 


Sericin. 


Fibroin, 


I(r5 


0-1-0-2 


36-0 


0-8 


5-0 


21-0 


■2-1 


present 


1-5 


0-4 




1-5 


5-2 




0-3 


U-0 






•;")(; 






lie 

present 


(i-(i 


iMi 


3-0 







9-3 
•43 



present. 



4-0 

1-87 



.^vO 



present, 
present. 

10 



10-0 



The iKight of .silk produced. — In the cocoon the relative weight of 
silk formed is shown from the following figures of three Eri cocoons 
(Attaciis ricini). 



Full-grown larva. 


126. 


grains. 


i)l-(i 


101. 


Cocoon, etc., at emergence. 


47-4 


„ 


36-8 


38-8. 


,, „ after ,, 


8-2 


,j 


(3-8 


6 0. 


Pupa case, etc. 


M 


J, 


•8 


•9. 


Cocoon. 


7-1 


,, 


5-8 


4-9. 



It has been found that in Eri silk 75 to 90 pounds of leaf must be fed 
to worms to produce a pound of silk. 

The following are the more important characteristics of the four 
commercial Indian silks ; — 



PLATE XLIV.— Attacus Eicini. 

Eri Silk Moth. 

Fig. 1. Fuuoale above. 
„ 2. Male below. (The aiuennit ate shown too suiall.) 




ATTACUS RICINI. 



SILK. 489 

BoMBYX MORt : Mulberry Silk : 

UnivoltiiK' Italian races or Multivoltine Indigenous races ; mulberry 
the exclusive foodplant used ; wholly domesticated, never free-living, 
silk white or yellow, reelable, the pupa requiring to be stifled. Grown 
in Bengal and Eastern Bengal as in parts of the Punjab, Balucliistan, 
and in Kashmir for export or local usse. 

ANTHER.liA PAPHIA : TaSAR. 

Univoltine or bivoltine, polyphagous on wild forest trees ; never 
domesticated, but fertilisation takes place in captivity from reared 
females; found wholly free-living in forests. Silk dirty-brown, reelable, 
cocoon with a peduncle, pupa requiring to be stifled. Collected in the 
forests of Bombay, Madras, Central Provinces, Bengal, United 
Provinces and the Punjab for local use and for export. 

Attacus ricini : Eri. 

Multivoltine, polyphagous but reared only on castor ; partly or 
wholly domesticated for rearing but also found wild rarely ; silk white 
or brick-red, not reelable, the moth being often allowed to emerge from 
the cocoon before it is used ; cultivated in Eastern Bengal and Assam 
mainly for local use, but also for export for spinning with the waste of 
mulberry and other reeled silks. 

Anther.ea Assama : Muga. 

Multivoltine polyphagous on wild forest trees ; partly domesticated 
but also found wild ; silk white or yellow, reelable, the pupa requiring to 
be stifled ; cultivated in Eastern Bengal and Assam, mainly for local use. 

Literature. — There is an extensive literature on Indian silk and 
sericulture ; with the exception of Cotes' papers in Indian Museum Notes, 
little has been written by persons acquainted with entomology but much 
is valuable from other points of view ; Watt's Dictionary of Economic 
Products summarises the literature down to 1893, since then the principal 
papers published are : — 

Monograph of Silk Fabric Industry in Madras (E. Thurston, 189!)). 
Moiujgraph upon the Silk Fabrics, Bombay (S. M. Edwardes, 1900). 
Monograph upon the Silk Fabrics, Bengal (N. G. Mukherji, 1903). 
Monograph upon the Silk Fabrics, Assam (B. C. Allen, 1899). 
Monograph upon Silk in Burma (J. P. Hardiman, 1901). 
Monograph on Silk Fabrics in North-West Provinces and Oudh 
(A. Yusuf Ali, 1900). 



490 LEPIDOPTBRA. 

Monograph on Silk Industry of the Punjab (W. M. Hailey, 1899). 

Eeport on an Inquiry into Tasar Silk Industry in Bengal and the 
Central Provinces (N. G. Mukherji, 1905). 

Brahm.^id^. 

Frenulum absent ; forewing, vein 5, nearer 6 than 4. Hindwing, 

vein 8, approximated to or anastomosing with 7, Ic. absent. 

A family containing a single genus of two species in India, confined 
to the Himalayas and Burma. 

Brahmcea wallichii, Gray, and B. hearseyi,Wh., are large olive brown 
moths of an expanse of •'j to 7 inches, the wings with many black marks. 
They are not found in the plains and are characteristic of the hill forest 
areas. 



Uraniid.?;;. 

Forewing with vein 7, remote from 8 and 9, usually stalked with 6; 5 
nearer (j than 4. Hindwing ivith vein 8 diverging from. 7 
at the base, vein Ic. absent. 

A family of moths almost wholly confined to the Himalayan and 
other hill regions. In the Fauna of India. Moths, Vol. III. -59 species 
are described, and Hampson has added 24 species since. It includes the 
insects described in the Fauna of India under Uraniidw, Epicopiidw, 
Epiplemidcp : of the first, none are plains species and none will be found 
outside the hills. 

Epicopiidce. — These are moths resembling Papilionid butterflies in 
appearance and form. This family consists of a single genus and five 
species, wholly confined to the Indo-Malayan region, Japan and China. 
The moths are large, coloured in black with red and yellow markings ; 
the forewings are black, the costal margin long ; the hindwings are long, 
narrow and of the form typical of certain PapiUos marked with yellow 
blotches and red marginal spots. The body is narrow, coloured in red 
and black. The caterpillars so far as known are clothed in white efflores- 
cence which may be in the form of a dense filamentous coat or of a 
powdery covering. They live on trees and pupate in a light cocoon. 



t>!sYCHrr)^. 491 

Two forms of the species Epicopia philenora, Westw., occur in Bengal, 
the remaining species and forms in the Himalayas. Malay Peninsula, 
China and Japan. The most recent account of the family is in Genera 
Imcctontin by A. Janet and P. Wytsmanii. Of the Epiplemince a small 
(lull brown motli Diradcs thcclata. Guen., alone occurs in our area, 
apjieariug during the rains. Its life-history appears to be wholly 
uidvnowu. 

PSYCHID.^E. 

Female wingless in a ease ; larva of both sexes in a rase. FrenuJum 
present in male: fnreivinfj with tu-in l<: present ,■ proboscis absent .• 
middle spiirs oj hind tibia small or absent. Hindn'ing with vein 8 
eonnected to cell bij a bar or free : Ic. present. 

The insects composing this family are immediately recognisable 
from the fact that the female in all stages, and the male except in the 




Fiff. ,"'2S-Mahase.\a c:kamimvoi;a. A. Malk, 15. 
Female, C. Larva. [I. M. N.] 

imago stage live in cases composed of vegetable matter and silk, the case 
having a characteristic form for each species. Case bearing larvae occur 



492 LEPIDOPTERA. 

also in other groups, e.g., Tinea in houses, Coleoptera, etc., on plants, 
but they are far smaller. 

The males are small delicate moths with dusky or hyaline wings and 
markedly pectinate antennae. They are very rarely seen and come out 
after dusk. The female is an undeveloped chrysalis-like insect without 
wings, which remains in the larval case. 

The life-history of the known species is as follows : The female is 
fertilised by the male in the case, the long protrusible abdomen of the male 
penetrating into the female case from above. Eggs are laid in the case, 
the female gradually shrinking up as the eggs fill the lower portion of the 
case. The larvae hatch, emerge from the parents' case and make their 
own little cases of vegetable matter and interwoven silk ; these cases are 
extremely tough and durable, with a characteristic form and constitu- 
tion for each species. Pieces of leaf, thorns, leaf-stalks or finely divided 
vegetable matter are woven into the case which is open at each end, the 
head and thorax of the larva emerging at one end ; progression is effected 
by the thoracic legs, the case being firmly held by the hind end of the 
body. This larva is a typical caterpillar with three pairs of legs and can 
extrude the thorax for purpose of locomotion, dragging itself and its case 
slowly along ; when full-grown the male larva closes the case after firmly 
fastening it, the caterpillar pupates head downwards, the pupa wriggles 
half through the lower open end and a moth emerges. The female larva 
moults, passes through a period of rest, and is found in the case as a vermi- 
form sac, without external structures and simply a bag of eggs with a 
genital opening below. The male seeks out the female, fertilises her by 
introducing his protrusible abdomen at the upper end of the case and 
stretching it to the lower end and she subsequently lays her eggs in a 
mass in the lower part of the case. Parthenogenesis occurs in one 
species, but is not known in any Indian species. 

Hampson lists 35 species, and has added five since, almost all from 
Ceylon or the hills. Actually very little is known of the group, as the 
moths are rarely captured and it is not always possible to rear the larvae. 
Species can, of course, be distinguished only from the male moth. No spe- 
cies is really common, but several species are likely to be found, as larvse, 
in the plains. The hfe-history is a slow one, and to breed the males 
requires much patience, but it is the only satisfactory method. 



PLATE XLY.— Arbkla Tktkaonis. 
Fig M , 

K Laivii, full erowii. 
,. 2j 

„ 3. Second and third abdominal segments of larva. 

„ 4. Pupa. 

„ 5. Ventral surface of pupa, x 6. 

„ 6. Apex of abdomen of pupa, x G. 

„ 7. Moth. 

„ 8. Branch showing the masses of excrement and webbing with 

which it covers the bark on which it feeds. 



PLATE XLV. 







1 



IplSj^^^^^?^ 




t*-a 







If \ -: 



i r. \ 




AlUiKLlD.S. 



493 



Mahasena graminivom Hampson is figured here in all stages: it 
is found in rice in the plains, its case being formed of rice leaves sewn 
together with silk. The figures 
are taken from specimens reared 
in Calcutta on thatching grass. 
(Indian Museum Notes, IV, p. 
19.) We figure also the case of 
Psyche vitrea, Hmpsn., which 
feeds upon mango leaves in the 
plains of India. The moth has 
entirely hyaline wings. Most 
species have dark wings and 
are distinguishable on the vena- 
tion which is very distinct, 
and on the nature of the larval case ; no species can be considered 
as real pests, though a number are recorded upon tea in the hills and the 
last mentioned species has been found destructive to mango. We may 
also mention Acanthopsyche moorei , Heyl.. found in Calcutta on 
Layerstroemia indica, described as Bahida grotei by Moore. A short 
account of this insect occurs in Indian Museum Notes, II, p. 13. The 
larvse of Chalia Douhledaiji feeds on Amaltas {Cassia fistula) which 
they disfigure by eating the epidermis : specimens were sent in as being 
very destructive to this tree and killing it, being very abundant. 




-Psyche vitrra 

ox LEAF. 



Arbelid.e. 

Forewing, vein Ic. absent. Hindicing, vein 8 free or connected 
to the cell by a bar, vein Ic. present. 

A small family of moths in which the proboscis is absent, and the 
male antennae are bipectinate to the apex with short branches. A .single 
genus Arbela (5 species) occurg in India in the form of the familiar borer 
of lichi, bair, guava, mango, orange and other fruit trees. The larva 
may be known by the peculiar patches of excrement and silk found on 
the bark of these trees near the bore of the caterpillar, which comes out 
at night, feeds on the bark and makes this peculiar covering on the part 
it eats. The insect is a very common one in the plains, the species being 
A. tetraonis, Mo., figured here in all stages. (Plate XLV.) 



494 



LEPinOPTERA. 



Antram has described the life-history of .4. dea, Swinh., and A. quad- 
rinotata, Wlk., which eat the bark of tea in Assam. (Bull. Tea Associa- 
tion, 1907, No. 5.) 

Ratardid.^. 
Frenulum absent : foreiving, vein Ic. present ; proboscis absent ; middle 
spurs of hind tibice short or absent. Hindwing, vein 8 free, 
or connected to cell by a bar, vein Ic. present. 
The family contains a single genus Ratarda, of moths formerly 
classed with Lymantriidw and consists of a single species, R. 
marmorata, Mo., described from Sikkim. 

Cos.siD^. 
Both sexes winged. Frenulum present, proboscis absent, middle spurs 

of hind tibice short or absent : foreiving, vein Ic. present, hindwing, 

vein 8 free or connected to cell by a bar, remote from 7, vein Ic. present. 

Larva boring, pupa in bore. 

These are medium-sized to large moths, with long narrow wings and 
a long abdomen, usually coloured in grey, brown or dull colours. The 




■-.>i-^ 







Fig. S30-Zei'zeka coffe.e. [I. M. N.] 



antennae are bipectinate in the males or in both sexes, the males being 
usually conspicuously smaller than the females. The larvae are found 



495 



boring in trees, eating large tunnels through the wood. They are 
smooth with five pairs of suckerfeet, the body usually with chitinous 
dorsal plates. Some emit a characteristic and unpleasant odour. 
Pupation takes place in the tunnel, the pupa not in a cocoon ; a hole is 
previously made to the outside and the pupa before emergence wriggles 
partly out of the bore, the moth then escaping readily. The moths are 
nocturnal in habit. Practically all are hill forest species and t)nly 
rarely found in the plains. Hampson Hsts twenty- three species as 
'■ Indian. " 

Cossus cadamhce, Mo., is a brown insect whose larva is recorded as 
boring in teak in Travancore. (Ind. Mus. Notes, I, p. 198.) Duomilus 




Fig. .331 -Cossus CADAMB.K. [I. M. N.] 



leuconotus, Wlk., is a large black and white moth with an expanse of 4 
to 5 inches in the male and 7 inches in the female. This insect occurs 
scattered over India, usually near or in forest areas. D. mineus, Cram., 



496 LEPIDOPTERA. 

is smaller, coloured in metallic blue and yellow, also widely scattered 
but not common. 

Azygofhleps scalarls, Fabr., and A. pusilla, Wlk., are found rarely. 
The former is found boring in Sesbania grandiflora (agathi) and S. CBgyp- 
tiaca (Jainti) in Bengal and Madras. The moth lays a large mass of 
eggs, numbering from 500 to 2,000, between and on the leaflets, cemented 
firmly together. The caterpillars on hatching let themselves down by 
threads and are blown from plant to plant and so secure a wide distri- 
bution among the thickly growing plants. A single caterpillar tunnels 
from the growing points down the main stem, biting holes to the air at 
intervals. Larval life lasts from 7 to 12 weeks, the full grown caterpillar 
being white, nearly three inches long. Pupation takes place in the 
tunnel behind silken partitions, and the moth emerges from the pupa 
after it has pushed its way through these and through the thin 
epidermis of the bark which alone is left intact. 

Zetizera includes the red Borer of the coffee plant, Z. coffew, Nietn. ; 
the reddish caterpillar tunnels in the stems of the coffee bush and is 
often destructive ; it is also found in Sandal (Santalurn album) ; a consi- 
derable amount of attention has been paid to this insect and the interested 
reader may consult Bidie, the Ravages of the Borer (Madras, 1869). 

Lasiocampid.^. 

Frenulum absent, kindmng with vein la. reaching the tornus, no pre- 
costal spur to vein 8, which is curved and approximated to or connected 
with 7, or anastomoses with it. Forewing ivith vein 5 nearer 4 than 
6 ; hindwing with vein Ic. absent. Larva with downwardly directed 
tufts of hair, pupa in cocoon of silk and hair. 

The moths cannot be recognised on superficial characters in the field ; 
most are of moderate size, thick bodied, of light colour, cryptic in design. 
Their resemblance when in the resting attitude to a leaf is sometimes very 
marked and beautiful. The antennae are short and bipectinate, the palpi 
small and porrect. The legs are hairy with minute spurs, the females 
usually with an anal tuft of hair. Males and females differ in little but 
size, colour and the extent of pectination of the antennae. The life- 
history is known in some species ; the eggs are laid in irregular clusters 
and covered in hair ; the larvae are hairy without upright tufts but with 



Fis 



PLATE XLVI.— Trabala Vishnu. 
Castor Hairy Caterpillar. 



1. 


Egg«. 


2, 


Newly hatched larva. 


o. 


Half-grown „ 


4. 


Full-grown ,, 


5. 


Cocoon. 


6. 

7. 


i Pupa. 


8. 


Male, resting attitude. 


'.J. 


Female, ,, 






^i^ 






^ 



-♦f^ X 



LASIOCAMriTi.i:. 



497 



long tufts projecting in front and short tufts laterally. They are all herbi- 
vorous and sometimes destructive. Pupation takes place in a cocoon of 

mingled silk and hair, usually on 

^^^^ \ i ^^I^^^B *^^^ *'^'' aiiioiig leaves, etc. So 

^^^^^^^ ^Ar ^^^I^^B ^^i' ^^ known, hibernation takes 

^^^^^^^K^^m^^^^^^^r place the pupa stage and the 

^^^^^H^H^^^^^^ insects breed in the rains. 

^^^^^ ^H ^m^ Over fifty Indian species are 

^B listed by Hampson of which about 

^P six are to be found commonly in the 

Fig. S.S2— Mrta.nastria hyrtaca. Male, plains. Tarcujamasiva, Lei. (Plate 

XLI, figs. 8-11), is a handsome 
moth, whose larva feeds on rose, on b('r (Zizi/phus jujuba) and babul 
(Acacia nrahica) ; it is greyish brown with tufts of long hair, on the 
thorax are tufts of short dense hair which open to display a band of 
orange and bright blue hair. The cocoon is formed on a twig of the 
plant. Suaiui concolor, Wlk., is recorded as feeding on 8al (Shorea 
robust a). 




Fipr. .SS.*?— Mf.tanastrfa hyrtaca. Frmalk. 
The larva of Metannstria Ju/rfaca, Cram., was found by Forsayeth 
(Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1884, p. 407) to feed upon the mohwa tree 
(Bassia lati folia). It has been reared from Albizzia sHjndata. The grey 
larva is clothed in black hairs, with a velvety hlack patch on the mesono- 
tum, which is concealed by the skin except when the larva stretches 
out. 

IIL 32 



498 LEPIDOPJERA. 

Trahala vishnu, Lef., is a widespread insect, the grey larva feeding 
upon Castor, Jam {Eugenia jambolana), Sal and the country almond 
(Terminalia catappa). De Niceville reared this with many others on the 
last in Calcutta (Ind. Mus. Notes, V, p. 107). The moths are large, the 
female larger than the male ; at rest the costal edge of the lower wing 
projects in front of the upper wing and there is a very close resemblance 
to a leaf ; the female is yellow, the male a delicate green. (Plate XLVI.) 

Estigena pardalis, Wlk., is a brown moth, with a very close 
resemblance when at rest to a brown leaf, the projecting palpi forming 
the black twig, the head forewings and projecting costal part of the 
forewing presenting an even surface entirely concolourous with no 
projecting edge and looking Hke a leaf. The antennse are hidden 
and the whole resemblance is extraordinarily close. (Plate XLI, fig. 
12.) The larva is a long grey larva, with the typical lateral tufts and 
on the thorax short tufts of dense black hair. It is found in the early 
rains and the moth is crepuscular. 

LlMACODID^. 

Frenulum present .■ hindwing with vein 8 anastomosing with 
cell, distinct from 7 : vein Ic. present. 

The common members of this family have a characteristic facies, 
with a rounded forewing and a somewhat short and rounded hindwing. 
The palpi are short, porrect or upturned, the antennae commonly pecti- 
nate in the male, the body rather thickset and short. Most are dull 
coloured in shades of dull brown, but some are more or less coloured in 
bright green. 

The most characteristic features of the family are found in the im- 
mature stages. Eggs, so far as known, are flat and scale-like, laid in 
overlapping rows. The larva is slug-like, the head, legs and suckerfeet 
retractile, the ventral surface forming a peculiar smooth sucker-like 
attachment along which the larva glides as a slug does. There are 
three forms of larva ; in one, the body is distinctly segmented above 
and bears spinous tubercles, the spines often very irritant owing to the 
presence of formic acid (Natada. Thosea, Parasa, Narosa, etc.) ; in another, 
the body is segmented but without tubercles (Cania, Altha, 
etc.) ; in the third, the body is covered above in a thick smooth skin 



UMACODID.E. 



499 



without visible segnieiitatiou (Belippa, etc.). The last includes the so- 
callt'il " Gelatine grulis. "" smooth gelatinous insects of a dull green 

colour found in very 
moist localities in the 
hills. (Plate XXVIII. 
tig. 14.) The commoner 
plains' species are of the 
first type. 



Pupation takes place 
in a very hard round or 
oval cocoon, which opens 
at one end in a distinct 
lid for the emergence of 
the imago. The pupal 
])eriod is commonly long 
and this compact cocoon 
is a protection during 
the period of hibernation. 
None are definite pests in 
the ])lains since they 
occur only rarely ; 
Belippa has been found 
to injure Cinchona in 
the Himalayas. Hamp- 
son lists 25 genera with 
nearly one hundred 
species of which less than 
have been added since the 




Fig. 334— Those.\ cervina. A. B. Larva, (_'. 
Cocoox, OPEN. D. Male, E. Female 
(I.M.N.) 

ten occur within our limits ; 24 species 
Fauna volume was issued. 



Altha nivea, Wlk., has been reared from larvae found upon castor 
leaves and is, though rare, widespread on this plant in the plains. The 
white moth is singularly beautiful, the thorax heavily tufted with 
upright scales. 

Thosea cana. Wlk., is a dull brown moth, whose green larva feeds 
on castor. The larva has a double row of tubercles bearing spines. 



500 



LKI'inol'TKRA. 



The larva of T. tripartita, Mo., has a dorsal and a lateral series of blue spots 
and was found bv Forsayeth to feed on the Palas tree. (T. E. S. London, 




Fit;. 333— Nataiia veia tina, lak\ a. (I. M. N.) 

1884, p. 14.) We figure the larva of Natadavelutina, KoW., which feeds 
on mango and has extremely irritant spines. The moth is red-brown with 
an expanse of three inches. Miresa albipunda, Herr. — Schaif, has a 
silvery spot on the forewing ; its larva was found by Forsayeth on the 
Palas tree (Butea frondosa). 
Three species of Parasa are 
common and likely to be 
found ; all have green occu- 
pying the middle of the 
wing, with more or less 
brown on the body and 
wings. The larva of Parasa 
lepida, Cram., feeds on castor 
and mango : it is also 
recorded as having been 

very abundant on Asphal (Ncj)Ji<'Iitnti longana) in Calcutta (I. M. 
N., IV, p. 21), and de Niceville reared it on the country almond 




Fifj. 3;<()— PAKA^^A lbi'ID 



MICKOLKPIDOI'TEKA. 501 

{Terminal id catajipa). It. pupates in very compact felted cocoons on the 
trunks of trees in which state it is often found abundantly. We figure 
the larva of BeJippa laleana. Mo (Plate XXVIII, fig. 14). a gelatine 
grub, in which the outhnes of the .segments are lost, and the dorsum 
con.sists of a smooth semi-transparent ma.ss of tough tissue ; tlu' beautiful 
tufted red-brown moth is found in the plains rareh'. 

Neocastniid.e. 

No proboxcis : hin(ln-hi(/ irith vein 8 jree, reniole jnnii 7. jreindniti pre- 
sent. I.e. (thxeni, joreivitui leith vein 5 nearer 4 than (i. 

A single moth, found in Tenasserim, is the sole Indian representa- 
tive of the family. Neocastnia nicevillei, Hampson, is described in 
Trans. Ent. 8oc.. Lond.. 181t5, p. 28-"). as also in Fauna of India, Moths, 
Vol. IV, p. 471. 



MICROLEPIDOPTBRA. 

The characters of the group are defined above on page 4."52, and we 
have there stated our reasons for adopting this grouping. Apart from 
the purely structural characters of the group as shown by the venation 
of the wings of the imago, there are other characters which make the 
group at least a useful one in practice if not also a logically correct one 
phylogenetically. The eggs of the.se moths are, as far as known, different 
in character from those of the Rhopalocera, and from the majority of the 
Heterocera ; they are flattened, often scale-like or elongated, with the 
micro